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By R.C.Dohare B.E. (mech), PGDCSc, M.E. (Env.Sc. &Eng.) Sr. Manager SAIL Introduction: - I strongly believe that terrorism can not be defeated until unless
we change our attitude & approach towards the critical situation as it is shown by the Israel government in 1976.operation Entebbe. What we have done 1999december its after effect was visible in 2001 Parliament attack, Mumbai attack 2008november. If we had taken lesson from operation Entebbe than picture could be different.
List of hijacking of Indian aeroplanes
1971 January 30 : An Indian Airlines plane on its way from Srinagar to Jammu was hijacked by Hashim Quereshi and Ashraf Quereshi of the JKLF, who took it to Lahore. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, then Foreign Minister of Pakistan rushed to Lahore and met the hijackers and helped them get maximum international publicity. On February 1, he persuaded them to release the crew and passengers who were then sent by road to Amritsar. The Government of India sought permission of Pakistan to send a replacement crew to fly the aircraft back to India. Pakistan authorities denied the permission. Instead it is alleged they supplied petrol to the hijackers with which they burnt the aircraft on February 2. From Lahore Airport the hijackers were taken into a procession as heroes. 1981 September 29 : An Indian airlines plane on flight from Srinagar to Delhi is hijacked and taken to Lahore. Pakistan took commando action and got all passengers released. 1982 August 22: A lone militant, armed with a pistol and a hand grenade, hijacked a Boeing 737 on a scheduled flight from Bombay to New Delhi carrying 69 persons. Indian security forces killed the hijacker and rescued all passengers. 1982 August: An Indian Airlines flight from Jodhpur to Delhi was hijacked. The hijacked plane landed at Amritsar. 1984 July 6 : An Indian Airlines jet carrying 255 passengers and a crew of nine on flight from Srinagar to New Delhi was hijacked and forced to land in Lahore Pakistan.The hijackers were reported to be armed with pistols, daggers and explosives. The hijackers' surrender to Pakistan authorities ended a 17- hour ordeal for the plane's passengers and crew, who remained aboard the A-300 Airbus in suffocating heat, with little food and water. 1984 August 24: Seven young hijackers demanded an Indian Airlines jetliner, on a domestic flight from Chandigarh to Srinagar with 100 passengers on board ,be flown to the United States. The plane was taken to Lahore and then to Karachi and finally to Dubai where the defense minister of UAE negotiated the release of the passengers. It was related to the secessionist struggle in the Indian state of Punjab.The hijacker was subsequently repatriated by UAE authorities to India, who handed over the pistol
recovered from the hijacker. Investigations revealed that the pistol was manufactured in Germany and was part of 75 pistols consigned from Germany to CAO, PO Box 1040, Islamabad. The Pakistani Foreign Ministry denied the accusation. 1993 April 24: Indian Airlines aircraft bound for Srinagar via Jammu from Delhi is hijacked. The hijacker wanted to take the plane to Lahore but Pakistan authorities refused permission. The plane landed at Amritsar where the hijacker was killed and passengers freed.
1999-2000: Indian Airlines Flight 814 flying from Kathmandu is hijacked and diverted it to Kandahar. After a week-long stand-off India agrees to release three jailed Kashmiri militants in exchange for the hostages. 1 hostage was stabbed to death and his body thrown on the tarmac as a "warning attack" List of notable aircraft hijackings
1960s 1961: aircraft forced to circle Lisbon to drop leaflets. 6 hijackers were involved. 23 July 1968: To date, the only successful El Al hijacking attempt, as three members of Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) hijack El Al Flight 426 from Rome to Tel Aviv. Diverting to Algiers the negotiations extend over forty days. Both the hijackers and the hostages go free. 1970s 1970, March 17: Eastern Air Lines Shuttle Flight 1320, carrying passengers from Newark to Boston was hijacked around 7:30 P.M. by John J. Divivo who was armed with a .38 caliber revolver. Captain Robert Wilbur Jr., 35, a former Air Force pilot who had only been promoted to captain six months prior, was shot in his arm by the suicidal hijacker. And yet with a .38 slug in his arm and bleeding profusely, he flew his aircraft safely to a landing while talking to the tower, telling them his copilot was shot (but not himself) and needed an ambulance. His copilot, First Officer James Hartley, 31, was mortally shot without warning by John J. Divivo and he collapsed. Divivo then turned the gun on the captain, wounding him when suddenly Hartley arose, ripped the gun from Divivo's hand, and shot him three times before relapsing into unconsciousness. Although wounded and slumped between the seats, Divivo arose and began clawing at Captain Wilbur, attempting to force a crash. That's why Wilbur hit him over the head with the gun he had retrieved from where it had fallen on the center console. The pilot was able to land the plane safely at Logan International Airport, and the hijacker was arrested immediately. 1970, March 31: Japan Airlines Flight 351, carrying 131 passengers and 7 crew from Tokyo to Fukuoka, is hijacked by nine members of the Japanese Red Army group. 23 passengers were freed at Fukuoka Airport, mainly children or old aged. 108 passengers and all crew members with Red Army group left Fukuoka, bound for Gimpo Airport, near Seoul. Three days after, Red Army group ask to be flown to North Korean capital Pyongyang, before leaving from Seoul, 103 passenger and crew
hostages are freed, and nine Red Army group members surrendered to North Korean authorities. September 1970: As part of the Dawson's Field hijackings, PFLP members attempted to hijack four aircraft simultaneously. They succeeded on three and forced the planes to fly to the Jordanian desert, where the hijackers blew up the aircraft after releasing most of the hostages. The final hostages were freed in exchange for seven Palestinian prisoners. The fourth attack on an El Al plane by two people including Leila Khalid was foiled by armed guards aboard. October 15 1970, Aeroflot Flight 244 was hijacked from Batumi, Adjar ASSR, Georgian SSR, to Trabzon, Turkey by a Lithuanian national and his son. An air hostess was killed and some other crew were injured in a shootout. The hijackers later received American citizenship. 1971, January 30: Indian Airlines Fokker F27 on scheduled Srinagar-Jammu flight is hijacked to Lahore by two self-proclaimed Kashmir Separatists. All passengers were released by February 2 and repatriated to India, but the aircraft was blown-up--leading to an India-Pakistan air-travel ban, and suspension of over flight rights until 1976. 1971, March: Philippine Airlines flight was hijacked in March 1971 by six students from the Mindanao State University, opposed to the Marcos government. The plane landed in Guangzhou (Canton) in southern China, and the Chinese authorities let the students stay in the country. The plane was then allowed to fly back to the Philippines. No one was hurt. One of the students, Jaime FlorCruz, later became a journalist in Beijing, working for TIME magazine, and CNN. 1972, January 12: Braniff Flight 38, a Boeing 727 airliner, was hijacked as it departed Houston, Texas bound for Dallas, Texas. The lone armed hijacker, Billy Gene Hurst, Jr., allowed all 94 passengers to deplane after landing at Dallas Love Field but continued to hold the 7 crewmembers hostage, demanding to fly to South America and asking for US $2 million, parachutes, and jungle survival gear, amongst other items. After a 6-hour standoff, the entire crew secretly fled while Hurst was distracted examining the contents of a package delivered by Dallas police. Police officers stormed the craft shortly afterwards and arrested Hurst without serious incident. 1972, January 28: TWA Flight #2, Los Angeles to New York, was hijacked by con man and bank robber Garrett Trapnell while over Chicago. Trapnell demanded $306,800 in cash (to recoup the loss of a recent court case), the release of Angela Davis (as well as that of a friend of his who was also imprisoned), and clemency from President Richard Nixon. The FBI was able to retake the aircraft during a crew switch at Kennedy Airport; Trapnell was shot and wounded, no one else was hurt. Trapnell's hijacking came after a string of domestic incidents and resulted in an overhaul of flight procedures by the Nixon Administration, procedures that remained in place until the September 11, 2001 hijackings.
