In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of “MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION” BY .Mrs.B.BILLA ROLL.NO (11C91E0005) UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mr.ROOPA VENI



I hereby declare that this Project Report titled LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT submitted by me to the Department of Business Management, JNTU , Hyderabad, is a bonafide work undertaken by me and it is not submitted to any other University or Institution for the award of any degree diploma/ certificate or published any time before.

Name and Address of the Student Signature of the Student BILLA.SRUTHI



This is to certify that the Project Report title Logistics Management submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of MBA Programme of Department of Business Management, JNTU. Hyderabad, was carried out by BILLA.SRUTHI under my guidance. This has not been submitted to any other University or Institution for the award of any degree/diploma/certificate.

Name and address of the Guide

Signature of the Guider

Head of the Department (M.B.A) Project Guide



Logistic Management is a cross functional approach to managing the movement of raw materials into an organisation, certain aspects of the internal processing of materials into finished goods and then the movement of the finished goods out of the organisation towards the end consumer. As organisation strive focus on core

competencies and becoming more fl exible they have reduced ownership of raw materials. These functions are increasingly outsourced to other entitles that can perform the activities better or lower cost effectively the effect is to increase the number of organisations involved in satisfying the customer demand while reducing Supply Chain Operations. Less control and more logistics partners led to the creation of Logistics management.

The purpose of Logistics management is to improve trust and collaboration among suppliers and customer i.e., among supply chain partners of the organisation thus improving inventory visibility and improving inventory velocity.

Logistics Management spans all movement and storage of raw ma terials, work in progress inventory and finished goods from point of origin to point of



I am deeply indebted to my Head of the department and guide Mrs. ROOPA VENI who have been a great source of strength and inspiration at every stage of project work. I am extremely thanking to Mr. Radha Krishna, Deputy General Manager. (Human Resources) and Mr. Naresh Natarajan DC manager, Kondlakoi, Mr. Mahadevudu of Inventory Management and Mr. Sathish of Inbound operations of Reliance Retail Ltd and also other staff members of Reliance Retail ltd, with out th eir kind co -operation and help the project could not have been successful.


Table of Contents Page No. Chapter 1: Introduction  Introduction  Objectives  Methodology  Scope Chapter 2: Review of Literature      1 2 3 4 Introduction Logistics Problems Suggestions to improve Introduction to retail industry Organized retailing in India 6 14 15 17 24 Chapter 3: The Company  Introduction and History  Facility Locations  Products and brands  Commitments of the company  Milestones 29 31 33 37 38 Chapter 4: Data Presentation and Analysis     Introduction Inbound Logistics Outbound Logistic Inventory Management 42 48 60 73 Chapter 5: Conclusions And Limitations  Conclusions  Limitations  Suggestions 81 82 83 .

Outbound Logistics and vehicle scheduling routing.Chapter -1 Introduction Research Problem: Retailing industry in India is glowing day by day and Logistics management. Need for Study: In order to achieve the best of all functions of the management we need better Logistic Management and companies are spending 10 to 35 percent on their logistic cost of turnover. which is an integration part of supply chain management is essential to meet the customer demand and necessities. which includes mainly Inbound logistics. Objectives of Logistics Management : Customer Satisfaction Inventory Management Availability of product Reduce Wastage . the customer satisfaction can be attained with help of effective Logistic solutions. the project will be contributing to optimum utilization of resources.

3. Journals. Company Profile Manual and printed records of the distribution center Text books. . Personal interview with staff Personal observations in organisation Formal and informal talks with executives Secondary data 1. Hyderabad. 3. 2.METHODOLOGY A brief outlet of methodology is given under Sample for study The present study and observations is collected from one of the distribution center of Reliance Fresh at Kondlakoi. Industrial reports and through internet SCOPE of the study  This study includes studying the theoretical aspects of logistic management. Sources for data collection Primary Data Source 1. 2.

  The study was confined to Hyderabad. Chapter -2 Review Of Literature Introduction SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) is a systematic approach with which we maintain the entire flow of information. distribution and logistics facilities that perform the function of procurement of materials transformation of these materials into intermediate and finished products and the distribution of these products to customers. The major decisions are Locations of supply chain facilities The geographic location of distribution facilities. The study was conducted during 17th December 2007 to 31st January 2008. Once the size. Procurement Planning . Kondlakoi Distribution center only. materials and services. manufacturing. A Supply Chain is a network of suppliers. stocking points and sourcing points is an important strategic planning step in logistics management. assembly. cost and service levels. location and number of Supply chain facilities are determined so are possible paths by which product flows through to the final customer. These decisions have a great significance since they determine the way in which customer markets are accessed and they have substantial impact on revenues.

1. It is a critical process in the determination of company‟s serviceability and inventory. 2. location. SCM has two major faces to it. Economic order quantity levels. Since inventory is expensive. which include Raw Materials. Distribution facilities and Planning This involves determining the number. front end and back end and the back end essentially involves. Transportation Planning This involves selecting the best mode of logistics by trading off cost using a mode with inventory costs Geographic locations play an important role in the problem. Semi finished or work in progress and fished goods the primary purpose of inventories is to buffer against uncertainties and to maintain acceptable customer service. maintaining optimal inventory levels in supply chain stocking points is an important problem. capacity. statistical inventory policies and other concepts related to inventory management is dealt here in this context. Inventory Optimizations Inventories exists in every stage of Logistics with out inventories we cannot assume logistics. Procurement and Manufacturing Logistics and Distribution . This function becomes an interesting optimization problem if there is constrained supply uncertain demand. Other decision includes designing a transporting network for optimizing product flows from plants or other sources to distribution centers to final customer. Vehicle scheduling and routing and fleet management are important tactical and operational decisions in supply chain networks and the goal is to survey and compute the best practices in the area and create a tool that can be deployed in decision support for fleet management and routing and scheduling of vehicles.Procurement planning takes an unbiased forecast of expected sales and performs a number of computations to obtain a corresponding set of part requirements. and layout of an optimal distribution network to maximize customer service levels given demand distribution and other supply chain parameters.

