Machine
Design
Data Book
Faculty In Charge Head of Department
Machine Design Data Book
Page 2
POWER SCREWS
Machine Design Data Book
Page 3
Sr.No. Table Equation
1
Power Required to rotate the
Screw
2. . .
.......
60
. . ...... ( . )
N T
Power watt
N r p m T Torque N m
t
=
2
Torque Required to rotate the
Screw (T)
1) Considering Screw Only
.
2
d
T P =
2) Considering Screw and Collar
1
. . .
2
d
T P W R = +
1
Coefficient of friction for collar
W Load on the Screw
4
Tangential Force Required at
the circumference of the screw
(P)
1) To Raise or Lift the Load,
( ) ...( )
1 .
tan tan
P W tan W N
tan tan
o 
o 
o 
( +
= + =
(
2) To Lower the Load:
( ) ...( )
1 .
tan tan
P W tan W N
tan tan
 o
 o
 o
(
= =
(
+
5
For Acme Thread
( )
1
1
1
1
...( )
1 .
tan
cos
14.5
o
tan tan
P W tan W N
tan tan
Semi angleof Acmethread
o 
o 
o 



( +
= + =
(
=
= =
6 Helix angle
np
tan
d
o
t
=
n no of starts of the thread
ppitch of the Screw
d Mean diameter of the screw
7 Friction Angle
tan  =
Machine Design Data Book
Page 4
8
Mean Diameter of the Screw
(d)
0
0
2 2 2
c
c
d d p p
d d d
+
= = =
Where d
o
Nominal or Outside Diameter
p Pitch of the Screw
d
c
 Core or Root Diameter
9
Coefficient of Friction for
Screw
tan o =
10 Mean radius of the Collar
1 2
2
R R
R
+
=
R
1
Outer Radius of Collar
R
2
Inner Radius of Collar
11
12
Effort Required at the end of
Lever arm of length l, (P
1
)
1
. T P l =
T Total Torque
1
. ........
2
D
T P D Diameter of HandWheel =
13
Speed of the Screw per
revolution
( / min)
......( . . )
( )
velocity mm
N r p m
Pitch mm
=
14
Efficiency of the Screw
1) Considering Screw Only
. tan .
2
.
2
d
W
d
P
o
q =
2) Considering Screw and Collar
1
. tan .
2
. . .
2
d
W
d
P W R
o
q
=
+
HELICAL SPRINGS
Machine Design Data Book
Page 5
Sr.No. Table Equation
1 Mean Diameter of the Spring Coil (D)
Using Spring Index C = D/d
D = C. d
Outer Diameter of Spring Coil (D
o
) = D + d
Inner Diameter of spring Coil (D
i
) = D  d
2 Diameter of the Spring wire (d) 1) When Wahls Factor (K) is Given
3
8
.
4 1 0.615
4 4
WD
K
d
C
K
C C
t
t
=
= +
2) When load is variable (W
1
And W
2
),
then for Maximum load
3
max
. . .
2 16
D
T W d
t
t = =
Note: Standard size of wire is taken from table below
Machine Design Data Book
Page 6
Sr.No. Table Equation
3 Number of turns of Coil (n)
3
8. .
.
W C n
G d
o =
o Deflection of Spring
C Spring Index = D/d
n no. of turns of coil
G Modulus of Rigidity
d diameter of Spring Wire
1) If the Load variation is given W
min
to W
max
Then W in above Equation is W= (W
max
 W
min
)
For Squared and Ground Ends;,
n = n + 2
4 Free length of spring (L
F
)
'
max max
0.15
F
L n d o o = + +
1) If the o is Load variation given for
(W
max
W
min
) then
o
max
is calculated for Maximum load (W
max
)
5 Pitch of the Coil (p)
'
1
Free Length
Pitch
n
=
6 Energy stored in the Spring (U) 1
.
2
U W o =
7
Helical springs subjected to
fatigue Loading
3
max min
3
max min
2. 1
.
8. .
........
.
1
. 1 ......
2 2
8. .
.......
.
4 1 0.615
.. ......
4 4 2
m v v
y e
m
m s
s m
v
v
v
F S
W D
K
d
W W
K W
C
W D
K
d
W W C
K W
C C
t t t
t t
t
t
t
t
= +
=
+
 