1976: The Palestinian hijack of Air France Flight 139 is brought to an end at Entebbe Airport, Uganda by Operation Entebbe: Israeli commandos assault the building holding the hijackers and hostages killing all Palestinian hijackers and rescuing 105 persons, almost all Israeli hostages; three passengers and one commando are killed.
1976: TWA Flight 355 was hijacked by Croatian separatists. Some passengers were allowed to deplane in Canada before the hijackers continued on to Iceland, then France, where they released the remaining passengers and surrendered to authorities. One New York police officer was killed while working on a bomb which the hijackers had planted at Grand Central Station. 1977: Lufthansa Flight 181 (also known as the Land shut) was hijacked by Palestinian highjackers on a flight from Palma de Mallorca to Frankfurt. The ordeal ended in Mogadishu, Somalia when GSG 9 commandos stormed the plane. Three hijackers were killed and 86 hostages were freed. The pilot was killed. The hand of West Germany's Red Army Faction was suspected. 1978, September 30: Finnair Flight 405 was hijacked by Aarno Lamminparras; the flight was en route from Oulu to Helsinki. He requested a ransom of 675,000 markka, which he received, and as a result he released all 44 passengers on board. Then he ordered the plane to fly him to Amsterdam in the Netherlands and then back to Oulu. He returned home and was arrested there the next day. He served seven years and one month in prison and now lives in Sweden. One of the passengers on board the hijacked plane was singer Monica Aspelund. 1980s 1981: A Pakistan International Airlines jet is hijacked and taken to Kabul, where one passenger is killed before the plane flies on to Damascus; the hostages are finally released after 13 days when the Pakistani Government agrees to free fifty political prisoners. 1981: The Hijacking of Flight Garuda Indonesia GA 206 on 28 March 1981. This was the first serious Indonesian airline hijacking, since the first case was a desperate Marine hijacker who was killed by the pilot himself. The hijackers, a group called Commando Jihad, hijacked the DC 9 "Woyla", onroute from Palembang to Medan, and ordered the pilot to fly the plane to Colombo, Sri Lanka. But since the plane didn't have enough fuel, it refueled in Penang, Malaysia and then to Don Muang, Thailand. The hijackers demanded the release of Commando Jihad members imprisoned in Indonesia, and US $ 1.5 million, as well as a plane to take those prisoners to an unspecified destination. The Kopassus commandos who took part in this mission trained for only three days with totally unfamiliar weapons, brilliantly executed this fast-paced operation. One of the Kopassus commandos was shot by the hijacker leader, who then shot himself. All the other hijackers were killed. All the hostages were saved. 1981: An Aer Lingus flight from Dublin to London was hijacked and diverted to Le Touquet in France by a man demanding that the Pope release the third secret of Fatima. While authorities negotiated with the hijacker by radio in the cockpit, French special forces entered the rear of the aircraft and overpowered him.
February 1982: An Kuwait Airways flight, KU561 from Kuwait to Libya via Beirut on the return was hijacked on the ground at Beirut airport in Beirut in Lebanon by Hamza akl Hamieh demanding news and release of Imam Musa al Sadr, who had disappeared in Libya in 1978. The Captain Les Bradley flew the damaged plane back to Kuwait after Hamza and his collegues left the plane, disappearing into the night, leaving a warning for Kuwait Airways to drop the Kuwait Libya Beirut Kuwait route. There were no casualties. 1982 (July 1): A Sri Lankan, identified as Sepala Ekanayake, who was 33 years old, hijacked an Alitalia jumbo jet from Bangkok, Thailand, in order to be united with his wife and child and to return to Sri Lanka. 1982 (August 22): A lone Sikh militant, armed with a pistol and a hand grenade, hijacked a Indian Airlines on a scheduled flight from Mumbai to New Delhi carrying 69 persons. Indian security forces killed the hijacker and rescued all passengers. Peter Lamont, production designer working on the James Bond film Octopussy, was a passenger. 1983: Tbilisi hijacking incident. 1984 August 24: Seven young Sikh hijackers demanded an Indian Airlines jetliner flying from Delhi to Srinagar be flown to the United Arab Emirates. The plane was taken to UAE where the defense minister of UAE negotiated the release of the passengers. It was related to the Sikh secessionist struggle in the Indian state of Punjab. 1984: December 3: Kuwait Airways Flight 221 Lebanese Shi'a hijackers divert a Kuwait Airways flight to Tehran. Two American USAID officials are shot dead and dumped on the tarmac. The plane is taken by Iranian security forces who were dressed as custodial staff. 1985: Lebanese Shi'a Amal hijackers divert TWA Flight 847 from Athens to Beirut with 153 people on board. The stand-off ends after Israel frees 31 Lebanese prisoners. Among the passengers was famous Greek singer Demis Rossos 1985: Three Palestinian members of the Abu Nidal Organization hijacked on November 23, its Athens to Cairo route, Egypt Air Flight 648 and fly it to Malta. All together, 60 people died, most of them when Egyptian commandos stormed the aircraft. 1986: 22 people are killed when Pakistani security forces storm Pan Am Flight 73 at Karachi, carrying 400 passengers and crew after a 16-hour siege. 1986: December 25: 63 people are killed when Iraqi Airways Flight 163 crashes near Arar, Saudi Arabia due to an explosion in the cockpit. The plane was hijacked by 3 hijackers. 1988: March 8: Ovechkin family (a mother and her 10 children) attempted to hijack a Tu 154 flight from Irkutsk to Leningrad while trying to escape from the USSR. The plane landed on a military airfield near Vyborg and was then stormed. A stewardess and three passengers were killed. The mother was killed by one of her sons by her own request, and then four of them committed suicide.