A widespread idea prevails that logistics is „movement of goods‟. Definitions Various definitions are given to the logistics management. Plant location. The study and Management of goods and services flows and associated information that set these in motion. movement and storage of materials. This phase involves processing and use of information to facilitate and optimize the back end operations.. parts and finished inventory and the related information flows through the organisation and its marketing channels in such way that current and future profitability are maximized: Raghuram. storage inventory in all forms.S. B. Sahay Strategically managing the procurement and movement of goods and Lambert. We can conclude Logistics Management as . order management etc. Logistics involves several other functions such as Purchasing.G.The front-end face where IT (information technology) and ITES (Internet technologies and Electronic Commerce) play a vital role. some of them are as follows The process of strategically managing the procurement. That is a narrow concept Logis tics is much more and much wider than mere physical handling of goods.

price. Logistics is comparatively new term but not the operation. expiry. These functions are increasingly outsourced to other entitles that can perform the activities better or lower cost effectively the effect is to increase the number of organisations involved in satisfying the customer demand while reducing Supply Chain Operations. The geographical distance between the facility and production centers and the consumption point increased and LOGISTICS gained importance. damage. the glo balization the free market and the competition has required that the customer gets the right material.Importance of logistics Logistics is the one important function in business today. Logistics has existed since the beginning of civilisation raw material and finished products had always to be moved. expiry. Less control and more logistics partners led to the creation of Logistics management . No marketing.Logistics is the delivery of the required goods. at right place and the right condition at appropriate (lower) price. found in improper packing. though on a small scale. at required place in required time in required state to required person… efficiently. depending on business geography and weight – volume ratio. As organisation strive focus on core competencies and becoming more flexible they have reduced ownership of raw materials. failing inspection test. Things began changing with the advance in transportation. No longer did people live near. Bad delivery over-supply. 10 to 35 per cent of gross sales are logistic cost. Logistic Management is a cross functional approach to managing the movement of raw materials into an organisation. Production centers or production take place near residence centers. Population began moving from rural to urban and business centers. Since the early 1990‟s the business scene has changed. with out necessary information like weight. Manufacturing or other functional executions can succeed without logistics support for companies. Another dimension of logistics is reverse logistics usually called as rev log goods return from the consumer point to the original supply point for various reasons. volume. certain aspects of the internal processing of materials into finished goods and then the movement of the finished goods out of the organisation towards the end consumer. .

Demand forecasting and order Management . The best solution for this is to maintain separate team for „ Rev Log System‟ that will give a more edge. The process includes the returning of the raw materials to original suppliers on the said reasons. Problems involved in Logistics Management Distribution: Network configuration: Number and location of suppliers. Flow of Materials ( In bound-Out bound). looking at the trends today we can classify it into 4 concepts. Information integration: Logistics share valuable information including demand forecasting inventories. Inventory Management . are some instances where the material traverses back. that is reverse logistics. Inventory Management: quantity and locations of inventory. Distribution centers. The material that has to come back to the original point or to the original suppliers has also to handle effectively and efficiently.. direct shipment and third party transportation.and goods unsold etc. T he major decisions involved in Logistic Management are as follows Warehouse location. . Protective packaging .Selection of transportation mode and Vehicle Scheduling . transportation etc.. Suggestions to improve the Logistics Logistics can be handled in a better way. warehouses and customers. Distribution strategy: centralized versus decentralized.

Make logistics as an IT. o Develop and make suppliers of materials and services aware to Work and respond as a link of the company‟s logistics. Some of the highlighted points of the survey . o o Information flow is the crux of efficient and effective logistics. Set a goal of logistics that must be customer satisfaction rather than marketing men‟s target fulfilling demands etc. the retail trade is going to $ 637 billion by 2015 as it is standing at $ 330 billion at the end of the November 2007. but also for the development of retailing industry. Accelerated development of retailing industry in the country and building brand value of domestic products is essential not only for marketing consumer products more efficiently. A survey by ASSOCHAM. which represents that.. India has one of the largest numbers of retail outlets in the world of the 12 million retail outlets near 4 million sell food and related product. and make this as a part of strategy developers. develop and maintain a team of logistics experts in the Company. However organized retail sector accounts for only 4 percent of the total market offering high growth potential in this segment. this shows the potential of the sector.o Train.based operations. INDUSTRY PROFILE Introduction India is now on the radar of global retailers.

which was estimated by 2007 the national planning commission. The proposed licensed system for retail is a bad idea and especially in the presence of corruption. Simultaneously. The transparency of transactions and increase in the tax revenues to government will be there… FDI at present 51% may increase ….India is going to be an investment hub. is likely to increase its share to 22 percent by 2010. The malpractices of the merchants are going to be abolished and role of middlemen is going to be diminished …specially in the agriculture sector. which is the largest retail destination globally. India has topped at IBGRDI stand for International Business and Global Retail Development Index for the third consecutive year. In agriculture the wastage will be decreased which was estimated at approximation of Rs24000 Cr. There will be a threat to small merchants and street vendors. The major employment provider after agriculture. commerce graduates and for management students.An emerging sector with huge potential. . The Supply chain posits that inflation in food prices can come down and former income can go up. the future is bright as India‟s 50 plus percent populations have a very much disposable income. The Indian retail market. according to Industry estimates is estimated to from US $ 330 billion in 2007 to US$ 637 billion by 2015. 1 market so far as retail market investment is concerned. organized retail. which presently accounts for 4 percent of the total market. The retail chain is going to create more jobs for capable candidates. trying cement its place in Indian market India is no. maintaining position as the most attractive market for retail investment.

while Croma is set to expand all over the country with at least 100 stores by 2011. which will likely to touch rs10000 Cr.. small appliances. Similarly another report by Image retail estimates the number of operational malls to more than double to over 310malls with million square feet by 2010. TATA group was declared it‟s decision in 2007.with a philosophy of 'We help you buy'.89 million. Spencer’s is also planning to set up 500 more stores by June 2008 with an investment of nearly US$ 125. Tata planned to come out with brand name CROMA. The idea is small but the implementation is tough enough. . with 750malls with 80 million square feet of space.77 billion for setting up 205 more stores. from a meager one million square feet in 2002. The many companies are looking forward to enter into retail business in India by the domestic as well as MNC companies. Wall-mart the world biggest retailer is merged with Bharathi group they are planning to enter into by end of 2008. Reliance retail is going to ahead with plans worth of an investment of US$ 3. Sumanth Sinha. Hyper city is planning to set up 250 express city stores in the convenience store format across the country in the next year. Adithya Birla Group took over Trinethra Super market. is expected to touch 40 million square feet by end of 2008 estimated 60 million square feet by the end of 2009 Says Jones Lang LaSalle‟s third annual retailer survey Asia. Ceo of Birla exposed about investment plans. Mall space. Offering consumers choices in home entertainment. Indian retail is expanding at a rapid pace. strong income growth and favorable demographic patterns.Driven by changing lifestyles.

