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1: Issue 3, Pg 55-58
ISSN- 2231–5640 (Print) www.asianpharmaonline.org ISSN- 2231–5659 (Online) 0974-3618 0974-3618 REVIEW ARTICLE
Diospyros kaki (Ebenaceae): A Review
Sunity Singh1 and Himanshu Joshi2
Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management, Solan, H.P. Nitte Gulabhi Shetty Memorial Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Paneer, Mangalore India. *Corresponding Author E-mail: email@example.com
The present review article is an effort to compile all the Phytochemical and Pharmacological investigations regarding the plant Diospyros kaki (Ebenaceae). The plant is traditionally used to treat various ailments like gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, menorrhoea, diabetes, cough and also in the treatment of herpes. Several phytoconstituents has been isolated and identified from the different parts of the plant belonging to the category of glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenoids. A review of chemical constituents present and their pharmacological activities are given in the present article.
KEYWORDS: Diospyros kaki, Ebenaceae, Japenese persimmon.
Diospyros kaki is a deciduous tree measuring to 12 m in height and 7 m in diameter. It belongs to family Ebenaceae. Its common name is Japanese persimmon and the country of origin is Japan (Gilman and Watson, 1993). The plant prefers light (Sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soil and well drained soil. It flowers from July to August and the seeds ripen in November. The flowers are dioecious. It can grow in semi shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil (plants for a future database). D. kaki needs a subtropical to mild-temperate climate. It may not fruit in tropical lowlands. In Brazil, the tree is considered suitable for all zones favorable to citrus, but those zones with the coldest winters induce the highest yields. The atmosphere may range from semi-arid to one of high humidity. Propagation is by seed, root suckers or grafting onto wild rootstocks (Sastry, 1952). Geographic distribution: D. kaki is native to China, India, Japan and Myanmar. It is exotic to Afghanistan, Algeria, Australia, Brazil, Egypt, France, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Korea, Republic of, Palestine, Philippines, Russian Federation, Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (Former), United States of America and Vietnam.
Received on 11.08.2011 Accepted on 18.08.2011 © Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved
Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 1(3): July-Sept. 2011; Page 55-58
Uses of various parts of plants: Food: Fully ripe fruits are usually eaten out-of-hand. The flesh may be added to salads, blended with ice cream mix or yoghurt, used in pastries, puddings or made into jam or marmalade. Ripe fruits can be frozen whole or pulped. Drying is commonly practised. Roasted seeds have served as a coffee substitute. Tea can also be made from fresh or dried leaves. D. kaki is high in vitamin and a moderate source of ascorbic acid. Timber: Wood fairly hard and heavy, black with streaks of orange-yellow, salmon, brown or grey; close-grained; takes a smooth finish and is prized in Japan for fancy inlays, though it has an unpleasant odour. Tannin from unripe fruits has been employed in brewing sake, also in dyeing and as a wood preservative. Other uses: Fruit may be converted into molasses, cider, beer and wine. Juice of small, inedible wild fruits, calyx and seeds is diluted with water and painted on paper or cloth as an insect and moisture-repellent medicine. It is a handsome ornamental tree with drooping leaves and branches that give it a languid, rather tropical appearance. Trees can be planted as a hedge or as a screen if pruned heavily. Traditional uses: The stem bark is astringent and styptic. The fruit is said to have different properties depending on its stage of ripeness, though it is generally antitussive, astringent, laxative, nutritive and stomachic. The fresh fully ripe fruit is used
kaki exhibited strong radical scavenging activity which stroke for years in China.] raw in the treatment of constipation and haemorrhoids and when cooked is used to treat diarrhea. 2006) . kaki have morphology of the Molt 4B cells indicated severe damage 3 very strong detoxifying activity on snake venoms of two days after treatment with PS. kaki . while therapy. anti-cancer activity. ECG. Persimmon tannin was 20 times more effective has long been used for tea in Korea since it was thought to than tocopherol in terms of the 50 % inhibitory be effective against hypertension. D. a a 10. acid (Chen et al. D.Asian J. Res. isolated from D.. anti-oxidizing activity. kaki extract and related polyphenol compounds such as patients suffering severe physical. 2002) . Hu et al. the tumours or metastases C and EC inhibited the growth of the cells only moderately disappeared (during or after treatment) sooner than one (Achiwa et al. 2011. caffeic acid and gallic and Lee. Pg 55-58 [AJPSci. 