1988: Two Kuwaitis are killed in 1988 when Lebanese gunmen hijack a Kuwait Airways Flight 422 (aljabriya) from Bangkok, Thailand and force it to fly to Algiers with more than 110 people on board; the hijack ends after 16 days when the hijackers free the remaining hostages and are allowed to leave Algiers. 1990s 1990: Hijackers seized a plane from the People's Republic of China which later crashed as it tried to land in Guangzhou (aka Canton), killing 128 people. 1991: 26 March , Singapore Airlines Flight 117 hijacked by 4 individuals claiming to be members of the Pakistan Peoples Party. Elite Singapore Special Operations Force members stormed the plane on 27 March, killing all four hijackers and freeing all 118 passengers and 9 crew in an operation lasting just 30 seconds. None of the passengers and crew were hurt. 1993: 11 February, Lufthansa Flight 592 scheduled service from Frankfurt to Cairo and Addis Ababa, was hijacked at gunpoint by a lone Ethiopian man. The A310 initially flew to Hannover for fuel before flying to New York's JFK where the hijacker surrendered after brief negotiations. No passengers or crew were injured or killed. 1993:Two separate hijackings of Indian Airlines aircraft to Amritsar, Punjab, India in the month of April. In the first case the hijacker was talked into surrendering; in the second, the Commandos stormed in and killed the sole hijacker. The Amritsar Deputy Commissioner Karan Bir Singh Sidhu was conferred the Convoy Safe Skies Award. 1993: Russian Aeroflot passenger jet flying from Perm to Moscow diverted to Gardermoen airport by two Iranian brothers. Hijackers surrendered and hostages went free. The hijackers were later given asylum in Norway for humanitarian reasons. 1994: FedEx Flight 705 hijacked by disgruntled employee Auburn Calloway as it left Memphis, Tennessee, with the intention of using it as a cruise missile against FedEx HQ. He was subdued by the flight crew before an emergency landing back at Memphis. 1994: Air France Flight 8969 was hijacked from Algiers by four GIA terrorists planning to crash into the Eiffel Tower in central Paris. After the murder of 3 passengers, GIGN commandos stormed the plane in Marseilles, killing all hijackers and freeing all passengers. This hijacking marked a landmark: the first known hijacking where the intention was to destroy the aircraft and passengers, and use the fuelled aircraft as a missile to destroy ground targets, rather than to achieve political and publicity goals. 1995: Iranian defector and flight attendant Rida Garari hijacked Kish Air flight 707, which landed in Israel. No casualties. 1996: Hemus Air Tu-154 aircraft was hijacked by the Palestinian Nadir Abdallah, flying from Beirut to Varna. The hijacker demamded that the aircraft be refuelled and given passage to Oslo, Norway after landing at Varna Airport. All of the 150 passengers were freed at Varna, afterwards the crew continued the flight to Oslo.
1996: Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 crashed into the Indian Ocean near a beach in the Comoros Islands after hijackers refused to allow the pilot to land and refuel the plane. 125 passengers died and the remaining 50 passengers survived with minor injuries. This is only the third incident in which there were survivors of a passenger jet that had been intentionally ditched into a body of water. 1997: Two men who hijacked an Air Malta aircraft en route from Malta to Turkey on June 9, 1997 surrendered to police at Cologne airport early on the same day and freed without incident about 80 crew members and passengers on board. 1999: All Nippon Airways Flight 61 is hijacked by a lone man. He kills the pilot before he is subdued. 1999-2000: Pakistan-based terrorists hijack Indian Airlines Flight 814 and divert it to Kandahar. After a week-long stand-off India agrees to release three jailed Pakistani terrorists in exchange for the hostages. 1 hostage was stabbed to death and his body thrown on the tarmac as a "warning attack". 2000s 2000: Ariana Afghan Airlines Boeing 727 is hijacked on an internal flight within Taliban-controlled Afghanistan, and ended up at London Stansted Airport, where most of the passengers claimed political asylum. 2000: Philippine Airlines Flight 812 was hijacked en route from Davao City, Philippines to Manila. The hijacker parachuted from the aircraft while still airborne; his body was later found. 2001: September 11 attacks, eastern USA: 19 terrorists hijacked American Airlines flights 11 and 77, and United Airlines flights 93 and 175. The four heavilyfuelled aircrafts were used as missiles to attack targets of economic, military, and political significance in the worst terrorist attack in U.S. history. Two of the planes, UA175 and AA11 were crashed into New York City's twin towers of the World Trade Center, destroying the entire complex and killing 2,998 people. In Washington, D.C. AA77 was crashed into the Pentagon, causing massive destruction to the side of the building facing Arlington Cemetary. Over 100 deaths took place their; an one more attack on the US Capitol Building in Washington, D.C., which was averted when passengers intervened and UA93 crashed into a field, although all those on the aircraft perished. This marked a landmark in hijacking: the first successful hijacking where the intention was to destroy the aircraft and passengers, and use the fuelled aircraft as a missile to destroy ground targets, rather than to achieve political and publicity goals. It also marked a landmark in responses to the threat of hijacking: until then the recommended response was for the crew to obey the hijackers' demands so as to safeguard the passengers and buy time; after this the policy was more about preventing access to the cockpit and pilots, and aggressive responses. From this time air passengers worldwide were prohibited from having anything remotely like a bladed weapon in the passenger cabin: scissors, tweezers, nailfiles, etc. 2006: Turkish Airlines Flight 1476, flying from Tirana to Istanbul, was hijacked in Greek airspace. The aircraft, with 107 passengers and six crew on board,
