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Tissue/ Organ Lymphatic nodule Lymph node


Structure  Numerous lymphocytes  Non-encapsulated  Afferent lymphatic vessels  Connective tissue capsule  Connective tissue trabeculae within  Divided into:  Cortex  Paracortex (T-cells here)  High endothelial venule  Medulla  Medullary cord  Medullary sinus  Efferent lymphatic vessel  Lymph nodules  Germinal centre  Surrounded by connective tissue capsule  Connective tissue trabeculae  Blood vessels  Cortex  Network of interconnecting space b/w cortex  Medulla  Network of epithelial reticular cells (ERCs)  ERCs make a whorl of thymic (Hassall’s) corpuscles



1. Lymph filtration  Phagocytosis of pathogens 2. Site of antigen recognition and activation of B-cells 3. Lymph leaving efferent vessel contain antibodies for the entire body

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ERCs surround and promote lymphocyte proliferation, differentiation and maturation (Tcells) T-cells become immunocompetent Helper T-cells, cytotoxic T-cells, Supressor T-cells form T-cells migrate via efferent lymphatic vessel

APCs and macrophages in white pulp detect pathogens and phagocytose them Macrophages break down haemoglobin of aged erythrocytes Red pulp filters blood. and aged/abnormal erythrocytes from blood.Spleen     Palatine tonsils Connective tissue capsules Connective tissue trabeculae o Compartmentalizes interior o Trabecular arteries and veins Lymphatic nodules o Germinal centres (b-cells.remove pathogens. lymphocytes) o White Pulp  Surrounds central artery (T-cells here)  Located at periphery Red Pulp (rich in blood vessels) o Splenic cord  Located b/w venous sinuses o Splenic sinusoids( venous sinuses)  (interconnected blood channels)  Dilated vessels lined with modified endothelium having elongated cells o Pulp arteries o Protected by stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium o Aggregate of numerous lymph nodules  Germinal centres o Each tonsil invaginated by         Discriminatory filter for aged blood and pathogens Site of immune response against blood-borne antigens Splenic sinusoids drain splenic blood into larger sinuses that leave the spleen via splenic vein. Fetal life: (hemapoietic) produce erythrocytes and granulocytes Important reservoir for blood .

To know the function of the lymphoid system . To know the structure of the lymphoid system 2.o grooves of tonsillar crypts Underlying connective tissue capsule with trabeculae Objectives: 1.