2007.000 D anticoagulant fraction has been purified from novel and patented traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) the leaves of D. chlorogenic acid. 2008) . Sci. EGC. antivininous and demulcent. kaki (Creveld. 1998). been used for the treatment of stroke or syndrome of apoplexy in clinic to improve the outcome of ischemia D. kaki peels extract possess significant cytotoxic activity against human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (HSC-2) and human submandibular gland tumor (HSG) cells. as tested on urethane anasthetized rats (Funayama. possess acaricidal activity (Lee epigallocatechin. 56 . 2006. The peduncle is used to treat coughs and hiccups and the calyx is used to treat hiccups.e. These results suggest that PS. and EGCG. Homeopathic medicine ‘Creveld’ had been developed from D. kaki that inhibited thrombin-catalyzed drug made from the flavonoids of the leaves of D. and epigallocatechingallate much used during chemotherapy and radiotherapy in which (EGCG) strongly inhibited the growth of human lymphoid it substantially reduced the side effects caused by primary leukemia Molt 4B cells in a dose-dependent manner. The The tannins present in the fresh unripe fruits of D. The fruits are considered to be antifebrile. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). A pharmaceutical composition for preventing and treating liver disease having liver-protecting activity. whilst when ground into powder it is used to treat dry coughs.. kaki folium ACTIVITIES: (Kyung. Laticauda semifasciata and Trimeresums Irregular shape of the cells and DNA fragmentation were flavoviridis (Houghton.1997).. In some cases. epicatechin (EC). rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. Vol. Juice from the unripe fruit is used in the treatment of hypertension. kaki roots.. The remedy has been used for D. 2005). (Sa et al. Pharm. The chemical constituents namely astragalin and isoquercitrin were found present in the leaves of D. complaints due to post-traumatic stress. 2007). EGC. kaki are responsible for its hypotensive effect. ECG. Straphylococcus alpha and Bordetella pertussis (Mallavadhani. or EGCG-treated cells. The life span of stroke prone spontaneously hypersensitive rats was significantly prolonged on ingestion of tannins of The leaves of Persimmon possess antithrombotic activity. Clostridium tetani. psychological and mental catechin (C). epicatechin. It D. Diptheria. 2001).. kaki has fibrin formation with a competitive inhibition pattern. NaoXingQing (NXQ). Plumbagin and its derivates can be attributed to the presence of catechin. 2005) . Okonogi et al. EGC. ECG. 1979) . was inhibited by 10-20 % by these polyphenol compounds. multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity. and EGCG induce Fruits are known to inactivate bacterial toxins of apoptosis (programmed cell death) of Molt 4B cells. Li et al. 1: Issue 3. The dried fruit is used in the treatment of bronchial complaints. observed in PS. for food or cosmetic compositions (An et al. 1979). Persimmon peel containing high levels of dietary fibres and antioxidants with antidiabetic properties represents a potential dietary supplement for improving hyperglycemia and diabetic complications (Lee. kaki has been epigallocatechin (EGC). 2005) reported concentrations (Weijian.. Polyphenols isolated from the persimmon leaf can be used as natural materials or additives for human skin owing to their beneficial biological functions. anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and anti Helicobacter pylori activity (Kawase et al. and anti-allergy contained BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL triterpenoid compound isolated from D. epicatechingallate (ECG).. 2005) . including the anti wrinkle effect and the inhibition of skin problems. snake species i. a would normally expect. 1993.
phosphatidylglycerols. 7. kaki has also been reported by (Yasumasa et al.3 % cerebrosides. and oligosaccharides (non-fermentable tetra. -sitosteryl. 8.5 mg). sylvestris shinanolone.2-7.80. vol III. 1987) . kaki has a long history of traditional uses for the wide range of diseases. 18. phosphatidylcholines and free and glycosylated sterols.G. rutin.-D-glucopyranoside) against Streptococcus mutans from the leaves of D. CSIR. The complex lipids consisted of 18. The main fatty acids of these complex lipids were C18:1 (23. Non-astringent persimmons may be consumed when still very firm to very soft (Wikipedia). diacylglycerols. quercetin.25. 0. CONCLUSION: REFRENCES: 1. Other napthaquinone derivates isolated from the roots of D. total dietary fiber. D. catechin and gallocatechin.7). mamegakinone. Gilman E.4-30. zeaxanthin and carotene). University of Florida. This effect was attributed to the fact that persimmon tannins are 20 times more potent than antioxidant vitamin E. So. However. In recent years.2% phosphatidyl-Nmethylethanolamines. digalactosyldiglycerides.. 