transmitted two coded hijack signals which were picked up by the Greek air force; the flight was intercepted by military aircraft and landed safely at Brindisi, Italy. 2007: an Aeroflot Airbus A320 flying from Moscow to Geneva was hijacked by a drunk man in Prague and there released crew and passengers after he was arrested by the Czech Republic. 2007: an Air West Boeing 737 was hijacked over Sudan, but landed safely at N'Djamena, Chad. 2007: an Air Mauritanie Boeing 737 flying from Nouakchott to Las Palmas with 87 passengers on board was hijacked by a man who wanted to fly to Paris, but the plane landed in an air base near Las Palmas and the hijacker, a Moroccan, was arrested.  2007: an Atlasjet MD-80 en route from Nicosia to Istanbul was hijacked by two Arab students, who said they were Al Qaeda operatives, one trained in Afghanistan, and wanted to go to Tehran, Iran. The plane landed in Antalya, the passengers escaped and the hijackers were arrested. 2008: a Sun Air Boeing 737 flying from Nyala, Darfur, in Western Sudan to the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, was hijacked shortly after takeoff. The hijackers demanded to be taken to France where they reputedly wanted to gain asylum. The plane initially tried to land at Cairo but was refused permission. It subsequently touched down at Kufra, Libya. The hijackers gave themselves up almost 24 hours after taking the plane. There were no reported casualties. 2009: a CanJet Boeing 757 preparing to depart from the Sangster International Airport in Montego Bay, Jamaica to Cuba was hijacked by a gunman who forced his way through airport security onto the plane. Speculations arose to his motives, including a possible demand to the crew to fly him to the United States. Most of the passengers on the plane gave him money to buy their freedom. For the rest of the night, negotiations took place as 6 crew members were held hostage in the flight. Quick responses from the police force allowed them to disarm the hijacker and arrest him. There were no casualties
Operation Entebbe Strength:
Approximately 100 Commandos, plus air crew and support personnel 7hijackers Unknown number of Ugandan soldiersOriginally codenamed Operation Thunderball by the IDF (or Operation Thunderbolt in some sources), the operation was retroactively renamed Operation Yonatan in memory of the Sayeret Matkal commander Lieutenant Colonel Yonatan "Yoni" Netanyahu, who was killed in action. Three hostages and 45 Ugandan soldiers were killed and five Israeli commandos were wounded. A fourth hostage was killed by Ugandan army officers at a nearby hospital
Date Type Site Passengers Crew Injuries Fatalities Survivors Aircraft type Operator Tail number Flight origin Stopover Destination
27 June 1976 Hijacking Greek Airspace 248 12 10 4 256 Airbus A300 Air France F-BVGG Ben Gurion International Airport Athens (Ellinikon) International Airport Charles De Gaulle International Airport
On 27 June 1976, Air France Flight 139, an Airbus A300 (Airbus A300B4-203), registration F-BVGG (cn 019), originating from Tel Aviv, Israel, carrying 238 passengers and a crew of 12, took off from Athens, heading for Paris. Soon after the 12:30 p.m. takeoff, the flight was hijacked by two Palestinians from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - External Operations (PFLP-EO) and two Germans from the German "Revolutionary Cells (RZ)" (Wilfried Böse and Brigitte Kuhlmann), who commandeered the flight, diverting it to Benghazi, Libya. There it was held on the ground for seven hours for refuelling, during which time a female hostage who pretended she was pregnant and having a miscarriage was released. The plane left Benghazi, and at 3:15 it arrived at Entebbe Airport in Uganda. At Entebbe, the four hijackers were joined by four others, supported by the proPalestinian forces of Uganda's President, Idi Amin. The hijackers were led by Böse (and not, as occasionally reported, by Carlos the Jackal). They demanded the release of 40 Palestinians held in Israel. and 13 other detainees imprisoned in Kenya, France, Switzerland, and West Germany; if these demands were not met, they threatened to begin killing hostages on 1 July 1976. The hijackers deliberately sorted the hostages into Jew and Gentiles. As they did so a Holocaust survivor showed Böse a camp registration number tattooed on his arm, Böse protested "I'm no Nazi! ... I am an idealist." The hijackers held the passengers hostage for a week in the transit hall of Entebbe Airport (now the old terminal). Some hostages were released, but 105 Israelis and French Jews remained captive. The hijackers threatened to kill them if Israel did not comply with their demands. Upon the announcement by the hijackers that the airline crew and non-Jewish passengers would be released and put on another Air France plane that had been brought to Entebbe for that purpose, the flight captain (Michel Bacos) told the hijackers that all passengers, including the remaining ones, were his responsibility, and that he would not leave them behind. Bacos' entire crew followed suit. A French nun also refused to leave, insisting that one of the remaining hostages take her place, but she was forced into the awaiting Air France plane by Ugandan soldiers. A total of 83 Israeli and/or Jewish hostages remained, as well as 20 others, most of whom included the crew of the Air France plane.
Nationality Belgium Brazil Denmark France Greece Germany Israel Italy Japan South Korea Spain United Kingdom United States Total Raid On the 1 July deadline, the Israeli government offered to negotiate with the hijackers in order to extend the deadline to 4 July. Idi Amin asked the hijackers to extend the deadline until 4 July, so he could take a diplomatic trip to Port Louis, Mauritius, in order to officially hand over the chairmanship of the Organisation of African Unity to Seewoosagur Ramgoolam. This extension of the hostage deadline would prove crucial in allowing Israeli forces enough time to get to Entebbe. On 3 July, the Israeli cabinet approved a rescue mission, Operation Entebbe, under the command of Major General Yekutiel "Kuti" Adam; the Deputy Commander was Matan Vilnai. Brigadier General Dan Shomron was appointed to command the operation on the ground. After days of collecting intelligence and planning by Netanyahu's deputy Moshe "Muki" Betser, four Israeli Air Force C-130 Hercules transport aircraft flew secretly to Entebbe Airport, by cover of night, without aid of Entebbe ground control. Their route was over Sharm al-Sheikh, and down the international flight path over the Red Sea, flying at a height of no more than 100 feet to avoid radar detection by Egyptian, Sudanese, and Saudi Arabian forces. Near the south outlet of the Red Sea the C-130s turned right and passed south of Djibouti. From there they went to a point northeast of Nairobi, Kenya (likely across Somalia and the Ogaden area of Ethiopia), then turned west passing through the African Rift Valley and over Lake Victoria. They were followed by two Boeing 707 jets. The first Boeing contained medical facilities and landed at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya. The commander of the operation, General Yekutiel Adam, was on board the second Boeing that circled over Entebbe Airport during the raid.. Oberstleutnant Ulrich Wegener, commander of the elite German GSG 9 anti-terrorist group, was invited to participate in the Israeli hostage rescue mission, and was rumored to be one of the 5 injured commandos on the raid. The Israeli ground task force numbered approximately 100 personnel, and comprised the following:
Passengers 4 2 2 42 25 1 92 9 1 1 5 30 34 248
Crew 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12
Total 4 2 2 54 25 1 92 9 1 1 5 30 34 260
The Ground Command & Control Element
This small group comprised the overall ground commander, Brig. Gen. Shomron, and the communications and support personnel.
