The baseline survey was conducted at four (4) villages Serkhan, Nisapui, Thingdawl and Kolasib (Khuangpuilam) which were selected for the project, “Enhancing Livelihood of Mizo Women through Improved Pig Production in Kolasib District” supported by SRTT and NRTT under North East Initiatives. The selected villages are all under Kolasib District. The survey addressed experiences and perceptions of farmers/beneficiaries on present pig rearing regarding pig health, management practice, feeding practice etc. The survey was carried out with the main objectives of: • establish the baseline conditions for pig management, production, and marketing in Kolasib District of Mizoram • determine the areas of intervention to enhance pig production, productivity and management

Source of Data Collection Primary data was collected through the use of a purposively constructed interview schedule prepared by ILRI. In addition, the team of Open Doors used observation and key informant interviews to collect required information that was not possible to get through the interview schedule. Sampling: A total of 64 households were interviewed. Out of these, 55 households were selected randomly in the four (4) project villages. Table I.: Distribution of selected farmers in the villages Sr. No 1. 2. 3. 4. Name of the Village Nisapui Serkhan Thingdawl Kolasib (ward 4) No. of Farmers selected for the project 10 15 15 15

Tools of Data Collection A structured interview schedule was prepared by ILRI to collect data on several aspects related to the practices of farmers on the present pig rearing system. The interview schedule sought information on household details, herd composition of pigs, performance estimate; management practises breeding practices, feeding practice, marketing of pig/piglets, pig health and backward and forward linkages (Areas of intervention/ improvement), capacity building and livelihood importance. Data collection Data was collected by the Open Doors team during the month of May, 2013; the farmers were interviewed mostly at their homes and the team members also observed the pigsty, cleanliness, feeding, and other related important information were collected through interview with the local leaders and persons with related field in and around the area

Data Processing and Analysis The quantitative primary data collected through structured interview scheduled was processed and analyzed to draw the results of the survey for further necessary action. Open Doors gave special thanks to all respondents who spared their valuable time and cooperated with OD team by providing the required information.

Analysis and Interpretation 1. Household Details: includes family members, age, gender, educational qualification and

primary occupation of the members. Family members: 44 % of the family comprise of 1-5 members while 56% of the family belonged to the family members of 6 and above-member Age: The age group of family members was categorized into four (4) groups. 28% of family members belonged to the age group of below 15 years, 42% belonged to the age group of 16-35 years, 16% belonged to 36-55 years of age, 14% belonged to 56 years and above Gender: 51% of the family members were male and 49% were female. Educational Qualification: The level of education of the family members was categorized into three (3) groups viz literate 6%, under matriculation 73% and matriculation and above 16% Primary Occupation: 79% of the family were engaged in agriculture and allied activities, 9% of the families were engaged in petty business and 12% of the families were daily labourers Herd Composition of Pigs:Pigs fattening is the most common form of pig rearing among the farmers. Presently, the farmers reared 4 indigenous and 68 crossbred post weaned fattening; 5 crossbred breeding sows and 3 breeding boars, 32 crossbred pre weaners/suckling.

2. Performance Estimate The report is received as under:I. a) b) c) Breeding sow/gilts: Breeding sow normally reaches the age of maturity at the age of 8 months and above Age at 1st breeding is from 8 months and above In the 1st year, most usually only one time production is achieved, from the second year onwards at least two time productions in a year.

d) e)

Inter farrowing interval is 2 – 3 months Expected no. of breeding in a lifetime is 10 -15 times so, the no. of litters expected in a lifetime is 10 – 15 X 6 = 60 – 90

f) g) II. h) i) j) k)

Litter size at birth is about 2-3 kg Litter size at weaning is normally between 5 kg & above Fatteners Market age of pig fattened is usually 10 months -1 year Market weight is 70 kg and above Price when sold is Rs. 10,000 and above Approximate growth (kg) at 10 months is 70 kg

III. Weaners l) Age at weaning 2 – 3 months

m) Weight at weaning - 5 kg & above n) Price at weaning – Rs. 1000 (indigenous) Rs. 3,000 – Rs. 3,500 (crossbred) Rs. 3000 & above (exotic)

