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Workshop on

Technology Assessment of SMRs for Near Term Deployment


Dec 5th 9th , 2011 IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria

U.C.Muktibodh
Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited

Lecture Outline
Technology Development

Design features of 220, 540 & 700 MWe Indian

PHWRs
Safety features of 220, 540 & 700 MWe Indian

PHWRs
Operating Performance of Indian PHWRs

Technology Development

Launch of Nuclear Power Program


Construction work at First NPP Began Training School (Nuclear Science & Technology)

Department of Atomic Energy Bhabha Atomic Atomic Research Energy Commission Centre Research Reactor APSARA

Research Reactor CIRUS

1948

1954

1956

1957

1960

1964

Before setting up the first NPP, we had the basic infrastructure Policy, Knowledge Base, Research Reactors, Radiation Protection, Human Resources

and since then moving continuously


and moving responsibly

PHWR Program
220 MWe
1990s CONSOLIDATION 1980s STANDARDISATION 1970s TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION 1980s INDIGENISATION RAPP-3&4 2000s COMMERCIALISATION

700 MWe Reactors


2005-2006

TAPS-3&4

540 MWe
KAIGA-3&4

ECONOMY OF SCALE

Madras Atomic Power Station (2 220 MWe)

RAPS-1&2

MAPS-1&2

NAPS-1&2

KAPS-1&2

KGS-1&2

RAPP-5&6

Development of Nuclear materials


Mining and processing of nuclear fuel Uranium and

Thorium were developed.


Fabrication of all types of fuel required for reactors Production of Heavy Water Back end technology of Waste Management

Development of Manufacturing Technology for Class-1 Components

Calandria- Reactor pressure vessel for PHWR

Development of Manufacturing Technology for Class-1 Components

REACTOR END SHIELD

Development of Manufacturing Technology for Class-1 Components

Steam Generator

Development of Manufacturing Technology for Class-1 Components

Fuelling Machine

Development of Manufacturing Technology for Class-1 Components

Technology development for Zr Components

Precision component manufacturing

Development of inspection techniques


Concurrent with manufacturing technologies, Non Destructive Examination techniques and equipment for these techniques were developed indigenously. Optical instruments Laser technology

Development of Instrumentation & Control

Back-end technology development


Densification unit for plastic waste

Simultaneous incineration of low level solid waste along with organic liquid waste
Immobilisation of spent resins in polymer matrix Special slag cement developed as an alternate matrix for spent resin, to avoid potential hazards in using polyster styrene Special tile holes with higher integrity and shielding developed for storing spent SPNDs

Evaporation system developed to reduce tritium discharge to water body

Other advancements in Reactor technology


Analytical capabilities Reactor core design / burn-up optimisation studies Seismic input parameter generation & evaluation / reevaluation (walk-throughs & re-analysis) Probabilistic Safety Assessment

Ageing Management techniques Coolant Channel replacement Feeder replacement Robust monitoring & inspection plan
Control & Instrumentation From relay-based technology to Computer-based Full scale simulator

State of the art Training Facilities: Simulator

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Improved construction methodology

End Shield Erection

Steam Generator Erection SG Erection

Erection of Turbo Generator Calandria Erection

Open top construction

Growth of Nuclear Reactor Technology

Research reactors to commercial power reactors with emphasis on self reliance


Innovations Evolutions
Capacity Safety Reliability Economics Sustainability

Improvements

Design Features of 220, 540 & 700 MWe Indian PHWRs

Design Features (PHWR-220)


Thermal Output : 756 MWt
Gross Electrical Output : 235 MWe Moderator/Coolant Heavy Water No. of channels 306 Reactor Coolant Pressure 8.5 MPa Reactor Coolant temp. 293 deg. C Coolant Loops Single, 4 SGs Moderator temp. 44/65 deg. C Steam pressure 4.03 MPa(a) Steam temperature 250 deg. C Natural Uranium (UO2), 19 element Fuel Bundle 12 bundles per channel Average discharge burn-up : 6700 MWD/TeU On-power refueling 2 independent offsite power sources 3 X 100% DGs as Class-3 power supply 3 tier Emergency Power Supply (Class-3,2&1) Main Control Room for normal operation & Backup Control Room for independent Safety System operation & monitoring of critical parameters Plant Design Life : 40 years Core Damage Frequency : 10-5 Large Early Release Frequency : 10-6

Design Features (PHWR-540)


Thermal Power Output : 1700 MWt
Gross Electrical Output : 540 MWe Moderator/Coolant Heavy Water No. of channels 392 Reactor Coolant Pressure 98 MPa Reactor Coolant temp. 304 deg. C Coolant Loops Two (Vertically split), 4 SGs Moderator temp. 53/76 deg. C Steam pressure 4.17 MPa(a) Steam temperature 253 deg. C Natural Uranium (UO2), 37 element Fuel Bundle 13 bundles per channel Average discharge burn-up : 7500 MWD/TeU On-power refueling 2 independent offsite power sources 4 X 50% DGs as Class-3 power supply 3 tier Emergency Power Supply (Class-3,2&1) Main Control Room for normal operation & Backup Control Room for independent Safety System operation & monitoring of critical parameters Plant Design Life : 40 years Core Damage Frequency : 10-5 Large Early Release Frequency : 10-6