= + =

\ .
=
 
= + =

\ .
Machine Design Data Book
Page 7
LEAF SPRINGS
Sr.No. Table Equation
1 Effective Length of spring (2L)
1
2 2 L L l =
2L
1
Length of Span or Overall length of
Spring
l width of the Band
2 Total Number of Leaves (n)
n = n
F
+ n
G
n
F
No. of Full length leaves
n
G
 No. of Graduated Leaves
3 Central Load acting on the spring 2W
4
When no. of Springs are given, then
Load on each spring (2W)
2W = (Total Load/No. of Springs)
5
Depth to Width Ratio
nt
b
n Number of leaves, t Thickness of plate
and b Width of the plate
6 Final stresses in springs
When Leaves are Equally stressed When the leaves are not I nitially stressed
i)
2
6. .
,
. .
W L
Stress
nbt
o =
2
18. .
,
. (2 3 )
G F
W L
Stress
b t n n
o =
+
Machine Design Data Book
Page 8
ii)
3
3
6. .
,
. . .
W L
Deflection
n E b t
o =
3
12. .
,
. . (2 3 )
G F
W L
Deflection
E b t n n
o =
+
7
Calculation Initial Gap between full
length and graduated leaves
3
3
2. .
. . .
W L
C
n E bt
=
8
Load Exerted on the Band after the
spring is assembled (W
b
)
2. . .
.(2 3 )
F G
b
G F
n n W
W
n n n
=
+
Knuckle Joint
A knuckle joint is used to connect two rods which are under the action of tensile loads. However,
if the joint is guided, the rods may support a compressive load. A knuckle joint may be readily
disconnected for adjustments or repairs. Its use may be found in the link of a cycle chain, tie rod
joint for roof truss, valve rod joint with eccentric rod, pump rod joint, tension link in bridge
structure and lever and rod connections of various types.
Figure: Knuckle joint
Machine Design Data Book
Page 9
DESIGN PROCEDURE
Sr.No. Table Equation
1 Diameter of the Rod (d)
2
.
4
t
P d
t
o =
P Load Transmitted,
o
t
 Tensile Stress
2 Diameter of Knuckle Pin (d
1
) d
1
= d
3 Outer diameter of eye (d
2
) d
2
= 2 d
4 Diameter of knuckle pin Head and Collar (d
3
) d
3
= 1.5 d
5 Thickness of single eye or rod end (t) t = 1.25 d
6 Thickness of Fork (t
1
) t
1
= 0.75 d
7 Thickness of Pin head (t
2
) t
2
= 0.5 d
8 Failure of knuckle pin in shear (t)
2
1
2. .
4
P d
t
t =
9 Failure of the single eye or rod end in tension (o
t
)
2 1
( ). .
t
P d d t o =
10 Failure of the single eye or rod end in shearing (t)
2 1
( ). . P d d t t =
11 Failure of the single eye or rod end in crushing (o
c
)
1
( ). .
c
P d t o =
12 Failure of the forked end in tension (o
t
)
2 1 1
( ).2 .
t
P d d t o =
13 Failure of the forked end in shear (t)
2 1 1
( ).2 . P d d t t =
14 Failure of the forked end in crushing (o
c
)
1 1
( ).2 .
c
P d t o =
If the induced stresses are less than the given design stresses, therefore the joint is safe
Machine Design Data Book
Page 10
S.No Table Equation
1 Stress
sec
P
A
P Forceor load acting onaboby
A Cross tional Areaof thebody
o =
=
=
2 Strain
l
l
l Changeinlengthof body
l original lengthof the body
o
c
o
=
=
=
3
Young Modulus or Modulus of
Elasticity (E)
. ......
. .
.....
. .
E E
Pl Pl
E l
A l A E
o o c
o
o c
c
o
o
= =
= =
4 Shear Stress
2
2
sin , .
4
, 2. .
4
P
A
For gle Shear A d
For Double Shear A d
t
t
t
=
=
=
5
Shear Modulus or Modulus of
Rigidity
C
Shear Strain
C Modulus of Rigidity
t o 
t 