Big bazaar.DLF plans to invest US$4. Sanrio of Hello Kitty fame. Spencer’s. Magna of Pantaloons and other organized retailers are planning to expand their markets as competition is increasing they are extending their stores to semi urban areas. By all means retailing is an industry that glowing and booming now and many opportunities are there for the companies for make their mark and more opportunities will be arisen for qualified candidates for employment. Calvin Klein among others have already lined up for permission to infuse foreign direct investment through the single brand window. The Growth of Retail Companies in India is facilitated by certain factors le classes with an increased purchasing power Organised retailing in India .02 billion over four years to develop about 20 large malls across country. Consequently a number of foreign brands including French connection. With this competition between the marketers it is the common man as a customer and former is going to receive the benefits as role of the middlemen is going to abolish or role of him is decreased. ITC has started its retailing business with brand name CHOUPAL.

India has entered a stage of positive economic development. The inherent attractiveness of this segment lures retail giants and investments are likely to skyrocket with an estimate of Rs 20-25 billion in the next 2-3 years. The shopping spree of the young Indians for clothing. This can be contemplated as a result of the changing attitude of Indian consumers and their overwhelming acceptance to modern retail formats. Thus. and over Rs 200 billion by end of 2010. Consumer familiarity with the traditional formats for generations is the greatest . favorable income demographics. mostly owner-operated. which requires liberalization of the retail market to gain a significant enhancement. 85% of the retail boom that was focused only in the metros has started to infiltrate towards smaller cities and towns. For example. and the contribution of these tier-II cities to total organized retailing sales is expected to grow to 20-25%. therein resulting in less labor costs and little or no taxes to pay. With the influence of visual media. in China there was a drastic structural development after FDI was permitted in retailing. Challenges facing the Organized Retail Industry: Despite the rosy hopes. Asian markets witness a shift in trend from traditional retailing to organized retailing driven by the liberalizations on Foreign Direct Investments. increasing population of young people joining the workforce with considerably higher disposable income. has unleashed new possibilities for retail growth even in the rural areas. This is a positive trend. urban consumer trends have spread across the rural areas also. Tier-II cities are already receiving focused attention of retailers and the other smaller towns and even villages are likely to join in the coming years. Indian retail market is considered to be the second largest in the world in terms of growth potential. The market is growing at a steady rate of 11-12 percent and accounts for around 10 percent of the countries GDP. Traditional retailing has been deep rooted in India for the past few centuries and enjoys the benefits of low cost structure.The recent years have witnessed rapid transformation and vigorous profits in Indian retail stores across various categories. A vast majority of India's young population favors branded garments. India is on the radar screen in the retail world and global retailers and at their wings seeking entry into the Indian retail market. some facts have to be considered to positively initiate the retail momentum and ensure its sustained growth. The major constraint of the organized retail market in India is the competition from the un-organized sector.

The Group's activities span exploration and production of oil and gas. especially during the phase of accelerated growth of the retail industry. Reliance Industries Limited. petroleum refining and oil and gas exploration and production . . Competition for experienced personnel would lead to belligerence between retailers and higher rates of attrition. plastics and chemicals). plastics. with businesses in the energy and materials value chain. The flagship company. bigger premises. founded by Dhirubhai H. social security to employees. fiber intermediates. and taxes to meet. organized sector have big expenses like higher labor costs. Proper training facilities for meeting the increasing requirements of workers in the sector would need the attention of both Government and the industry. Liberalizing policy guidelines for FDI needs focus as well. mass procurement arrangements and inventory management are areas that need the focus of entrepreneurs. is a Fortune Global 500 company and is the largest private sector company in India. fiber intermediates. Taking care of supply chain management. Chapter -3 COMPANY PROFILE Reliance at a glance The Reliance Group. Starting with textiles in the late seventies. Reliance pursued a strategy of backward vertical integration .to be fully integrated along the materials and energy value chain. Backward vertical integration has been the cornerstone of the evolution and growth of Reliance .advantage to the un-organized sector. is India's largest private sector enterprise. Ambani (1932-2002). petroleum refining and marketing. Group's annual revenues are in excess of US$ 27 billion. On the contrary.in polyester. The process of avoiding middlemen and providing increased income to farmers through direct procurement by retail chains need the attention of policy makers. textiles and retail. petrochemicals. petrochemicals (polyester. Availability and cost of retail space is one major area where Government intervention is necessary.

The Allahabad complex is spread over acres. spread over 700acres of land. It has naphtha cracker and 15 downstream plants in operation for the manufacture of polymers.Reliance enjoys global leadership in its businesses. The synthetic textiles and fabrics manufacturing facility at The textile plant is spread over 150-acre site. Kurkumbh. The Barabanki complex. Allahabad. Hazira. Jamnagar. near Lucknow was commissioned in 1987 It is spread over 106 acres of land. spread over 200 acres of land. The Jamnagar complex has a petroleum refinery was commissioned in 1999. was commissioned in 1987 It is spread over 227 acres of land. Gandhar. Silvassa and Vadodara. being the largest polyester yarn and fiber producer in the world and among the top five to ten producers in the world in major petrochemical products. The Naroda facility. has polyester. fibers and fiber intermediates and chemicals. The Group exports products in excess of US$ 15 billion to more than 100 countries in the world. The Baulpur complex. . near Ahmedabad was commissioned in 1966. It is spread over 7400 acres of land. Facility Locations Reliance Industries Limited operates world-class manufacturing facilities across the country at Naroda. an integrated petrochemical complex located at Vadodara and spreads over 1263 acres. The Patalganga complex. Nagpur. Nagothane. The Hazira complex. Barabanki. was established in 1991 and is. near Mumbai. There are more than 25. Major Group Companies are Reliance Industries Limited (including main subsidiaries Reliance Petroleum Limited and Reliance Retail Limited) and Reliance Industrial Infrastructure Limited. fiber intermediates which was established in 1988 and is.000 employees on the rolls of Group Companies. Hoshiarpur. The Vadodara Manufacturing Complex. Patalganga. Baulpur. near Surat.