PRESSURISER

Design Features (PHWR-700)


Thermal Power Output : 2166 MWt
Gross Electrical Output : 700 MWe Moderator/Coolant Heavy Water No. of channels 392 Reactor Coolant Pressure 98 MPa Reactor Coolant temp. 310 deg. C (3% partial boiling) Coolant Loops Two (Interleaved feeders), 4 SGs Moderator temp. 53/76 deg. C Steam pressure 4.5 MPa(a) Steam temperature 256 deg. C Natural Uranium (UO2), 37 element Fuel Bundle 12 bundles per channel Average discharge burn-up : 7050 MWD/TeU On-power refueling 2 independent offsite power sources 4 X 100% DGs as Class-3 power supply 3 tier Emergency Power Supply (Class-3,2&1) Alternate AC Source located at higher elevation Main Control Room for normal operation & Backup Control Room for independent Safety System operation & monitoring of critical parameters Plant Design Life : 40 years Core Damage Frequency : 10-5 Large Early Release Frequency : 10-6

PRESSURISER

Reactor Vessel (Calandria) inside water filled Vault

Reactor Coolant System layout to assist Natural circulation


PHWR-220
Coolant Pump Steam Generator

PHWR-540 / 700

Bi-directional On-power refueling

Inherent Design Safety Features of PHWRs


Higher neutron generation time

Low fissile content


Passive core cooling Online re-fuelling and low excess reactivity in the core. Short bundle length limits consequences in case of single

bundle failure On power detection & removal of failed fuel. Moderator as heat sink in the event of LOCA. Reactor vessel surrounded by large pool of water Reactivity Devices located in low pressure moderator : Rod ejection ruled out

Fuel Bundle
Fuel Bundle Fuel Bundle Dia : 81.7 mm Length : 495 mm

19 Element
End Plate

Fuel Bundle Dia : 102.4 mm Length : 495 mm

37 Element

Spacers Pellets

Fuel Element

PHWR-220

PHWR-540 / 700

Fuel Transfer Scheme (PHWR-220)


RE AC TO R

TRANSFER MAGAZINE NEW FUEL MAGAZINE

NEW FUEL LOADING TROUGH FUELLING MACHINE

CONTAINMENT WALL FUEL TRANSFER PORT

SPENT FUEL BAY

SHUTTLE TRANSFER STATION TRANSFER ARM

TRANSFER MAGAZINE

SHUTTLE RECEIVING STATION SHUTTLE TRANSPORT TUBES

SCHEMATIC OF FUEL MOVEMENT IN THE STATION

Fuel Transfer Scheme (PHWR-540)

Fuel Transfer Scheme (PHWR-700)

MOBILE TRANSFER MACHINE

Control & Instrumentation

Use of digital technology for alarm generation

Adoption of Computer Based Systems (CBS) for data acquisition for major process and reactor control application. For one of the Reactor Protection Systems, hardwired logics are retained to achieve diversity
Operator interface with menu-driven screens for control action and system information Computer Based Systems developed and qualified in a systematic manner with extensive documentation for verification and validation

Control Room (PHWR-220)

Control Room (PHWR 540)

Control Room (PHWR 700)

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Safety Features of 220, 540 & 700 MWe Indian PHWRs

Safety Features (PHWR 220)


Shutdown Systems Core Cooling Systems Containment Systems

PSS
S. No.

SSS
Device Neutron Absorber

ECCS
High pressure D2O injection Low pressure H2O injection Long term recirculation

Double Containment Engineered Safety Features Passive Vapour Suppression Pool Primary Cont. Filtration System Secondary Cont. Clean-up & Purge System Primary Cont. Controlled Discharge System RB Cooling System

1 2 3

Primary Shutdown System Secondary Shutdown System Liquid Poison Injection System

Cadmium Natural Boron Natural Boron

Two Group Concept :


GROUP-1 PSS ECCS GROUP-2 SSS Cont. Sys.

Reactor Shutdown Systems (PHWR 220)


Primary Shutdown System
DRIVE MECHANISM SHIELD PLUG

DECK PLATE DECK PLATE SUPPORT SLEEVE HELIUM LINE

INITIAL ACCELERATION SPRING ASSEMBLY SHUT-OFF ROD ASSY. CALANDRIA VAULT TOP HATCH CENTRAL BEAM

STANDPIPE THIMBLE ASSEMBLY.

GUIDE TUBE EXTENSION ASSEMBLY.

