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# Code No: RR220103 Set No.

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II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Civil Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
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1. (a) Explain the terms section factor, hydraulic mean depth, wetted perimeter and
conveyance.
(b) A hydraulically efficient trapezoidal channel has side slopes of 1:1. It is re-
quired to discharge 14 m3 /s with a gradient (channel slope) of 1 in 1000. If
unlined, the value of Chezy’s C is 45. If lined with concrete, the value is 70.
If the cost per m3 of excavation is three times, the cost per m2 of lining, will
the lined or the unlined channel be cheaper . [8+8]

2. (a) Derive expressions for critical depth, critical velocity. Also derive condition
for minimum specific energy in terms of critical depth. [8+8]
(b) The discharge of water through a rectangular channel of width 6 m is 18 m3 /S
when depth of flow of water is 2 m.
Calculate:
i. specific energy of the flowing water.
ii. critical depth and critical velocity and
iii. value of minimum specific energy.

## 3. Water flows at a steady and uniform depth of 2 m in an open channel of rectangular

cross - section having base width equal to 5 m and laid at a slope of 1 in 100. It
is desired to obtain critical flow in the channel by providing a hump in the bed.
Calculate hump height and sketch the flow profile. Consider the value of Mannings
rugosity coefficient n = 0.02 for the channel surface. [16]

## 4. Using Buckingham‘s Pi theorem

h show
i that velocity through a circular orifice is
√ D µ
given by: V = 2gH φ H , ρV H [16]

## 5. A jet of water having a velocity of 60m/sec is deflected by a vane moving at 25m/sec

in a direction at 300 to the direction of jet. The water leaves the vane normally to
the motion of the vane. Draw the inlet and outlet velocity triangles and find out
the vane angles for no shock at entry and exit. Take the relative velocity at the
exit as 0.8 times the relative velocity at the entrance. [16]

## 6. (a) Differentiate between Reaction turbines and hydraulic turbines.

(b) Draw a neat diagram of pelton turbine and explain its working. [8+8]

## 7. (a) A hydraulic turbine develops 120 KW under a head of 10 m at a speed of

90 rpm and gives an efficiency of 92%. Find the water consumption and the

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Code No: RR220103 Set No. 1
specific speed. If a model of scale 1: 30 is constructed to operate under a head
of 8m what must be its speed, power and water consumption to run under the
conditions similar to prototype. [10]
(b) What are the constant head characteristic curves of a turbine? What is the
use to develop them? [6]

8. (a) Draw a typical layout and explain the working of centrifugal pump. Also
indicate various components.
(b) Explain the method of selection of centrifugal pumps through the character-
istic curves. [8+8]

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Code No: RR220103 Set No. 2
II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Civil Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Show that the discharge in a hydraulically most efficient trapezoidal channel
is given by: √
Q = 0.56 C b5/2 S
Where c is the Chezy‘s constant, b is bottom width and s is the channel slope.
(b) A rectangular channel 4 m wide has depth of water 1.5 m. The slope of the bed
of the channel is 1 in 1000 and value of Chezy‘s constant C = 55. It is desired
to increase the discharge to a maximum by changing the dimensions of the
section for constant area of cross-section, slope of the bed and roughness of the
channel. Find the new dimensions of the channel and increase in discharge.
[8+8]

2. (a) Show that the discharge formula for a trapezoidal channel having Manning?s
coefficient n = 0.0126 and carrying maximum flow is given by :
√ z  1/2
Q = 100y8/3 1 + z 2 − S0
2
Where Q is discharge in cubic meters per second, y is depth of flow in the
channel of side slope 1 vertical to Z horizontal and S0 is the bed slope of the
channel.
(b) A field drain of triangular section has side slopes of 1 upon 2 and carries water
at a normal depth of 0.75m. Chezy’s C for the channel is 45. Determine the
longitudinal slope of the drain for a discharge of 1.2 cumecs. Determine the
Froude number and identify the state of flow. Assume α= 1.16. [8+8]

## 3. Water flows at a steady and uniform depth of 2 m in an open channel of rectangular

cross - section having base width equal to 5 m and laid at a slope of 1 in 100. It
is desired to obtain critical flow in the channel by providing a hump in the bed.
Calculate hump height and sketch the flow profile. Consider the value of Mannings
rugosity coefficient n = 0.02 for the channel surface. [16]

## 4. Prove that the resistance F of a sphere of diameter d moving at a constant speed

ν through
h ia fluid of density ρ and dynamic viscosity µ may be expressed as F =
µ2
ρ
φ vdρ
µ
[16]

5. (a) State and explain momentum equation. what are the prarctical applications
of it. [8+8]

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Code No: RR220103 Set No. 2
(b) A jet of water 75mm diameter strikes a curved plate at its center with a
velocity of 20m/sec. The curved plate is moving with a velocity of 8m/sec
in the direction of the jet. The jet is deflected through an angle of 1650 .
Assuming the plate to be smooth. Find
i. Force exerted on the plate in the direction of jet
ii. Power of the jet and
iii. Efficiency of the jet.