The Assault or "Takeover" Element
Led by Lt. Col. Netanyahu, this force was composed entirely of commandos from Sayeret Matkal, and were given the primary task of assaulting the old terminal and rescuing the hostages. Major Betser led one of the element's assault teams, Matan Vilnai led another.
The Blocking/Reinforcement or "Engagement" Element
1. Securing the area, and preventing any hostile ground force from interfering with the C-130 Hercules aircraft and the actual rescue. 2. Destroying the squadron of MiG fighter jets on the ground, to prevent any possible interceptions by the Ugandan Air Force. 3. Assisting in the ground refuelling of the air transports. 4. Providing protection for and assisting in the loading of the hostages aboard the transports. The Israeli forces landed at Entebbe an hour before midnight, with their cargo bay doors already open. A black Mercedes with accompanying Land Rovers was taken along to give the impression that the Israeli troops driving from the landed aircraft to the terminal building were an escort for a returning Idi Amin, or other high-ranking official. The Mercedes and its escort vehicles were quickly driven by the Israeli assault team members to the airport terminal in the same fashion as Amin. However, along the way, two Ugandan sentries, who were aware that Idi Amin had recently purchased a white Mercedes to replace his black one, ordered this procession of vehicles to stop. The commandos shot both of these sentries with silenced pistols. As they pulled away, an Israeli commando in one of the Land Rovers noticed that they had failed to eliminate the sentries and immediately killed them with a burst from his Kalashnikov. Fearing premature alerting of associates to the hijackers, the Israeli assault team was quickly sent into action. The hostages were in the main hall of the airport building, directly adjacent to the runway. The Israelis sprang from their vehicles and burst into the terminal, shouting through a megaphone, "Stay down! Stay down! We are Israeli soldiers." in both Hebrew and English. A 19-year-old French Jew named Jean-Jacques Maimoni (who chose to identify himself as an Israeli Jew to the hijackers even though he had a French passport), stood up, however. He was killed by the Israeli commandos, who mistook him for a hijacker. Another hostage, Pasco Cohen, 52, manager of an Israeli medical insurance fund, was also fatally wounded by gunfire, either from the hijackers or accidentally by the Israeli commandos. A third hostage, 56-year-old Ida Borochovitch, a Russian Jew who had emigrated to Israel, was also killed in the crossfire. At one point, an Israeli commando called out in Hebrew, "Where are the rest of them?", referring to the hijackers. The hostages pointed to a connecting door of the airport's main hall, into which the Israeli commandos threw several hand grenades. They then entered the room and shot dead the three remaining hijackers, thus completing their assault.
Meanwhile, the other three C-130 Hercules had landed and unloaded armoured personnel carriers, which were to be used for defense during the anticipated hour of refueling, for the destruction of Ugandan jet fighters at the airport so as to prevent them from pursuing the Israelis after their departure from Entebbe Airport, and for intelligence-gathering. After the raid, the Israeli assault team returned to their aircraft and began loading the hostages on board. Ugandan soldiers shot at them in the process. The Israeli commandos returned fire, killing many Ugandan soldiers. During this brief but intense firefight, a Ugandan sniper in the airport control tower shot and killed Commander Yonatan Netanyahu. He was the only Israeli commando killed in the operation. The Israelis finished the loading, loaded Netanyahu's body into one of the airplanes, and then left Entebbe Airport. The entire assault lasted less than 30 minutes, and all eight hijackers were killed. At least five other Israeli commandos were wounded. Out of the 105 hostages, three were killed and approximately 10 were wounded. A total of 45 Ugandan soldiers were killed during the raid, and about 11 Ugandan Army Air Force MiG-17 fighter planes were destroyed on the ground at Entebbe Airport. The rescued hostages were flown to Israel via Nairobi, Kenya, shortly after the fighting. Dora Bloch, a 75-year-old hostage taken to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, was murdered by the Ugandan government, as were some of her doctors and nurses for apparently trying to intervene. In April 1987, Henry Kyemba, Uganda's Attorney General and Minister of Justice at the time, told the Uganda Human Rights Commission that Bloch had been dragged from her hospital bed and murdered by two army officers on Idi Amin's orders. Bloch's remains were recovered near a sugar plantation 20 miles (32 km) east of Kampala in 1979, after the Ugandan–Tanzanian War led to the end of Amin's rule.
Israeli firms were often involved in building projects in Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. One reason the raid was so well-planned was that the building in which the hostages were being held was built by Solel Boneh, an Israeli construction firm, which still had the blueprints, and supplied them to the government of Israel. Additionally, Mossad (Israel's intelligence service) built an accurate picture of the whereabouts of the hostages, the number of militants. and the involvement of Ugandan troops from the released hostages in Paris. While planning the military operation, the Israeli army built a partial replica of the airport terminal with the help of some Israeli civilians who had helped build it in the first place. A very high level of secrecy was maintained, and the civilian contractors who had built the replica were detained as "guests" of the military until the rescue was declared a success. According to a 5 July. 2006, Associated Press interview with raid organizer "Muki" Betser, Mossad operatives extensively interviewed the hostages who had been released. As a result, another source of information was a French-Jewish passenger who had been mistakenly released with the non-Jewish hostages. Betser reports that the man had military training and "a phenomenal memory," allowing him to give information about the number and arms of the hostage-takers, among other useful details.
In the week prior to the raid, Israel had tried a number of political avenues to obtain the release of the hostages. Many sources indicate that the Israeli cabinet was prepared to release Palestinian prisoners if a military solution seemed unlikely to succeed. A retired IDF officer, Baruch "Burka" Bar-Lev, had known Idi Amin for many years and was considered to have a strong personal relationship with him. At the request of the cabinet he spoke with Amin on the phone many times, attempting to obtain the release of the hostages, without success.