CALANDRIA NOZZLE

ROD BOTTOM TIP (PARKED OUT POSITION) CALANDRIA TUBE GUIDE TUBE ASSEMBLY HORIZONTAL CENTRAL PLANE OF CALANDRIA STOPPER PLATE GUIDE TUBE LOCATOR

S. No. 1 2 3

Device
Primary Shutdown System Secondary Shutdown System

Absorber
Cadmium Li Pentaborate Natural Boron

Features
14 Rods, Gravity driven

12 locations, Stored Energy

Liquid Poison Injection System

Direct inj., Stored Energy

Emergency Core Cooling System


(PHWR 220)

High Pressure Injection

Long Term Re-circulation

Containment Systems (PHWR 220)

Design leakage rate through Containment : 1% volume per day

Safety Features (PHWR 540)


Shutdown Systems Core Cooling Systems Containment Systems

SDS#1
S. No.

SDS#2
Neutron Absorber Cadmium Gadolinium Nitrate

ECCS
High pressure H2O injection Long term recirculation

Double Containment Engineered Safety Features Passive Vapour Suppression Pool Primary Cont. Filtration & Pump Back System Sec. Cont. Cleanup & Purge System Primary Cont. Controlled Discharge System RB Cooling System

Device

1 Shut Down System # 1 2 Shut Down System # 2

Two Group Concept :


GROUP-1 SDS#1 ECCS GROUP-2 SDS#2 Cont. Sys.

Reactor Shutdown Systems (PHWR 540)


SDS#1
S. No. 1 2 Device Shutdown System#1 (SDS#1) Shutdown System#2 (SDS#2) Neutron Absorber Cadmium Gadolinium Nitrate Features 28 Rods, Gravity driven 6 LPI perforated tubes, Stored Energy

SDS#2

Emergency Core Cooling System (PHWR 540)


High Pressure Injection

Long Term Re-circulation Pumps : 4 X 50% Heat Exchangers : 3 X 50%

Containment Systems (PHWR 540)

Design leakage rate through Containment : 1% volume per day

Safety Features (PHWR 700)


Shutdown Systems Core Cooling Systems Containment Systems

SDS#1
S. No.

SDS#2
Neutron Absorber Cadmium Gadolinium Nitrate

ECCS
High pressure H2O injection Long term recirculation

Double Containment Engineered Safety Features Containment Spray System Sec Cont. Clean-up & Purge System Primary Cont. Controlled Discharge System

Device

1 Shut Down System # 1 2 Shut Down System # 2

Two Group Concept :


GROUP-1 SDS#1 ECCS GROUP-2 SDS#2 Cont. Sys.

Reactor Shutdown Systems (PHWR 700)


SDS#1
S. No. 1 2 Device Shutdown System#1 (SDS#1) Shutdown System#2 (SDS#2) Neutron Absorber Cadmium Gadolinium Nitrate Features 28 Rods, Gravity driven 6 PIU tubes, Stored Energy

SDS#2

Emergency Core Cooling System


(PHWR 700)

High Pressure Injection TRAIN-1

High Pressure Injection TRAIN-2

Long Term Recirculation TRAIN-1

Long Term Recirculation TRAIN-2

Passive Decay Heat Removal System


(PHWR 700)

Containment Systems (PHWR 700)


2 Trains, each train having 2 X 100% pumps and 2 X 100% Heat Exchangers

Design leakage rate through Containment : 1% volume per day No emergency counter measures anticipated after Severe Accident.

Provisions for Severe Accident Management


Independent Fire Water injection provision (Diesel driven

pumps)
Hook-up provisions for :

Steam Generators

Reactor Vessel
Calandria Vault End Shields Reactor Coolant System
Alternate AC Source located at higher elevation

Operating Performance of Indian PHWRs

PHWR Units in Operation


S. No. Site/Station/Project Units Status Year of commercial operation Rated capacity (MWe)

1 Tarapur Atomic Power Station

TAPS-3&4 Operating

2005, 2006 1973, 1981 2000 2009 1984, 1986 1991, 1992 1993, 1995 2000 2008 2010

2 x 540 100, 200 2 x 220 2 x 220 2 x 220 2 x 220 2 x 220 2 x 220 220 220

2 Rajasthan Atomic Power Station RAPS-1&2 Operating RAPS-3&4 Operating RAPS-5&6 Operating 3 Madras Atomic Power Station 4 Narora Atomic Power Station MAPS-1&2 Operating NAPS-1&2 Operating

5 Kakrapar Atomic Power Station KAPS-1&2 Operating 6 Kaiga Atomic Power Station KGS-1&2 KGS-3 KAIGA-4 Operating Operating Operating

More than 300 reactor years of safe & reliable operation

Availability Factors of Operating Units


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30

86

90

91

88

89

92 85 88 83 82

20
10 0
2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11*

Capacity Factors of Operating Units


100 90 84.89 89.66 81.1 76.29

80
70

74.4 63.04 53.72 49.61 60.8

71.37

60
50

40
30 20 10 0

2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11

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Longest Continuous Reactor Operation


700

600

590 529

500

486

400

404

432 394 346 371

414

407

Days

300

289 250

200

100

0
TAPS-1 TAPS-2 RAPS-3 RAPS-4 MAPS-1 MAPS-2 NAPS-1 NAPS-2 KAPS-1 KAPS-2 KGS-1 KGS-2

P -Sv

Thank You for your attention