1993. carotenoids. The wealth of India. syringic acid.3-52.3) and C18:2 (9. The non-astringent persimmon is squat like a tomato and is most commonly sold as fuyu. Sastry B. kampferol and kakispyrone and kaki saponin (Chen et al. 1972). 0. 0.droomproving.J. hyperin. Raw materials. Institute of food and agricultural sciences.ceramideoligosides.3% phosphatidylinositols. Pharm. myricetin. plumbagin. New Delhi. linoleic and palmitoleic predominated (>70 %). 1..e. 1998). Kaki tannins with purity of 30 %. kaki.67 % lipids and complex lipids constituted 11. carotenoids (particularly cryptoxanthin. there are generally two types of persimmon fruit: astringent and non-astringent.water. quercetin. lupeol. Non-astringent persimmons are not actually free of tannins as the term suggests. Persimmon contains the following (g/100 g of fresh fruit).] ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES: Fractionated extracts of persimmon peels showed a remarkable MDR reversal activity. Some components of persimmon show special activities (Uchida et al. total carbohydrates. isoquercetin. oleic. 2. betulin and betulinic acid were identified (Tezuka et al. 40-dihydroxy-a-truxillic acid tatarine C.8-4. Dynamis : 25.5-22. protein. kaempferol.3 % of this fraction. and 27. astragalin. a series of the environmental horticulture department. 2006). 5. the effect of a persimmonsupplemented diet on lipid metabolism has not been examined (Gorinstein et al. de Wereldboom. kaki sylvestris and were identified as 7-methyljuglone. iron. sylvestris Makino.. and taraxerol (Zhong and Feng.. 1999) . vanillic acid.2% monogalactosyldiglycerides. and soluble and nonsoluble proteins. and 19 hydroxyursolic acid (Zhong and Feng. Astringent persimmons contain very high levels of soluble tannins and are unpalatable if eaten before softening.G. oleanolic acid. coumarins. 2011. The active compounds in persimmon leaves i. as well as the antitumor compounds betulinic acid and shibuol were found in persimmon. 3. Florida cooperative extension service. 3. annulatin. Kaki potantial in curing and treating various diseases. 2001: (in English in LINKS 3/02).8 %) (Suzuki et al.43-0.3. trifolin. In the fatty acid composition of the lipids unsaturated fatty acids linolenic.933. total lipids. C18 (20. 1987) . The dry residue of persimmon includes the following (g/100 g): polyphenols.-Dglucoside.1.2-37. 1: Issue 3. gallic acid.3 g. Houghton P. and Watson D.saccharides) are claimed as human intraoral pathogenic bactericidal agents (Kato et al. Persimmon tannins prolonged life and reduced the incidence of stroke in hypertensive rats. 4. zinc. emphasis of research has been on utilizing traditional medicines that have long and proven history of treating various diseases. Diospyros kaki. -sitosterol. kaki were 7-methyljuglone. Fruits: Commercially. 0.6 g.64-1. Fact Sheet ST-229. trifolin. total flavonoid. Diospyros kaki Japenese Persimmon. 1989). PHYTOCHEMISTRY: Leaves : Leaves are reported to contain following compounds. Stearic acid.4 18. 2003) .Ndimethylethanolamines.e presence of volatile oil. further studies need to be carried out to explore D. hyperin. Seeds: The seeds of persimmon (3 varieties) contained 0. Pg 55-58 [AJPSci. 1952. The isolation and identification of an antimicrobial compound kaempferol (kaempferol is an aglycon of astragalin (kaempferol 3-O. diospyrin and a new 7methyljuglone dimer named neodiospyrin. 2007) . kaki var.Asian J. Sci. In vitro testing of some West African and Indian 57 .or less.N. kaki Thunb. Roots: Dicoumarol derivatives gerberinol (C21H1606) and methylgerberinol (C22H1806) have been isolated from the roots of D. 0. Res.. and organic acid are responsible for antimicrobial activities against seven food spoilage and food-borne pathogens (Lilian. Vol. the binapthyl-1.. succinic acid. and D. Calyx: Twenty-three compounds were isolated from the calyx of D. kaki Thunb var. Creveld M.58 g.. copper and manganese. polyphenols and a specific group of polyphenols (tannins). palmitic acid.5-4. and lose more of their tannic quality sooner.48 g. Stems: Three compounds were isolated from the stem of D.quinone. isodiospyrin. A high concentration of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (up to 7. p136. and some minerals i.7-5.1-17. isodiospyrin.7% phosphatidyl-N. magnesium.3-10.9% acylsterylglycosides. 1982). Also from the roots and woods of D.. 2. 3. Various parts of the plant are widely used in folk medicine.002. friedelin. 14. The heartshaped hachiya is the most common variety of astringent persimmon.4-7.5% sterylglycosides.7% unidentified constituents.16-0.3% sulfoquinovosyldiglycerides. ursolic acid. Lipid soluble compounds in the rind and flesh of persimmon fruit includes mono-galactosyldiglycerides carotenoids.19 g. but rather are far less astringent before ripening. Extensive literature survey revealed that the plant D.
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