pro pylene and normal paraffin that were previously imported at a higher cost and subject to import duties are now sourced from within the Company. The Company from time to time seeks to further diversify into other industries. plastics. The Company's major products and brands. ethylene. The Company's subsidiary Reliance Infrastructure Ltd. Since its initial public offering in 1977. supermarkets. among other things. the Company has expande d rapidly and integrated backwards into other industry sectors. This has had a positive effect on the Company's operating margins and interest costs and decreased the Company's exposure to the cyclicality of markets . polymer intermediates.Products & Brands of the company The Company expanded into textiles in 1975. chemicals and synthetic textiles and fabrics. raw materials such as PTA. The Company now has operations that span from the exploration and production of oil and gas to the manufacture of petroleum products. from oil and gas to textiles are tightly integrated and benefit from synergies across the Company. most notably the production of petrochemicals and the refining of crude oil. convenience stores and specialty stores across India. The Company approved initial expenditure of US$ 750 million to fund the initial stages of this plan. In January 2006. MEG. Central to the Company's operations is its vertical backward integration strategy. the Company ap proved a plan to establish a retail business through a subsidiary Reliance Retail Limited that will operate. polyester intermediates. polyester products. is currently establishing infrastructure facilities such as roads and buildings for the proposed Special Economic Zone (SEZ) at Jamnagar. Gujarat.

The Company's refinery at Jamnagar is the third largest refinery at a single location in the world. 342 in 2005 and placed at 269 in 2006 among world top 500 companies the company. Commitments of the Company Quality Research & Development Health. Fortune Magazine ranked the company 417 in the year 2004. The Company believes that this strategy is also important in maintaining a domestic market leadership position in its major product lines and in providing a competitive advantage.  Reliance is the company among the top 25 climbers for the second year in succession. 4th largest producer of Paraxylene (PX). The Company is:      The world's largest producer of Polyester Fibre and Yarn. 5th largest producer of Purified Terepthalic Acid (PTA). Safety & Environment Human Resource Development Energy Conservation .and raw material prices. 7th largest producer of Polypropylene (PP). The Company's operations can be classified into three segments namely:    Petroleum Refining and Marketing business Petrochemicals business Others (including Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploration & Production business.

up to an aggregate amount not exceeding Rs 2. 2004 The Board of Directors of Reliance Industries Limited approved the buyback of its fully paid up equity shares of Rs. Responsibility. This amount represents the limit of 10% of the total paid up equity share capital and free reserves of the Company as on March 31.10 each. 2004.Corporate Citizenship Reliance believes that any business conduct can be ethical only when it rests on the nine core values of Honesty. payable in cash. at a price not exceeding Rs 570 per share. Integrity. Citizenship and Caring. Fairness. 2002 Reliance Infocomm to launch various telecom services on 28th December .999 crore. Purposefulness. Respect. Trust. 1996 First corporate in Asia to issue 50 and 100 years bond in US debt market . The major milestones 2007 Reliance Retail entered the Organised retail market in India with the launch of its convenience store format under the brand name of „Reliance Fresh‟.beginning with Gujarat.

Mumbai 400 021. 1977 Reliance went public with IPO .IV. India. India. Tel : 91-22-2278 5000 Reliance Industries Limited Makers Chambers . a new model of business leadership from a base of the broadest public shareholding The Head office and corporate office are situated at Corporate Office: Registered Office: Reliance Industries Limited Makers Chambers . Nariman Point.IV.1992 Reliance commenced the production of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) at Hazira. Nariman Point.Dhirubhai Ambani introduced equity cult in India. Mumbai 400 021. Tel : 91-22-2278 5000 .

unprecedented even by world standards.Chapter – 4 DATA ANALYSIS Fresh Reliance is gearing up to revolutionize the retailing industry in India. reliance will actively endeavor to contribute to India's growth. state of art technology. Reliance is aggressively working on introducing a pan-India network of retail outlets in multiple formats. a seamless supply chain infrastructure. is what this initiative is all about. Through multiple formats and a wide range of categories. unmatched customer experience. Towards this end. The project will boast of a seamless supply chain infrastructure. . A world class shopping environment. Ensuring better returns to Indian farmers and manufacturers and greater value for the Indian consumer. both in quality and quantity. a host of unique value-added services and above all. will be an integral feature of this project. Reliance is aiming to touch almost every Indian customer and supplier. The retail initiative of Reliance will be without a parallel in size and spread and make India proud. By creating value at all levels.

R. By creating value at all levels. They are located. ice creams . The project will boast of a seamless supply chain infrastructure. one at Vijayawada and the other is at Visakhapatnam. unprecedented even by world standards. a host of unique value-added services and above all. Ensuring better returns to Indian farmers and manufacturers and greater value for the Indian consumer. 4 stores each in Vijayawada. The materials to twin cities and Warangal are supplied through the same distribution centers located at Hyderabad. The DC‟s at Uppal and Kondlakoi main road are called as dry DC and the Distribution center at Kondlakoi village is called as wet DC as all the vegetables. unmatched customer experience. Industrial area. A world class shopping environment. reliance will actively endeavor to contribute to India's growth. Andhra pradesh Reliance is having 46 retail stores in twin-cities.R Dist. Logistics Management at Reliance fresh. fruits. Towards this end. is what this initiative is all about. Guntur and Warangal and 9 stores at Visakhapatnam. Kondlakoi village and Kondlakoi main road near Medchal. and materials to Visakhapatnam and the stores which are in it‟s periphery are supplied from Vizag DC. The retail initiative of Reliance will be without a parallel in size and spread and make India proud. Reliance is aiming to touch almost every Indian customer and supplier.Reliance is gearing up to revolutionize the retailing industry in India. three distribution centers at Hyderabad. The Products are supplied to the stores through Distribution centers or stocking centers They are having Five Distribution centers (ware houses) or stocking points in Andhra pradesh. will be an integral feature of this project. both in quality and quantity. Through multiple formats and a wide range of categories. a seamless supply chain infrastructure. Reliance is aggressively working on introducing a pan-India network of retail outlets in multiple formats. The three Distribution Centers in twin cities are situated each one at Uppal. state of art technology. Products to Vijayawada and Guntur are supplied through Vijayawada distribution centers.