Claim of Israeli involvement
According to a UK government file on the crisis, an unnamed contact within the EuroArab Parliamentary Association told a British diplomat in Paris, shortly after the hijacking, that the Israeli Secret Services and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), acted together to seize the plane. According to this version, the Shin Bet helped design the operation to undermine the PLO's standing in France and its rapprochement with the USA. Israel denied the contact's claim about Israeli involvement, with officials in the Vice Premier's office calling it "foolishness" and "not worthy of comment." The absence of specific details supporting the allegation led to claims that there had been a deliberate act of disinformation, an attempt to develop a conspiracy theory.
The government of Uganda later convened a session of the United Nations Security Council to seek official condemnation of the Israeli raid, as a violation of Ugandan sovereignty. The Security Council ultimately declined to pass any resolution on the matter. In his address to the Council, Israeli ambassador Chaim Herzog said: We come with a simple message to the Council: we are proud of what we have done because we have demonstrated to the world that a small country, in Israel's circumstances, with which the members of this Council are by now all too familiar, the dignity of man, human life and human freedom constitute the highest values. We are proud not only because we have saved the lives of over a hundred innocent people—men, women and children—but because of the significance of our act for the cause of human freedom. UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim described the raid as "a serious violation of the national sovereignty of a United Nations member state" (meaning Uganda). For refusing to depart when given leave to do so by the hijackers, Captain Bacos was reprimanded by his superiors at Air France and suspended from duty for a period. Idi Amin was humiliated by the surprise raid. He believed Kenya had colluded with Israel in planning the raid and hundreds of Kenyans living in Uganda were massacred soon afterwards. But from this time, Amin's regime began to break down. Two years later, Amin was forced into exile in Saudi Arabia. He died in Jeddah in August 2003. In the ensuing years, Betser and the Netanyahu brothers (Iddo and Benjamin), all Sayeret Matkal veterans, argued in increasingly public forums about who was to blame for the unexpected early firefight which caused Yonatan Netanyahu's death and partial loss of tactical surprise. This has become an open wound in the close-knit Sayeret Matkal family.
The incident was the subject of several films, two of which were U.S. productions with American/British casts; a third was produced in Israel with mostly Israeli actors in the key roles. The hijacking of Air France Flight AF139 and the subsequent rescue mission is featured in the documentary Operation Thunderbolt: Entebbe.
Another View On ENTEBBE What is the story of the IDF's operation to release the hostages from Entebbe in July 1976?
On June 27, 1976 Air France flight 139 with 246 passengers travelling from Ben Gurion Airport to Paris via Athens was hijacked by Arab terrorists who boarded during the Athens stopover. The hijackers, armed with guns and grenades, ordered the plane to divert to Benghazi, Libya for refueling. There one passenger, a young, pregnant worman, was allowed to leave the plane. The plane then took off again and flew south to Entebbe, Uganda, where it landed at 3:15 local time on the morning of June 28. The hijacking turned out to be a collaborative effort between Dr. Wadia Hadad's Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), a branch of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and the Ugandan dictator Idi Amin. Once at Entebbe, the passengers were moved to the Old Terminal building, guarded by Ugandan soldiers and local PFLP terrorist operatives in addition to the hijackers themselves. As diplomatic efforts involving the French, owners of the aircraft, and the Israelis were gearing up to work toward a release of the hostages, the IDF started to make contingency plans. By the end of the day on June 29, a list of demands was received from the terrorists, via Paris, calling for release of 53 convicted terrorists held in Israel, France, Germany, Switzerland and Kenya. A second message from the terrorist hijackers set 14:00 hours, Israel time, on Thursday, July 1 as a deadline. If their demands were not met, the terrorists threatened to blow up the plane and its passengers. As IDF planning for a rescue operation was authorized by the Israeli government and round-the-clock preparations began in Israel, the Israeli hostages were separated from the others at Entebbe. Forty-seven of the non-Israeli group was released onto an Air France plane; the French Captain and his crew from flight 139 refused to leave without all their passengers. The released groups were interrogated on their return to Europe to gain information about the circumstances at Entebbe; they confirmed that the Ugandans were active partners in the hijacking. By July 1 the Israeli plans had solidified on a rapid air assault, extraction, and withdrawal operation. By good fortune, plans to the Old Terminal building were located at an Israeli building contractor. However, to gain time the Israeli cabinet voted to start negotiations with the terrorists. The PFLP extended the ultimatum to 14:00 hours on Sunday, July 4. By the end of the day on July 1, the rescue operation was fleshed out by IDF planners and the risky plan was deemed feasible. The Defense Minister approved the preparation of operational orders; Brig. General Dan Shomron was appointed to command the operation on the ground. A model of Entebbe was built to aid the planning.
A second group of 101 non-Israeli hostages arrived in Paris, leaving only Israelis and Jews still in the terrorists' hands, 105 men, women and children. The smaller group made it somewhat easier to plan their rescue, but also raised doubts about the sincerity of negotiations. The terrorists were taking the position that they were not interested in negotiation - only in total satisfaction of their demands. The operational plan took shape: five C-130 Hercules aircraft for the 200 man assault force, two Boeing 707s for medical and communications teams, a black Mercedes limo plus some Land Rovers to trick the Ugandan guards. The IDF pilots practiced landing the aircraft and operating in the dark late into the night of July 2. On Saturday, July 3, shortly after dawn, the combat units loaded their equipment, and drove on deserted roads to a nearby airbase, where ground crews loaded them and their vehicles securely in the cargo space of the C-130s. IDF doctors and medical orderlies were loaded on board the "hospital" Boeing 707. At 13:20, they were airborne, southbound for Ophir at the tip of the Sinai Peninsula, where they refueled and then headed for Entebbe. With the planes already in the air, the full Israeli cabinet met and gave final approval. Flying the long path over Africa, through stormy weather, the C-130s reached their destination and touched down at Entebbe at 23:01, only seconds off the preplanned schedule. The rear ramp of the plane was already open, and the vehicles were on the ground and moving away before the Hercules rolled to a stop. A handful of paratroopers dropped off the still-moving plane to place emergency beacons, in case the control tower turned off the runway lights. The Mercedes, and its escorts, took the road to the Old Terminal, moving consistent with the appearance of a senior officer's entourage. They were confronted by two Ugandan sentries who shouted an order to stop, but they were immediately shot by the fast moving Israelis. The first assault team jumped from the car and ran the last 40 yards to the walkway in front of the building, then entered and quickly ended all resistance, taking only a few IDF and hostage casualties. A second assault team took out off-duty terrorists and Ugandan guards. One of the few IDF casualties was Lt. Col. Yoni Netanyahu, brother of the Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, fatally shot by a sniper. The assault on the Old Terminal building was completed within three minutes after the lead plane landed. Once all five planes were on the ground, IDF armored personnel carriers deployed to take up positions around the airport. Infantrymen ran to secure all access to roads to the airport and to take over New Terminal and the control tower. Heavy fuel pumps were taken off one of the planes to refuel from Entebbe's own tanks for the return trip. The hostage passengers and crew of Air France 139 were evacuated onto IDF planes within seven minutes, along with the Israeli dead and wounded. The Old Terminal building was left deserted except for the dead bodies of the eight hijackers. As the planeload of hostages took off, the IDF infantry destroyed Ugandan MiGs on the ground to prevent any pursuit. The paratroops reloaded their vehicles and equipment and the last IDF plane was airborne at 00:40, July 4. The IDF planes were able to land at Nairobi, Kenya where arrangements had been made at the last minute to refuel. The Kenyan's gassed up the Israeli planes like they were normal commercial flights and soon all were airborne again on the way back to Israel.
