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POULTRY It includes chicken, ducks -Egg and meat turkeys, Geese, Guinea fowls and pea fowls - only

ly meat purpose Chicken- Common poultry breeds American class (Dual purpose) - Rhode Island Red (RIR), New Hampshire (NHS), Plymouth Rock Others Wyandotic -Yellow skin Asiatic class - Brahma, Cochin, Langshan - Feathered - Shanks Mediterranean class - Leghorn-Egg purpose, Minorca - White earlobes -Yellow/white skin English class (Dual purpose) - Australop, Orpington, Sussex, Cornish - White skin Dual purpose - American class, English class Egg purpose - Mediterranean class Genetics Inbreeding- Mating of related animals to produce uniform inbred lines Line breeding- It is also sort of inbreeding and used for producing inbred lines Out breeding- Crossing of unrelated lines within the same breed Cross breeding-Mating of animals of different breeds to take advantage of heterosis and nicking ability

Strains of commercial poultry breeds 1. Broilers Samrat Petersen Indian Kiser Marshall Lehmann (B) Pearl Vikram Unibro 2. Layers Babcock Lehmann (L) Star cross Pearl sonali Pearl Tara - 287 H&N Colonial

Ross

Unisex white Kalinga Hybrid Brown

Indigenous breeds (Poultry) Aseel - A.P, U.P, Rajasthan Busra - Gujarat and M.H Chittagong (Malay) - E. India Karaknath (Kalamasi) - M.P Layer farming Deeplitter system (1 labourer for 1000 layers) , cage system - (1 labourer for 2500 layers A pullet is a sexually mature when she lays her first egg Production per hen housed - 275 eggs / hen Brooder management (0- 8 weeks) Chick mash contains Crude protein (CP)-20%, ME 2600 Kcal/Kg Photo period for chicks- 23 hrs Temperature requirement-1st week to 5th week- 90 F to 70 F with weekly decrement of 5 F Brooder require 0.5 square feet on floor Beak trimming, toe clipping (for breeder males) and dubbing Problems include stress, coccidiosis, unabsorbed yolk, hotweather and cold weather Grower (8-20 weeks old) Grower mash contains Crude protein (CP)-16%, ME 2500 Kcal/Kg No artificial light only natural light Require 1 square feet Layer (21-72 weeks) Layer mash- Crude protein (CP)-18%, ME 2600 Kcal/Kg Light should be provided from 20 weeks (increment of 30 minutes light every week till it reaches 16 hrs) after 6 months 17 hrs. Require 2 square feet Broiler farming: "All in All out" system

1 labourer for 800 birds Weight at 8 weeks - 1.35-1.50 kgs / bird (marketable) (Nowadays 6wks-marketable age) Feed consumed upto 8 weeks - 3.75 kgs/bird Broiler starter mash (0-4 wks)- CP 23%, ME 2800 Kcal/Kg Broiler finisher mash (5-8 weeks)- CP 20%, ME 2900 Kcal/Kg Hatcheries Male: female for egg type 1:10 to 15 Male: female for meat type 1:10 to 15 Hatchery should be situated at least 1000 metres from the houses wherein birds are kept. Hatchery rooms-Egg receiving room, egg storage room, chick holding room, wash room , storage room, fumigation chamber, egg holding room, incubator room, sexing room Candling should be done on the 7th day to remove infertile eggs and also on 18th day. Large end of the egg should be kept up where the eggshell is located for incubation Optimum temp for holding the fertile eggs before incubation varies from 50-70 F (10 C to 21.1 C) Better results - 60 F (15.6 C) RH maintained 70-80% (less humidity promotes loss of water from Eggs) Incubator temperature; 99.5 F - 100.5 F (37.2 C - 37.8 C) Forced draft - type incubator 1 F higher for still - air incubators low temp / slows down the development of embryo. higher than optimum temp hastens embryonic development. Sexing of chicks by identification of rudimentary testes in the cloaca of male chicks on day one old chick.

Poultry management Brooding temperature (temp inside the brooder house should be appl. 20 F (-6.7 C) below brooder temperature Egg Albumin - 56-61%; Yolk - 27-32%;Egg shell - 8-11% ;

NAFED (National co-operative marketing federation)

Diseases Viral- Ranikhet disease (New castle disease), fowl pox, infectious bronchitis, infectious laryngo tracheitis, infectious bursitis, avian encephalomyelitis, mareks disease,leukosis, chronic respiratory diseases, duck viral enteritis, hepatitis etc., Bacterial- Pullorum, Typhoid, Paratyphoid, fowl cholera, Arizona infection in turkey Protozoal- Coccidiosis in chicken, blackhead in turkey and leucocytozoonosis Fungal- Aspergillosis, moniliasis