The two distribution centers at Kondlakoi are located as the facility matching the following requirements. The workers are having less flexibility to change from the work to another work. all it‟s Vegetables. they are FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) DSD (direct store delivery) material Vegetables and fruits Processed food and beverages Non-processed food and dairy At Uppal DC the company keeps all the Non processed food. village the DC called as WET DC and all the processed food . The lactations are hygienic and tending to promote or preserve health as they are away from city. Cost benefit|: The cost. which require cold storage. staples beverages etc are maintained at the other DC at Kondlakoi. are maintained there. Processed food. fruits etc which require special cold-chain maintenance are kept at Kondlakoi. main road and in Uppal DC all non-processed food is stored. comparatively is low as the ware houses are located away from the city nearly 25 kms from the central city. Reliance fresh has classified its products into 5 categories.and the products. Municipal restrictions: There will not be any restriction for the transportation vehicles as the many plants and other warehouses of vendors are situated near by places Less pollution: as the distribution centers are storing processed food and other materials like vegetables the freshness should be carried till it reaches to the customers. so the retention of the workers is easier.

terms and conditions of supply and other shipping conditions etc. The Employees working here 105. and the vendors out side the state is known to in bound team. The category team is a part of central replenishment team. No information. In Bound logistics Inbound logistics is not the only receiving the stocks from vendors it includes all the planning and scheduling and other activities. Reliance has local vendors as well as out side vendors. It is the team. the team will follow up with the vendors and will enquire regarding PO.and beverages are kept at Kondlakoi main road DC and the Distribution Center is called as DRY DC. for the Po and accordingly appointment will be given to the vendor. which coordinates with vendor. Though the vendors are from different states they have their own supply chain partners like C & F agents. out of them 13 are of Reliance and remaining are called as 3PL third party logistics. all pickers. The lead-time. will be made it clear at the time of the agreement with the higher authorities during the negotiations with the vendors.. Advance shipment team will create an inbound in SAP for the PO. The study is carried out at DRY DC. In general the lead for the local vendors is 1-2 days. is from sales side. 4-5 days. The staff at Reliance Distribution center is working in Shifts. Whatsoever the vendors are supplying through local agents or from out of the state it does not matter to Reliance. about the stocks in transit is The central procurement team at Mumbai will raise Po (purchase order) Based on the Category confirmation. packers movers are included in this. Super distributors etc. quantity etc. ASN team will check the PO details as such as articles. after that inbound delivery will be created the same will be intimated to vendor . Kondlakoi that is about 35000 sft. Vendor will call up directly to DC ASN – Advance Shipment Note team for appointment to delivery the material. as soon ASN team will get the PO number from vendor. It starts with procuring the material from vendors. if the vendor is not received the Purchase order then the In-bound will sent a copy through the mail. The Purchase order is raised at Mumbai to the vendors automatically and it will sent to the vendor through mail or fax. as the lead-time is pre defined. the description of SKUs (stock keeping units) and quantity.

. ASN team will hand over the ASN document to the data entry operator and he will perform the GRN and he will confirm the TO‟s and he will do put away confirmation.. expiry date etc. of according to the corresponding stickers and list directs about article name. If the free good material small in size then packing team will be stick it along with the main item. quantity etc. Any loose goods are not accepted. The shelf life of material that is maintained at Reliance is 70% from manufacturing date. Inbound and operations team will take care of the unloading of materials and unloading is done at docks. GRN goods receiving note process starts In which EAN(European article number) and the MRP will be cross checked against the physical SKU. Description etc.On the physical receipt of the material at Dc. however free goods are exempted.. Goods must be tallied against the vendor invoice if every thing is found satisfactory then supervisor has to make the receipt on the vendor invoice copy and updates the inward register. the number of SKUs means the quantity. after unloading the material. All the packaging will be carried out at Uppal DC. which will facilitate the pickers in out bound process. where the proforma of invoice is noted down. if the item is not in the prescribed expiry conditions then the category team will be informed about this. The 3pl employees will be trained accordingly and necessary instruction are passes time to time. as the put away is confirmed the stocks are added in to the final closings of the material and the outbound team can access the material provided if the material has to move. manufacturing. however the major packing is done at Uppal. The materials with out EAN will be rejected and if the material has to be packed by the company then the EAN will be given by the company at Uppal Distribution center. The receiving team shall provide the required pallets and MHE material-handling equipments. shelve number.. bin numbers. The stocks are moved in FIFO (first in first out method). Receiving team takes out one unit from each sku in a crate for scanning article in system GRN depts. location consists of rack numbers. With the help of the receiving team the vendor will unload the material sku wise. ASN supervisor checks the details and gives an ASN number the invoice will be stamped by the security. Pickers will be place the material location wise. will be checked before accepting the material.

6. there are only seven vendors like this supply pattern. As the stocks come to reorder level the system automatically generates purchase order to the vendor. Put away team monitor the expiry date at locations and update the information for every 10 days. 4. System automatically generates PO for 300 pieces. Kondlakoi only. As they agreed to supply the material at one place. The location for SKUs has been pre-defined. 5.e. 2. While filling the SKU‟s FIFO method followed means first GRN place at first in rack.. Goods should move to pre-defined locations on racks as per category with in 4 hours from the time of GRN preparations. The negotiations will be carried out based on number of SKU‟s that the vendor has manufacturing and number of materials he is supplying to the organisation. who are supplying to Reliance wellness. Then the put away team will locate the stocks in the bins. pallets shall be placed at temporary location with display till the time it gets space in the rack. If the DCMBQ (distribution center maximum bin quantity) of a SKU is 1000 units and the stocks at DC are come down to 700 pieces. 1. stationary and sports materials for storage at put away location to ease picking process. Subsequent functions in put away will be happen after TO. Hindustan Unileaver ltd Dauber ITC WIPRO GLAXO Parle G . The vendors.Once the GRN is completed then transfer order (TO) and transfer of requirements are generated by the software. hourly basis and fill SKU‟s accordingly they should also re-arrange stocks on daily basis. they will identify the capable vendors and negotiations will be done at top-management level authorities. Extra precautions shall be taken for categories like toys. are supplying their health products to fresh DC. Central replenishment team will decide vendor. If racks are full. The safety levels are 50 percent minimum and reorder level is 65%. Put away team do monitoring the availability of locations/space on operational basis i. 3.