The news beat them home. Reporters in Uganda became aware of a fire-fight at Entebbe and filed stories to the European media. It was already a headline on Paris radio and the BBC as the planes made their way home. By the time they reached Israel, on July 4, 1976 the country and the free world was electrified by excitement over what the IDF had done. A few hours later, the IAF Hercules touched down at Ben Gurion International Airport, rolled to a stop and opened its rear ramp to release its precious cargo of men, women and children into the outstretched arms of their relatives and friends, accompanied by the cheers of a crowd of thousands. One hostage, Mrs. Dora Bloch, was not rescued because she had been taken to a hospital in Kampala. She was subsequently murdered on Idi Amin’s orders. The unexpected daring and impossible logistics made the raid a complete surprise, and a great success. It was a setback for terrorists everywhere since it showed that a determined nation could successfully mount counter-operations to defeat them with no gain for the terrorists at all. The success also weakened the dictator Idi Amin by emboldening Amin's opponents. Sabotage and resistance increased and by 1979 he was deposed.
INDIAN IC 814 HIJAKING 1999
The Chronology of Events IA Flight 814 takes off from Kathmandu at 1615 (IST) hours on December 24, 1999 Air traffic control is reported as asserting that shots were heard on the plane. The five armed hijackers make pilot Captain Saran divert the plane over Lucknow and head for Lahore in Pakistan. The Lahore airport authorities refuse to permit the aircraft to land, forcing it to head back to Amritsar, India. The plane lands at Amritsar where the hijackers demand that the aircraft be refueled. The airport is sealed off. The airport authorities send over a tanker for refueling, but due to some problem they seek that the aircraft be brought closer to the tank. After a 25-minute wait, the hijackers make the aircraft take off by killing a passenger, , Mr. Katyal and head for Lahore, with just enough fuel for the trip. India persuades the Pakistani authorities to permit the aircraft to land. Lahore airport is sealed off. The aircraft nearly crash lands and is surrounded by Pakistani commandos. It is refueled and headed for Kabul. But because of the lack of night-landing facilities there, and later, at Kandahar, the plane is diverted towards Dubai. It finally lands at the Al-Minhat air force base. The hijackers demand food, medicines and a step ladder since none is available.
The UAE officials agree to negotiate if the women and children are allowed to disembark. The hijackers release 25 passengers, and allow the body of Mr. Katyal to be released to the UAE authorities. Early on December 25, 1999 morning, the flight takes off from Dubai for Afghanistan. At 0855 hours, it lands at Kandahar. Senior Indian officials opened talks with the hijackers to secure the release of hostages. Hijackers demand release of 35 other jailed terrorists besides Mohammad Masood Azhar and US $200 million for the release of 154 hostages. Later hijackers dropped their demands for a $200 million ransom and the exhumed remains of Afghan terrorist Sajjad Afghani. Passenger were released on December 31, 1999 after Government of India releases 3 terrorists. January 6, 2000: Hijackers have been identified as Pakistani nationals with links to ISI, an intelligence organization of the Pakistan Government.
IC-814 Captain becomes a celebrity in India Al Qaeda hijacked IC-814 to Kandahar, says Osama's former guard Islamabad | September 17, 2006 Osama bin Laden's al Qaeda hijacked Indian Airlines jetliner IC-814 to Kandahar, Afghanistan, on the Christmas eve of 1999 to secure the release of Pakistani militant Maulana Masood Azhar. Abu Jandal, a former guard of Osama bin Laden said this in a one and a half hour documentary aired on Al-Jazeera Television, reports the Daily Times. According to the guard, bin Laden welcomed Maulana Masood Azhar after his release following negotiations between the Indian government and the hijackers, and threw a lavish party in his honour. "After two or three days, bin Laden invited Azhar to a lavish party, thrown in his honour, where I was introduced to him. I was astonished to discover that Azhar and Bin Laden already knew each other," Jandal said. He further said that on the day the Indian Airlines jet was hijacked and force-landed at Kandahar, he was asked to keep the heat-seeking Stinger missiles ready. "Emergency was declared at the Kandahar Airport in 30 minutes. I was told that other planes will also follow this one and there is a chance that the situation could deteriorate," he said Devi Sharan with his daughters, Aashna, 7, and Deeksha, 10. The hijackers, jumpy and brusque, shoved the nose of the gun to the pilot's head. Take off in 30 seconds or die, they told him. Then they began a panicky countdown: "30, 29, 28,
27 . . ." When they reached 2, Capt. Devi Sharan opened up the power on Indian Airlines flight 814 and took off. As the Airbus lifted into the sky at 7:49 p.m. on Christmas Eve, any possibility that a crack Indian commando team could storm the plane and try to rescue the 184 passengers and crew members ended. The jet was leaving Amritsar, in India, and heading across the border into what many Indians consider enemy territory: Pakistan. Indian Airlines Flight 814 (abbreviated IA-814) was a flight that flew from Kathmandu, Nepal's Tribhuvan International Airport to Delhi, India's Indira Gandhi International Airport. It was hijacked on Christmas Eve, Friday, December 24, 1999, shortly after the aircraft entered Indian airspace at about 5:30 p.m. Indian Standard Time by five Pakistani nationals. The hijackers stabbed to death 25-year-old Rupin Katyal. Ultimately, the plane landed in Afghanistan, where the hijackers agreed to release their hostages in exchange for the release of Maulana Masood Azhar, Mushtaq Ahmed Zargar, and Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh.