IV. o) p) q) r) s)

Boar Age at sexual maturity is 8 months & above (crossbred & others) 2- 3 months (indigenous) Total no. of breeding boar available in the villages is 5 crossbred Total no. of good quality breeding boar out of the total is 3 No. of service given by each boar in a month – based on the availability of heat sows Cost of breeding per time – Rs. 1,000/- – Rs. 1,500/-

3. a) b) c) d)

Management Practises System of pig rearing is intensive Type of housing is penning type Type of construction is timber and stem of tree A few of them had experienced in pig breeding and most number of farmers engaged in pig fattening


The rearing objective is 89% Subsistence and 11% market oriented

f) g)

Clean and hygiene in the pig sty, 94 % poor and 6% good Main responsible person for looking after pigs - 72% women, 24% jointly by both men and women; and 4% by men


Total time spent every day on management of the pig herd – 89% of the family spent only half an hour while 11% spent one hour and more.


55% decision made by women when to slaughter or sell, 38% have been jointly decided, 7% decided by men


Regarding money utilization, 45% women decision, 47% decided jointly and 8% by men

4. a)

Breeding Practises The farmers have been mating their sows with locally available boar and artificial insemination


The farmers have no specific criteria for selecting breeding boar. They are fully depended on locally available.


The farmers paid mostly in cash. The mating charge is Rs. 1000- Rs. 1500 and at few times, they give one piglet in return.


The farmers faced problem in getting good quality breeding boar due to very less no. of breeding boar in the local and A.I service is available from Veterinary Hospital, Kolasib with charge of Rs. 350 – Rs. 400 depending on the distance of the villages


The farmers faced no difficulty in repeat breeding. But due to limited knowledge on the management during mating, certain risk especially on sows is much higher.


The farmers were not happy with the quality of piglets obtained from the prevailing breeding system as they are not in a position to select breeding boar as only one or two boars was available in the local.

5. a)

Pig Health The most prevailing diseases were diarrhoea (higher incidents among piglets), warm infestation, skin disease and outbreak of swine fever.


The farmers themselves treat the animals when they are sick, at few times veterinarian and experienced farmers.


The veterinary charge was Rs. 50 for vaccination from government vety. dept. and and also as per the sickness and treatment given to pigs


There is no government running veterinary service at Nisapui and Serkhan, one (1) Rural Animal Health Centre at Thingdawl and Government Veterinary Hospital at Kolasib


No availability of medicines at Nisapui Serkhan and Thingdawl, medicines are available only at Kolasib

f) g)

There is reported of 12 pigs died due to fever in the last year. The farmers reported of spending approximately Rs. 1000 - Rs. 2,000 per year on medicine for animals


A few number of the farmers reported of vaccinating the animals against swine fever while other majority of them had not vaccinated their animals


A good number of the farmers used Deworming drugs on their pigs. But they didn’t know about the particular drugs to be used in various developmental stages of pigs and the frequency. The common drug used for deworming is Minthal.


No reported of iron injection to the piglets

6. a)

Feeding Practices The farmers feed pig with rice, yam, papaya, banana tree, tapioca, chow chow, sweet potato and kitchen waste.

b) c)

The farmers collected forages crops from kitchen garden, cultivated land and forest A good number of the farmers reported of purchasing feed /feed ingredients (wheat bran and Atta) and a few of them purchased concentrated pig feed.


The cost of wheat bran is Rs. 18/- per kg, vary depending on the quality and source of feed they purchased.


The quantity of feed purchased was difficult to estimate as they purchased when they have enough money. Approximately 15 – 20 kgs during one month and sometimes they purchased even 1 bag.


A good number of the farmers were mixing pig ration at home with feed ingredients like wheat bran etc


The farmers cooked feed for pigs. Woods for fuel were collected from forest and did not spent money on it.