Flow of inbound process Physical receipt of goods Verification of SKU’s against the PO/ Invoice System Entry through GRN Put away process . P&G If any urgency will rose for material then inbound team with the help of state replenishment manager will manage the things and he will co ordinate with local procurer to get the material. the moment they do this the according Bin MBQ at store the order raised against the store in the early mornings. The store stock is updated at central level as they perform the EOD (end of the day) process in the evening. the safety stock levels are increased so that the stocks can serve the requirements until the next stocks comes from the vendor.7. In the morning at 8am pick sheet and Post goods issue is done at the distribution center. Safety stocks and reorder level is decided by budget team depending on the lead-time. that the vendors are agreed to supply the material. To eradicate the disadvantages Reliance has state replenishment and state category team. As the lead-time increase the safety stocks and re order quantity increases.

Put away process Alternative1 : Synchronous Ware house Management Alternative 2: Synchronous Ware house Management Resource Planning with the RF Monitor Logging on the terminal Put away processing Monitoring with RF monitor .

Number of packages or handling units must be mention on TO.Receipt of the goods from stores The receipt supervisor collects the transfer order made by stores and it should contain. After making system GRN.  Prior approval from DC manager for return of material to be attached along with Transfer order. Goods return material should be properly packed in cartoons. these return stocks should be transferred to damage location in the system. Damage return will be received as per the normal receipt process. Reasons for return should be mentioned on the transfer order. .

do not mix with regular stocks . Maintain the return inventory separately..Flow Chart representation of Inbound Logistics START Unload the returned material Segregate into good and damage stocks Update the document In the system Add the stocks to physical DC inventory Transfer the stock from sale to damage depts.

System flow of the outbound process Creation Of STOs Creating outbound delivery Creating TO for Delivery Assigning pick-HU to TO Confirm the pick TO Outbound delivery split Printing Deliverydocument PGI post goods issue .Outbound Logistics The outbound process includes the picking. vehicle scheduling and routing and delivery to the destinations.

Physical Process flow Consolidation of Indents Generation of pick list Physical picking Staging/verification Physical dispatch .

Pick list are handed over to picking staff with their names and time written on the pick list.30 am. Dispatch supervisor will assign picking job to picking staff based on the categories. The stores are organized into   Regular (daily) and Lean (alternative days) On the Saturday supplies will be made to all the stores irrespective of working days. While loading the material the lean stores are given priority over the regular stores. Staging / order picking activity . IT team at warehouse will download the store order request which transferred from NHQ national head quarter and converting them into pick sheets in the morning at 7.Pre picking activity is performed before the loading of the materials into the transporting vehicle.30am will be done and these pick list be handed over to dispatch supervisor at 9. On the verification of the pick list if any additional vehicle is required the indent for hired vehicles shall be placed to transportation depts. As the outbound team receives the details of all stores then the pick sheets of lean stores will be handed over to the picking team. Upon verification of the pick list the stock out material shall be intimated to the category team for replenishment. These schedules are based on the pre-defined branch/store schedule. The productivity of the pickers are measured based on time taken to complete particular job. The pick sheet will have the line items and its details. Dispatch supervisor will note down the details of the order request received from branches or stores in indent register and allocate inward serial number to pick list. Trip sheet is simultaneously will be raised which consist of the trip details of the vehicle. The supervisor will sort the pick list based on category and prioritize the branch-picking schedule.

Order picking material will be staged at defined order picking bay. DC manager should reconcile physical as well as the system stock. then he is supposed to check the article number. Before taking any corrective action against discrepancy. Acknowledgments for receipt of goods from the braches need to filed at distribution center for further references. Dispatch supervisor will issue gate pass with transfer order and package details written on it. Checking activity Pickers will handover the picked list to dispatch supervisor after the picking be done. All the cartoons used for re-packing should be sealed well. Checking team will verify physically picked material against TO. Dispatch supervisor will handover the picked list to system for TO generation. Transfer orders and dispatch details to be entered in the dispatch register by the security. Loading and dispatch activity Checked material to be moved loading bay or loading docks by the loaders. The name of the branch will be displayed on the staged material. Securities will the number packages and allow the loaders to load in to the vehicle. Pickers use small transparent polyethylene bags for the loose pickings. Edited transfer orders to be authorized means are finalized. The pick list will have the location of the material where it is laying in the shed. The gate pass will have vehicle number and branch name written on it. The racks are numbered and placed in sequences. If the pickers still get any confusion among packing and others. Number of packages against the particular transfer order will be mentioned. Corrections if any in the transfer order will be edited in this stage. Quantity will be written on these bags. The odd and even numbered racks placed opposite to each other. disparities if any will be corrected immediately after receiving the acknowledgment. The pick list will direct the picker to pick the material easily. . The Shelve number followed by rack number will be printed so as to facilitate the picker. All packages will have the transfer order number and the branch store name.

Picking .Delivery-goods issue Delivery Delivery Article Quantity Site Transfer Order Storage location Automatic Determination of bins Pickstorage List Transfer Order Confirm Transfer Order Confirm the pick Quantity Goods Issue .

Reliance has allotted 37 vehicles in total to Fresh. if the quantity is huge of any store this condition is exempted. Each handing unit is labeled with the sticker having the details on it. When the vehicles carry the material a minimum of 5-store material.Damage / Expiry material return to vendor The return to the vendor is also an outbound process to the distribution center. . Vehicle Scheduling Reliance distribute it goods by Re logistics which is a sister consignee to Reliance retail ltd. In order to maintain this. 6 vehicles are completely engaged in collecting fruits and vegetables. The goods will be supplied to the Vijayawada. Category team has to give schedule to DC manager for the return deliveries. Even the store ordered for 1 sku. the vehicles which are engaged in collection will returned by after noon and will continue in regular supplies. Visakhapatnam through Re-logistics only but if the outbound manager feels he will hire the outside. With the help of other vehicles the DCs will carry out the morning supplies. prior to the category team would be informing about the returns to the vendor and takes the necessary approvals for returning with the help of the DC manager. and it should be duly signed. All the vehicles start from WET dc. Collecting the vegetables from the market and other articles such as fruits and dairy and the products has to preserve the freshness till it reaches to the customer. The receipt copy of debit note should be filed. Vendor wise debit memo should be prepared in 3 copies. and 2 more vehicles are set open. Damage/expiry material received from the branches are segregated as per vendor or category wise at damage location. the outside transport PRC (PIONEER ROAD CARRIERS) transporters are the transporters contributing their services. Wet DC requires more vehicles than any other DC. the goods are directly supplied to WET DC where the cold chain infrastructure is maintained. Checking team will verify the stocks physically against the debit note and then it should be returned to the vendor.

