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PACS numbers: 03.03.+p, 03.50.De, 04.20.Cv,
04.25.Dm, 04.40.Nr, 04.50.+h




Polarizable Vacuum and the Reissner-Nordstrom Solution

Joseph G. Depp
May 6, 2005


In a previous publication the author showed that the PV model of Dicke with a modified
Lagrangian density produced a solution that is mathematically equivalent to the
Schwarzchild solution of Einstein’s equations for general relativity. In this paper it is shown
that the same PV model with modified Lagrangian also gives an exact solution to the
charged mass point metric of Reissner and Nordstrom.




Introduction

In 1957 Dicke
(1)
published an oft-cited paper that examined the possibility that general relativity
could be derived from field theory. The form of the Lagrangian density for the index of refraction
was taken as,

( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
¹
|

\
|


− ∇ − =
2
2
2
2
) (
t
K
c
K
K K F Ld λ (1)

K is the index of refraction, l is an arbitrary constant, and F(K) is an arbitrary scalar function. In a
previous publication
(2)
the author showed that the above Lagrangian density exactly reproduced
the Schwarzschild solution of Einstein’s equations for general relativity when
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/ 1 ) ( K k F = . In this
paper we show that the Reissner-Nordstrom metric can be derived from the same Lagrangian
density if we include the Lagrangian density for the electromagnetic field in the usual fashion and
we obtain a value for the arbitrary constant lambda that agrees with the value obtained by Dicke
through heuristic arguments. We follow the notation for the PV model as given by Puthoff
(3)
.

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Reissner-Nordstrom and the Index of Refraction

The Lagrangian density for the index of refraction and an electromagnetic field is given by

( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− −
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
¹
|

\
|


− ∇ − =
2
0
0
2
4
2
1
2
2
2
2
E K
K
B
t
K
c
K
K
K
L ε
µ
λ
(2)

For a static point charge the field is given in MKS units by


2
0
4 r K
q
E
πε
= and 0 = B (3)

It is readily apparent that we must retain a factor of K in the denominator to account for the
charged mass that is imbedded in the dielectric. The equation of motion obtained from (2) above
is

( )
( )
0
1
4 2
1 2
) (
2
4
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
4
= +

|
¹
|

\
|


+ ∇ −


− ∇ −
r
q
K ct
K
K K
K ct
K
K K
K ε π
λ
(4)

We seek an index of refraction that is time-independent and radially symmetric. Under these
assumptions (4) reduces to


( )
0
1
4 2
1 2 2 2
4
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
= +

|
¹
|

\
|
− + −
r
q
K dr
dK
K dr
dK
r dr
K d
K ε π
λ
(5)

We can rewrite (5) as follows


4
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
r
K
dr
dK
K dr
dK
r dr
K d α
=

|
¹
|

\
|
− + (6)

We define the constant α for the sake of brevity as


( ) λ ε π
α
0
2
2
2
4 4
q
= (7)

We now seek a solution of the form


1 2 2
) / / 1 ( ) (

+ − = r a r b r K (8)

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The algebra of substituting (8) into (6) is easily done and the result shows that (8) is a solution of
(6) if

2 /
2 2
α = a (9)

Now we examine the metric of Reissner and Nordstrom.

) sin ( ) / / 2 1 ( ) / / 2 1 (
2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
ϕ θ θ d d r dr r Q r m dt c r Q r m ds + − + − − + − =

(10)

The constant, m, has the usual definition


2
/ c GM m = (11)

G is the gravitational constant and M is the mass of the gravitating body. The constant Q written
in MKS units is


4
0
2
2
4 c
G q
Q
πε
= (12)

Following Desiato
(4)
and others we assert that the metric can also be written as

) sin (
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2
ϕ θ θ d d r Kdr dt c K ds + − − =

(13)

We can make this assertion if we identify the constant b in (8) with the constant 2m in (10) and if
we identify the constant
2
a in (8) with the constant
2
Q in (10). This leads to a definition for the
previously undefined constant, λ , that appears in (1), (2), (4), (5) and (7).


G
c
π
λ
32
4
= (14)

Equation (14) is identical to the value obtained by Dicke through heuristic arguments.

Conclusion

We have shown that the modified PV Lagrangian density presented previously by the author will
give the Reissner-Nordstrom metric and, in the process, we have established a value for the
previously unspecified constant in the Lagrangian density. The value is in agreement with the
value suggested by Dicke based on heuristic arguments.
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REFERENCES

1. R. H. Dicke, ‘‘Gravitation without a principle of equivalence’’, Rev. Mod. Phys. 29,363–376 (1957).
2. J. G. Depp, “Polarizable Vacuum and the Schwarzschild Solution”, online, April 2005
3. H. E. Puthoff, “Polarizable-Vacuum (PV) approach to general relativity”, Found. Phys. 32, 927-943
(2002).
4. T. J. Desiato, R. C. Storti, “Event horizons in the PV model”, E-print 2003