The farmers cultivated chow chow, banana etc. in shifting cultivation area and other agricultural lands.

i) j)

No report of preparing any silage or store feed in any form. Problem reported for feeding of pig were- nowadays colleting firewood from forest is becoming a menace to the farmers due to scarcity of firewood and other forest product and cutting of trees leads to deforestation, scarcity of forages crops during dry season and there is not enough forage crops to collect.

7. a) b) c) d) e) f)

Marketing of Pig/ Piglet The farmers sell pigs mostly at the village market and visiting traders from Kolasib No reported of marketing problem The farmers reported of sufficient demand and it is increasing. The primary customers are the local people They are happy enough with the price, no experienced of exploitation by the traders. The farmers charged the amount depending on the size of pigs and the traders purchased it if they agree with the amount charged by the farmers,

g) 8. a) b) c) d) e)

No reported of availing any help from any project/ individual for creating market linkages Backward and Forward Linkages The farmers were not availing any benefits under any project for piggery development 100% of the farmers reported of being a member of SHGs. None of the SHG members are getting benefit from the group through bank loans None of the SHG members availed bank loan for starting the piggery unit No reported of insured their pig under any insurance scheme, No knowledge on the insurance Agency


No reported of link with the input suppliers (feed/ pig/ piglet/ medicine). A very few purchased feed from the local market


No specific linkage with traders


Capacity Building


77% of the farmers had no knowledge on construction of scientific/ improved pig sty while a few 23% had some knowledge on it


86% of farmers had no knowledge on different breeds of pig and their characteristics and a very few 14% had some knowledge on it.


84% farmers had no knowledge on reproductive cycle of sow and breeding management whereas 16% farmers had some knowledge on it.


84% had no knowledge on care and management of breeding boar, sows and piglets whereas 16% farmers had some knowledge on it.


77% of farmers had no knowledge on proper and scientific management of growing/ fattening pig and a very few 23% had some knowledge on it.


77% had no knowledge on prevailing disease of pig and their preventive measures whereas 23% farmers had some knowledge on it.


77% had no knowledge on different feed ingredients required for feeding of pig for better health and productivity


77% had no knowledge on economics of piggery unit and opportunities for future improvement whereas 23% farmers had some knowledge on it.

i) j) k)

77% of the farmers had not availed any training on piggery Current sources of knowledge are neighbours, experienced rearers and Doordarshan Of the various sources of advice/ knowledge, the farmers reported of experienced rearers and Doordarshan were the most important.

10. Livelihood Importance a) b) c) The major source of livelihood of the farmers is agriculture and allied activities The main earner of the family income are the father and mother 27% of the family earned annual income between Rs. 40,000 - Rs. 70,000, 60% of the family earned annual income of Rs. 70,001- Rs. 1,00,000 and the rest 13% of the family earned Rs. 1, 00,000 and above annually. d) e) 68 pigs and 38 piglets were sold in the last year The total income of all the farmers earn in the last year from selling of pig was Rs. 8, 16,000 and Rs. 1,14,000 from selling of piglets. f) The approximate percentage of contribution of pig to the household income was 22%

g) h)

The farmers admitted the income from pig very important for running the family The household assets created by the family from selling of pig till date are television, refrigerator, washing machine, furniture, improved toilet (septic tank) etc


The additional asset/service have acquired in the last year from the income generated through selling pig are children’ education, health care, improved housing etc

j) k)

No reported of particular change that took place in pig production system in last year The farmers expected changes that may take place in pig production system in the next year are improved housing, improved feeding, better quality piglets, improved knowledge on construction of scientific/ improved pig sty, on reproductive cycle of sow and breeding, on care and management of breeding boar, sows and piglets, on disease of pig and their preventive measures, on different feed ingredients required for feeding of pig for better health and productivity and knowledge on economics of piggery unit and opportunities for future improvement, formation and function SHG for helping one another, maintaining proper clean and hygiene, better access to veterinary care etc.


Report showed that more commitment, higher level of personal interest, positive attitude, attending more number of training, by availing govt and non govt support for piggery are important to achieve future improvement.

(LALROKIMI PAUTU) Project Coordinator Open Doors

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