00am.no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Store stores quantity in eaches line of SKU Article Frees avg. Fill rate STN date . the details will be updated on the board at the entrance of the shed. After completion of each process – complete shift cycle.The material will be supplied separately. Store Fill Details Reliance Retail Ltd Kondlakoi DC Shift STAFF: Fill rate S. The planning of the vehicles will be intimated to the wet DC by 11. the information board is displayed it will update for every shift. and is not mixed up with any supplies of other distribution centers.

Inventory management equations that helps to reduce cost : Total cost per unit time: TC = UC×D+VC Optimal cost per unit time: TCo = UC×D+VCo Cost of each unit of lost sales including loss of profits: LC = DC+SP−UC .Total Vehicle Trip Sheet The trip sheet details have to be maintained in the system. Inventory Management It is necessary because it will help in improving the customer satisfaction because the availability of the customer required material in right at competitive price would defiantly retain the customer. but in the system consolidated trip sheet will be maintained where the manual trip sheet carries the details of single store. The argument is based on the notion that both Procurement and transportation costs will be reduced if lot sizes are large.

The total holding cost per unit per unit time: HC+AC×Si Accounting information Cost of products sold = opening stock+net purchases−closing stock Value of stock = number of units in stock×unit value Average cost =Total cost of units/Number of units bought Closing stock = opening stock+purchases−sales Gross profit = sales revenue−cost of units sold Value of demand in a time series Actual demand = underlying pattern+random noise Linear relationship dependent variable = a+b×independent variable y = a+bx x = value of the independent variable y = value of the dependent variable a = intercept. where the line crosses the y axis b = gradient of the line. .

income groups etc. finite horizon.. the decisions are further help the company in forecasting the store and DC.It is the process by which any organisation will protect its uncertainties. infinite horizon deterministic or stochastic . The consolidated Store Maximum bin quantity is DCMBQ. multiple decision makers Time   single period. Dimensions of inventory models Products  single product vs. And the decision of storeMBQ is decided by the Category team. Demand uncertainties and uncertainties of the lead-time. inventory levels the decisions related to storeMBQ are influenced by spending pattern of the people who reside in the locality and taste and preferences. multiple products  perishable or durable Decision variables       when and how much to order pricing production and/or delivery schedule capacity expansion setup reduction quality improvement Decision making structure  single decision maker vs.

to organize the materials PF (processed food) shed Staple Shed Sections are divided into categories   RTC-ready to cookRTE-ready to eat- The Bins in the shed are divided into 2 types Reserve bin and Forward bin. .Supply      Controllable: when and how much to order Supply contracts Imperfect quality Limited capacity Lead time Demand    Exogenous: deterministic (constant or time dependent). stochastic Endogenous: pricing model The DC is divided into two sheds.

Staples reserve bin R02.Staples forward bin P01 Processed food reserve Bin food forward Bin P03 Staples reserve bin forward bin P02 Processed P04 Staples If the material has to pick from list where the location given as R01-10-3-B2.Processed food forward Bin food reserve Bin R14. and will select the second bin in third line. Which are very much accessible to pickers.Batch management forward bin R03. If the material received is 300 units and assume the DC don‟t have the stock. Received goods are stored in reserve bin and are moved to forward bins just after the bins become empty. The details of the racks and pallets at the DC Racks R01. The inventory manager has set the strategies and changes it time to time for smooth operations. then the picker will move to the tenth rack at R01 level (Ground floor). The pickers will pick the material from the forward bins. by all means the forward bins are used by outbound process.Batch management reserve bin Pallets R11. The material storing is based on the following characteristics  Food/ Non food  DCMBQ (maximum and minimum)  Storing temperature .The material is stored in on the racks and pallets.Processed R04. 200 units‟ will store in reserve bin and 100 units will be moved to the forward bin. it shall convenient to the picker.

the stock will move from the distribution center to the stores with in a short period so the material lay down near to loading point at a temporary location as no reservation is provided for the material. and the forecasted sales volume is 500 units. Suppose The DCMBQ (maximum) of an item is 50 pieces.. The storage strategies and decisions are the independent decision of the inventory manager. These loading docks are different from the receiving docks. the inflow will be according to the forecasting and DCMBQ but forecasting given priority. it can‟t be stopped by predicting. Though it is an independent decision he will coordinate with the pickers because they are persons who are going to move material from the DC to loading or shipping point or to the loading docks.  Process Damage . Physical size  Forecasted sales volume If he size is more and have a great out flow of materials then the items will be placed near to shipping point. The manager will take decision considering    Picker efficiency Reducing handling decisions Eradicating process damages There is every chance for damage. Replenishment Delivery GR Process Reserve Bin Forward Bin Picking The responsibility starts from put away process till the picking of the materials.e. As the DCMBQ of that particular item is 50 and the forecasted volume is 500 i. so prior precautions are taken to control the damage and the damage is divided in to.

Pending GRNs/ issues will be updated in the system before stock taking. Discrepancies found shall be rechecked .The Damages. will levy on the worker by the and will be decided by 3PL management. Team shall take the physical stock of sku at their respective bin as well as put away location. It will update in the system. The perpetual team will do the reconciliation of issues and receipts prior to stocktaking. There will be a separate check for every quarter by the inventory team. The team has to check a minimum of 36 items per a day. DC manager will give the list of SKUs to be checked in that category. Teams will be formed and will be assigned this activity. Till the perpetual inventory is complete dispatches or receipts shall be bared for that category/ SKU. The inventory team for inventory checking gives the prior planning to DC manager.  Manufacturing Damage The manufacturing defects or the loss of the quantity/weight in seal boxes etc. The loss allowed by the state general manager is 0. And the count called as Cycle count. called as statutory inventories. and the inventory staff is working for all days in week. auditors will conduct stock inspection on the year end (January 31st and march 31st). which occur during loading/unloading/put away process and the loss.01% on the sales. This activity is carried out under the supervision of inventory manager. The inventory team shall arrange the stocks in coordination with the put away team before the stock check.03% on sales turnover and in the hands of inventory management the power to write off a loss of 0. will be intimated to the vendor and will be replaced by the vendor  Pilferage e Damages The miscellaneous damages Perpetual Inventory activity The DC manager will put the schedule for perpetual inventory category wise with coordination with inventory manager.

