The Industrial Revolution First of all, the Industrial revolution started in Britain around 1780s and was not

fully noticed until 1830s. It was about going from hand production methods to machines, improved efficiency of water power, the use of steam power, development of machine tools and the change from wood to coal because coal require much less labor to mine than cutting wood.

The Industrial Revolution has led to a number of important innovations and Design has played a remarkable role in making these technologies happen:
Textile: Steam and water were used to power the mechanized cotton spinning and this increased the output of a worker by a factor of about 1000. The cotton gin showed an increase of productivity of removing seed from cotton by a factor of 50. One of the main inventions which have started the industrialisation and revolutionized the industry worldwide was the Spinning mule by Samuel Crompton.

The spinning mule has a fixed frame with a creel of bobbins to hold the roving, connected through the headstock to a parallel carriage with the spindles. On the outward motion, the rovings are paid out through attenuating rollers and twisted. On the return, the roving is clamped and the spindles reversed to take up the newly spun thread.
Crompton built his mule from wood. Although he used Hargreaves' ideas of spinning multiple threads and of attenuating the roving with rollers, it was he who put the spindles on the carriage and fixed a creel of roving bobbins on the frame. Both the rollers and the outward motion of the carriage remove irregularities from the rove before it is wound on the spindle

The spinning mule by Samuel Crompton

Steam Power: A remarkable increase of the efficiency which led to the use of between 1/5 and 1/10 as much fuel. The adaptation of stationary engines to rotary motion in order to make the machine more suitable for industrial use.

Machine tools: During the Industrial Revolution there was a high demand for metal parts to be used in the machines. This led to creating many machine tools for cutting metal knowing that wood has the disadvantage of changing dimension with temperature and humidity and that hand methods were very costly and precision was hard to achieve.

A machine tool to shape metal parts was invented in late 1800s

Machine tool

Transportation: The Revolution has also helped Britain’s infrastructures for better transport connection. Road networks, canals, waterway network and railway network were built and improved which later on helped transport Raw materials quickly and cheaper than before and allowed ideas spread. The Iron Bridge was a very important construction which helped industries in the area of Broseley to cross the River Severne. The bridge was designed by Thomas Pritchard

Design: Design was a very important aspect of the Industrialization which has helped many domains make great progress by creating effective machines, tools... Some art movements have influenced the Industrial Design in many ways. The Design during the Industrial Revolution was very low standard due to the high competition in producing high quantity in order to make greater profit, so they focused less on its artistic aspect because it was costly. There was a reaction about the poorly designed machines and products which led to the Arts and Crafts movement in order to use shape, form and colour in the design process. The movement failed later because its production was only available to the wealthy. Rococo which influenced painting, architecture and design and was characterized by its decorative and elegant touch to which middle class buyers were attracted, wanting the prestige associated with aristocracy. Some art movements have influenced the Industrial Design such as NeoClassicism which is a reaction against the Rococo style and focuses on the order, symmetry and simplicity of style. Romanticism happened as a response to the monstrous machinery and to support nature in art.

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