=
=
=
6 Factor of Safety
int
.
.
Yeild Po stress
F S
Working or Designstress
Ultimate stress
F S
Working or Designstress
=
=
7 Impact stress
2. . .
1 1
.
i
W h AE
A W l
o
(
= + +
(
8 Torsional shear Stress
Machine Design Data Book
Page 11
9
For Solid Shaft of
Diameter d
10
For Hollow Shaft of
Diameter d
11
Power transmitted by the
shaft
12
Bending Stress in
straight Beam
13
Bending Stress in
straight Beam
Machine Design Data Book
Page 12
Machine Design Data Book
Page 13
Machine Design Data Book
Page 14
Sr.No. Table Equation
14
Bending stress in
Curved Beams
e = R  R
n,
Y
i
= R
n
R
i
, Y
o
= R
o
R
n
,
15 Resultant Bending
Stress
Ri t bi
Ro t bo
o o o
o o o
= +
= +
Machine Design Data Book
Page 15
16 Axial Direct Stress
... .( )
t
W
A Areaof Cross SectionGiven see AboveTable
A
o =
17
Maximum Bending
stress at the inside
fibre
18
Maximum Bending
stress at the
outside fibre
Machine Design Data Book
Page 16
Machine Design Data Book
Page 17
RIVETED JOINTS:
S.No Table Equation
1
Tearing Resistanceof
Rivet (P
t
)
( ). .
, ,
,
t t
t
P p d t
p pitchof rievt d diameter of rivet hole
t Thickness of plate PermissibleTensile stress
o
o
=
2
Shearing resistance of a
Rivet (P
s
)
2
. . .
4
. , . ,
,
s
P n x d
n no of rievt x no of shear
d diameter of rivet hole Permissible shear stress
t
t
t
=
3
Crushing resistance of a
Rivet (P
c
)
. . .
. , ,
,
c c
c
P n d t
n no of rievt t thickness of rivet plate
d diameter of rivet hole PermissibleCrushing stress
o
o
=
4 Efficiency of the Rivet
WELDED JOINTS:
Machine Design Data Book
Page 18
Machine Design Data Book
Page 19
S.No Table Equation
1 Strength of the plate
. ......
. ....
si
t
t
P A kN
A b t band t widthand thickness of a plate
Permis ble tensile stress
o
o
=
=
2
Strength of a single
Transverse fillet weld
0.707. . .
t
t
P s l
s sizeof weld Thicknes of plate
l Lengthof weld
PermissibleTensile Stress
o
o
=
=
3
Strength of a Double
Transverse fillet weld
1.414. . .
t
t
P s l
s sizeof weld Thicknes of plate
l Lengthof weld
PermissibleTensile Stress
o
o
=
=
4
Strength of a Parallel
fillet weld
1.414. . . P s l
s sizeof weld Thicknes of plate
l Lengthof weld
Permissible Shear Stress
t
t
=
=
5
Strength of single
Transverse and Parallel
Fillet weld
1 2
1 2
0.707. . . 1.414. . .
t
P s l s l
s sizeof weld Thicknes of plate
l and l Lengthof Transverseand Parallel fillet weld
Permissible Shear Stress
o t
t
= +
=
6 For Starting and Stopping of weld run 12.5 is added to the lengths
Machine Design Data Book
Page 20
7 For Fatigue Loading
(max) (max)
......
t
t
t t
t
K K
K Stress concentration Factor
o t
o t = =
8
POWER SCREWS:
STRESSES IN POWER SCREWS
1
Stresses in Power Screws
1) Direct Compressive Stress.
2
....... .
4
( )
. .
c c c
c
c o
o
W
A d
A
d d p
d Nomimal dia or outsidedia
p pitchof the screw
t
o = =
=
2 Shear Stresses in Screws
3
16.
.
( . )
c
T
d
T Torque N mm
t
t
=
3
Maximum shear Stress in
Screws
2 2
max
1
4
2
c
t o t = +
4
Bearing Pressure on Screw
. . .
.
....
2 2
b
W
P
n d t
h
n No of threads inengagement withnut
p
h height of nut p pichof screw
pitch p
t thickness of screw
t
=
=
= =