 Store ( Outlet) details are not covered Suggestions  Worker efficiency can be improved by training. technology and other infrastructure for agriculture.  Reliance can make agreements with the local formers for food products and has to support them by providing money.again physically.  Make separate strategic planning for the vehicles. Conclusions Reliance logistics are as powerful as it is fulfilling all the requirements set by the distribution center. The study is conducted at Kondlakoi distribution center and other two-distribution centers were not considered. Each job/task assigned to the separate team making them as sole responsible. which are coming at lunch to avoid the traffic conjunction . The average filtrate during the period of study is 99. All the perpetual inventory sheets to be filed and documented for further reference. electronics. books and music etc.5%. Reliance want expand their retail market into all sector including medicine. motivating them. which tells about the availability and accessibility of the material to the store. Discrepancies if any reconciled and updated with the approval from commercial team. Limitations   Time duration is only 45 days.

HEAD SCM HEAD FACILITY HEAD SLP HEAD Vice President Asst Vice President General Manager DC Manager Inbound Manager Outbound Manager Inventory Manager . The information regarding the transit stock should be provided to the Inbound and Inventory teams which will be helpful in better optimal utilization of resources  It is advised to have all the stores as regular supplies by adding more supplies vehicles Organisational structure Reliance Distribution center CEO OPER HEAD COMM.

27241383 BO-23750028 3 Balkmpet CSD-23750026 BO-23391028 4 Banajara hills CSD-23391027 Raju .27241193 2 Anand Bagh CSD.Inbound In charge \\\\\\\\\\\\ Vendor Coordinator Outbound in charge Transportation In charge MIS manager ASM The store details of Reliance in Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad Sno Location Store Landline BO-23511030 Supervisiors Numbers 1 Amba Gardens CSD-23511020 BO.

BO-27953562 5 6 Bowenpally Chira Ali lane CSD-27953561 BO-23205992 BO-24160077 7 Dilsukh nagar CSD-24160066 BO-23051733 8 Hyder Nagar CSD-23051712 BO-24043514 9 Kalanikethan CSD-24043510 BO-24021751 10 Kamala Nagar CSD-24021752 BO-27061142 11 Malkajgiri CSD-27061126 BO-23042741 12 Miyapur CSD-23043049 BO-27863120 13 Old Alwal CSD-27863125 BO-24031687 14 R. Nagar BO-23706519 CSD-27033788 Balaji Murali 9963084442 Sai ram .R.K. Puram CSD-24031647 BO-27033789 15 Ramanthapur 16 S.

CSD-23706517 BO-24124799 17 Sahara Estates CSD-24121066 BO-27124912 18 Saket Road CSD-27130473 BO-27208221 19 Survey of India CSD-27208222 BO-23560973 20 Tolichowki CSD-23560972 BO-23800545 21 Vengal Rao Nagar CSD-23800548 BO-27610930 22 Vidya Nagar CSD-27610872 BO-24072541 23 Vinay Nagar Colony CSD-24072461 BO-23062674 24 V.V. Nagar CSD-23062654 BO-23750184 25 Yousufguda CSD-23750438 BO-27150437 26 Habsiguda 27 Film Nagar BO-23555970 CSD-27150438 Ashoke kumar Srinivas 9290528626 9391357832 Ramakrishna Ramakrishna Durga 9989744403 Pavan 9391334470 .

CSD-23555980 BO-24554823 28 Santhosh Nagar CSD-24531694 BO-23536194 29 NMDC CSD-23536195 BO-23833042 30 Moti Nagar CSD-23831591 BO-24030040 31 LB NAGAR CSD-24030020 BO-27402877 32 Shivam Road CSD-27401066 BO-24241350 33 BN Reddy Nagar CSD-24241340 BO-24190352 34 Hyder Shah Kote CSD-24190351 BO-27973881 35 Alwal CSD-27973884 BO36 West Maredpally CSD-27807302 BO-9894969710 37 Nagole 38 Attapur BO-9247025827 CSD-24222695 Mahendar 9908718885 Guru Babu 9866522364 Afsha Unnisa 9963195551 .

CSD-9247025893 BO-23002281 39 Gachibowli CSD-23002283 BO-27131524 40 Kushiguda CSD-27131523 BO-24655758 41 kachiguda CSD-24738609 BO42 Vikrampuri-RWPL CSD-66902541 BO43 Somajiguda-RWPL CSDBO44 Ameerpet-RWPL CSDBO45 Vikrampuri CSD-27846805 BO46 Ashtalakshmi Temple CSDVijayawada Sno Location Store Landline BO-0866-2567522 Supervisiors Numbers 1 One Town 2 Suryaraopet CSD-0866-2567511 BO-2435881 .

CSD-2435880 BO-2574554 3 SathyanarayanaPuram CSD-2574552 BO-2343226 4 Machavaram CSD-2434221 Guntur Sno Location Store Landline Supervisiors Numbers Bo-0863-2272301 1 Broddipet CSD-0863-2272303 BO-2272302 2 Arundalpet CSD-2272306 BO-2272311 3 kothapet 4 BO-2272231 koritipadu CSD-2272232 CSD-2272312 Visakhapatnam Sno Location Store Landline Supervisiors Numbers 1 Seethamadhara BO2 Akkayaalam CSD- .

BO3 Murali Nagar CSDBO-0891-2507756 4 Marripalem CSD-0891-2507757 BO-2508616 5 MVP colony CSD-2508617 BO-2507652 6 Chinna Waltair CSD-2507653 BO-2543573 7 Pedda Waltair CSD-2543574 BO-2547210 8 Dwaraka Nagar CSD-2547211 BO-2547237 9 Shanthipuram CSD-2547238 Sno Location Store Landline Warangal Supervisiors Numbers BO-0870-2457287 1 Central excise CSD-0870-2457286 BO-2455493 2 Nayeem Nagar 3 Forest Office BO-2430016 CSD-2455494 .

New Delhi B S Sahay (2007) Supply Chain management (2nd edition ) Macmillan India Limited.reliance.org G Raghuram and N Rangaraj (2000) Logistics and Supply Chain management (1 st edition ). New Delhi Appendices .CSD-2430015 Bibliography: http://www.com http://ibef. Macmillan India Limited.

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