6. A Pelton wheel working under a head of 500m has an overall efficiency of 85% and
runs at 400 rpm, and developes 7000 kw of power. Taking the bucket speed as 0.47
times the jet speed and assuming Cv = 0.97, find [16]

## (a) The wheel diameter and

(b) The jet diameter

7. (a) What are the conditions for the kinematic similarity to exist between model
and prototype?
(b) How do you compare the performance of a turbine under different working
conditions? [8+8]

8. (a) Draw a typical layout and explain the working of centrifugal pump. Also
indicate various components.
(b) Explain the method of selection of centrifugal pumps through the character-
istic curves. [8+8]

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Code No: RR220103 Set No. 3
II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Civil Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Discuss the factors affecting Chezy‘s c and Manning‘s n. What are the different
values of ‘n’ for different surfaces?
(b) Determine the dimensions of an economical Trapezoidal section of an open
channel with sides slope 2H:1V laid at a slope of 1 in 1600 to carry a discharge
of 36 cumecs assuming chezy‘s coefficient C = 50. [8+8]

2. (a) Discuss the significance and utility of the concept of the specific energy in the
study of open channel problems.
(b) In a rectangular channel 3.5 m wide laid at a slope of 0.0036, uniform flow
occurs at a depth of 2 m. Find how high can the jump be raised without
causing afflux? If the upstream depth of flow is to be raised to 2.5 m, what
should be the height of the jump? Take Manning?s n equal to 0.015. [8+8]

3. How are various surface profiles in gradually varied flow classified depending on the
relative magnitude of actual depth (d), normal depth (do ) and critical depth (dc ).
[16]

4. Explain in detail about Rayleigh‘s method of dimensional analysis. What are the
practical uses. [16]

## 5. A jet of water having a velocity of 60m/sec is deflected by a vane moving at 25m/sec

in a direction at 300 to the direction of jet. The water leaves the vane normally to
the motion of the vane. Draw the inlet and outlet velocity triangles and find out
the vane angles for no shock at entry and exit. Take the relative velocity at the
exit as 0.8 times the relative velocity at the entrance. [16]

6. A Pelton wheel has a tangential velocity of buckets of 15 m/sec. The water is being
supplied under a head of 36m at the rate of 20 Lps. The bucket deflects the jet
through an angle of 1600 . If the coefficient of velocity of the nozzle is 0.98, find the
power product by the turbine. [16]

7. (a) Where is servo meter used in governing mechanism of turbines? Explain its
use?
(b) A Kaplan turbine is to develop 2400 KW when running at 240 rpm under a
net head of 49m. In order to predict its performance a model of scale 1:5 is
tested under a net head of 25m. At what speed should the model run and
what power would it develop. Determine the discharge in the model and in
full scale turbine if the overall efficiency of the model is 85%. [8+8]

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Code No: RR220103 Set No. 3
8. (a) What is meant by priming of a pump. Explain.
(b) A 3-stage centrifugal pump has impellers 37.5 cm dia and 1.8 cm wide at
outlet. The outlet vane angle is 450 and the vanes occupy 8% of the outlet
area. The manometric efficiency is 84% and the overall efficiency is 75%.
What head the pump will generate when running at 900 rpm discharging 60
lps ? What is the input h.p ? [8+8]

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Code No: RR220103 Set No. 4
II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2007
HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
(Civil Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) What do you mean by most economical section of a channel. What are the
conditions for the rectangular channel of the best section?
(b) Determine the dimensions of the most economical trapezoidal earth-lined chan-
nel (Manning-s n = 0.02) to carry 14 m3 /s at a slope of 4 in 10,000. [8+8]

2. (a) What is Froude number? Show that in an open channel flow minimum specific
energy at a given flow and maximum flow at a given specific energy occurs
when Froude number is unity.
(b) For purpose of discharge measurement, the width of a rectangular channel
is reduced gradually from 3m to 2m and floor is raised by 30cm at a given
section. When approaching depth of flow is 2m, what rate of flow will be
indicated by a drop of 15cm in the water surface elevation at the contracted
section? [8+8]

## 3. Water flows at a steady and uniform depth of 2 m in an open channel of rectangular

cross - section having base width equal to 5 m and laid at a slope of 1 in 100. It
is desired to obtain critical flow in the channel by providing a hump in the bed.
Calculate hump height and sketch the flow profile. Consider the value of Mannings
rugosity coefficient n = 0.02 for the channel surface. [16]

## 4. In a 1 in 20 model of a stilling basin, the height of the hydraulic jump in the

model is observed to be 0.20 metre. What is the height of the hydraulic jump
1
in the prototype? If the energy dissipated in the model is 10 h.p., what is the
corresponding value in prototype? [16]

5. A jet of water of diameter 50mm having a velocity of 20m/sec strikes a curved vane
which is moving with a velocity of 10m/sec in the direction of the jet. The jet
leaves the vane at an angle of 600 to the direction of motion of the vane at outlet.
Determine [16]

(a) The force exerted by the jet on the vane in the direction of motion and
(b) Work done per second by the jet.

6. An inward flow reaction turbine has inner and outer diameter of the wheel as 350mm
and 750mm respectively. The vanes radial at inlet and the discharge is radial of
outlet. The water enters the vane at an angle of 120 . Assuming the velocity of flow
to be constant and equal to 3.5m/sec, find [16]

## (a) The speed of the wheel and

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Code No: RR220103 Set No. 4
(b) The vane angle at outlet.

7. (a) What are the requirements of a good surge tank so that the efficiency of
hydropower installation is maximum?
(b) How is the Kaplan turbine governed? Explain with a neat diagram. [8+8]

## 8. (a) What are the different types of pumps ? [4]

(b) State the difference between a turbine and a pump. [4]
(c) Derive the Euler head equation for a centrifugal pump. [8]

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