The Indian Airlines (now renamed as 'Indian') flight 814 (VT-EDW) was hijacked on the eve of Christmas on Friday, December 24, 1999, shortly after the aircraft entered Indian airspace at about 5:30 p.m. Indian Standard Time. The identities of the hijackers were 1. Ibrahim Athar from Bahawalpur, Pakistan 2. Shahid Akhtar Sayed from Gulshan Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan 3. Sunny Ahmed Qazi from Defence Area, Karachi, Pakistan 4. Mistri Zahoor Ibrahim from Akhtar Colony, Karachi, Pakistan 5. Shakir from Sukkur City
Anil Sharma, senior flight steward on IC-814, later recalled that a masked, bespectacled threatened to blow up the plane with a bomb and ordered Captain Devi Sharan to "fly West". The hijackers wanted Captain Sharan to divert the aircraft over Lucknow and head towards Lahore, but Pakistani authorities quickly refused permission as they were wary of being linked with the terrorists. Also, the fuel was not sufficient. Captain Sharan told the hijackers that they have to land in Amritsar, India after landing at Amritsar, the flight crew were hoping that they will get some assistance and the hijacking will end. They asked for a sniper or a sharpshooter to go along with the browser and shoot at the tyres to disable the aircraft. But, for unknown reasons that
couldn’t happen. The local forces at Amritsar were told to wait for the National Security Guard. The hijackers asked for the plane to be refueled, the Indian Government agreed as it would have given it some time to formulate some strategy. But as the refueling was deliberately delayed by the Indian Government, after waiting for over 25 minutes, the hijackers became suspicious and ordered the captain to fly the plane to Pakistan. When the captain didn't comply, they threatened to kill all the passengers. They stabbed 25-year Mr. Rupin Katyal in chest a number of times. Rupin Katyal was returning from his honeymoon with his wife Rachna Katyal. At this stage, a helpless Captain Sharan realized that there was no action from ATC, the Indian Government or the security forces; "the browser was not coming in front of the aero plane and nothing was happening". He decided to fly to Lahore without refueling. As the plane was running very low of fuel, on Indian government's request, Pakistan allowed the plane to be landed and refueled. Three hours after landing, the plane took off towards Afghanistan but as none of the airports were equipped for night landings, it was diverted to the military base Al Minhat in the United Arab Emirates. During this flight, Mr. Rupin Katyal passed away. After landing, the hijackers were asked to release women and children in exchange for some more fuel, food and water. Some 25 passengers were released along with the body of Mr. Rupin Katyal. Captain Sharan later recalled that there were "a lot of different kinds of weapons, different colours of hand grenades" in the cockpit and "the pedestal was full of bullets. In the early hours of Christmas morning, the battered and hijacked plane flew again with a tired crew to Kandahar, Afghanistan. The Taliban authorities did not cooperate with the Indian authorities to secure a release of the hostages by disallowing Indian commandos to storm the plane. They refused the request to let Afghan commandos storm the plane, as well. The Taliban encircled the plane with tanks and heavily armed militia. Negotiations opened up between the Indian government and the hijackers. The government accepted to release the following terrorists in exchange for the release of the passengers and crew of the flight IC 814. · Maulana Masood Azhar (Pakistani) · Mushtaq Ahmed Zargar (Indian) · Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh (British national of Pakistani origin) The erstwhile Indian foreign minister Jaswant Singh had personally gone to Kandahar to take charge of the situation there. After negotiations between the India government, and the hijackers, the remaining hostages were freed. On December 31, 1999, the freed hostages of the Indian Airlines Flight 814 were flown back to India on a special plane. The hijackers disappeared into Pakistan in their vehicle before releasing a Taliban official they had taken hostage Initial demand by the hijackers The hijackers initially demanded the release Mohammad Masood Azhar, who is currently serving jail sentence in India for terrorist activities. Azhar is a Pakistani national and is the General Secretary and ideologue of the Harakat-ul-Mujahideen (HUM), an organization based in Pakistan which was in October 1997 designated as a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the United States Department of State. The HUM was redesignated as a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the State Department in its latest list released on October 8, 1999 Latest demands by the hijackers The hijackers of the Indian Airlines flight IC – 814 have demanded the release of 35 other jailed terrorists besides Mohammad Masood Azhar and US $200 million for the release
of 154 hostages. The hijackers have also demanded that the body of Harkat-ul-Ansar chief in Jammu & Kashmir Sajjad Afghani be exhumed and the coffin be handed over to them. According to news reports, the hijackers have dropped their demands for a $200 million ransom and the exhumed remains of Afghan terrorist Sajjad Afghani (06:30 AM EST, December 29, 1999).
India released 3 terrorists for the exchange of the Indian Airlines passengers. Summary of External Affairs Minister's comments at a press briefing - December 27, 1999. The Government of India continues to monitor the situation. The Government has shared with the leaders of political parties in India information on developments in respect of the hijacking of flight IA-814. The leaders of political parties said that since developments were taking place at a fast pace, it was for the Government to decide on shapes should be taken.
The safety and security of the passengers and crew and, above all, the national interest of the country remain the two main elements of India's approach. The meeting condoled the sad and regrettable death by stabbing of Shri Rupin Katyal. An airplane with essential materials, doctors, relief crew and a negotiating team is in the process of leaving for Kandhar. It was our expectation that the aircraft will leave for Kandhar within the next 2-3 hours. In the course of the last two days EAM had contacted his counterparts in several countries including Australia, Russia, Canada, Great Britain, USA,
Switzerland, Italy, Bangladesh and Nepal to seek their active cooperation on humanitarian grounds. In response to questions, EAM said the following: The Government was aware of reports of the deadline apparently set by the hijackers. Our direct contacts with them will enable us to know the exact nature of their demands. The relief aircraft would have gone yesterday but for procedural difficulties not on account of the Government of India. The cooperation we are receiving from the US
administration is totally satisfactory. EAM has been in touch with his counterpart in Pakistan. The Pakistani reaction was that whatever they do will be within the four corners of the law and transparent. Armed soldiers from the Taliban Islamic militia take up positions near the hijacked Indian Airlines plane at Kandahar airport in southern Afghanistan Dec. 30.
After study the both events we will find different approach for the same kind of critical situation. Israel did very hard, deterministinc, demoralizing terrorist and lesson to other nation what we show to nation, world and terrorist. Here we need very strong policy &Strict to that policy.
1. Wikipedia & others