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Chapter #9: The Confederation and the Constitution Big Picture Ideas 1.

. The Articles of Confederation, the first government set up after the American Revolution, was structured out of fear of a too-strong government. Therefore, the Articles were very weak on purpose. 2. Two things showed the Articles as being too weak to the point of being sterile: (a) it could not regulate commerce and the money situation was growing dim fast and (b) Shays Rebellion frightened many to the possibility that mobs might just take over and the government might be too weak to stop them. Due to these reasons, the Constitutional Convention was held. 3. The Constitution was written as something of a balancing act between strengthening the government, yet making sure it doesnt get too strong to take over. The resulting government was indeed stronger, but also a system of checks and balances were put into place to ensure no one branch becomes like the king had been. 4. After some negotiating, mostly with the promise of the Bill of Rights, the Constitution was ratified. IDENTIFICATIONS: John Lockes Second Treatise of Government In the Second Treatise of Government, Locke argued that people are equal and given natural rights in which outside rule is not permitted to intrude upon. He places sovereignty in the hands of the people. Federalist #10 Federalist #10 was an essay written by James Madison and is regarded as one of the most famous papers in the Federalist, written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton.

Republican Government This was an idea set forth by Thomas Paine in which the citizens elected their own government, as opposed to a dictatorial parliament or monarch. Land Ordinance of 1785 This law implemented in regards to the land northwest of Ohio that the land should be split up into six by six mile increments, and a public school should be established in one of the thirty six increments.

Land Ordinance of 1787 This Ordinance stated that Congress would recognize a new piece of land as a state if its population surpassed 60,000, and if it promised to outlaw slavery.

Necessary and Proper Clause For the writers of the constitution, this clause was a farsighted idea. It stated that at any required time, the government was able to impose its own taxes. These laws also extended to any adjustments the government had to make in order to impose these laws. Federalist Papers The Federalist Papers, written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, remain today as the most penetrating commentary ever written on the Constitution. It is still sold today as a book called The Federalist. Shays Rebellion Led by revolutionary veteran Daniel Shays, this rebellion was an uprising of small landowning farmers who were unhappy with the effects of the Articles of Confederation. Annapolis Convention The Annapolis Convention was called by Virginia in an attempt to revise the system of commerce stated in the Constitution. Only 5 delegates attended, and was called off in favor of a convention in Philadelphia. Philadelphia Convention 55 delegates from every state except Rhode Island attended this convention, and it agreed to completely dispose of the Articles of Confederation in favor of a new system of government as described by the Constitution. Delegated Powers These powers are powers that the congress holds as set forth by the Constitution, such as the power to coin money, borrow money in the interest of the country, and to set up governmental buildings.

Reserved Powers These powers stated in the Constitution explained that not all powers given to the Congress are powers given to the people, and that the rights of people could not be violated. Concurrent Powers Concurrent powers, as stated in the Constitution, gave state governments power in order to enforce laws upon its own citizens. These, however, were not to surpass federal laws.

Supremacy Clause The supremacy clause established that the laws of the federal government were more powerful than those of the state governments, and had the power to override any state laws. Anti-Federalists Anti-federalists were those who opposed the newly drafted constitution. Orators such as Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry believed that the new constitution spelt the end of liberty. GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The Pursuit of Equality Know: Leveling, Society of the Cincinnati, Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, Abigail Adams, Republican Motherhood, John Singleton Copley 1. What social changes resulted from the American Revolution? After the American Revolution, social statuses had begun to disappear in favor of a more equal society. Titles such as Mrs. And Mr. were used universally, as well as boss instead of master, examples of societal leveling. Those who attempted to form a hereditary order, such as the Society of Cincinnati, were ridiculed by the public. However, religion and slaves remained heatedly debated topics regarding equality. Women also continued to be socially beneath men, and even though women such as Abigail Adams were determined to foment their own rebellion, equality was still a long ways away for them. Constitution Making in the States Know: State Constitutions, Fundamental Law 2. What was the importance of the state constitutions? In the newly drafted State Constitutions, power and authority was drawn from the people, instead of a distant monarch such as the tyrannical George III. As a written document, the Constitutions were intended to represent a Fundamental Law, which would supersede any other ordinary legislation, such as the Bill of Rights. These also deliberately created a weak executive and legislative branch in the fears of a tyrannical rule. Economic Crosscurrents Know: Navigation Laws, Empress of China, Speculation 3. What were the positive and negative effects of the war on America? Because Britain refused to trade with the Americas following the Revolution, manufacturing greatly increased. However, not being able to trade with Britain had its drawbacks as well, as fisheries were disrupted and bounties for ships stores ended. Due to these reasons, the Navigation Laws became more hated than they were during the Revolution. America was now able to trade with foreign nations though, and the Empress of China became a symbol of international trade between the Chinese and the Americans. Yet the war had spawned demoralizing extravagance, speculation, and profiteering, leading to many unsatisfied colonists. A Shaky Start toward Union Know: Natural Rights 4. Why was the end of the war difficult on the national government?

After the Revolution, the Founding Fathers were faced with the task of creating a new Government. The prospect of Natural Rights did not make it easy for them, as they began to eye suspiciously any authorative figures. American unity was also no longer existent and could not cooperate properly. The British also began to flooding the American cut-rate goods, suffocating the new American industries with ruthless competitions. Creating a Confederation Know: Sovereignty, Articles of Confederation 5. What forces served to unify the separate states during the war? The thirteen states were essentially sovereign, because they enforced taxes, raised armed forces, and coined money separately. In an attempt to draft a new constitution for the new nation, Congress wrote the Articles on Confederation in 1777. It required unanimous approval from all 13 states, and also agreed to compromise such as the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which agreed to establish new republican states on the behalf of equality for Maryland. The Articles of Confederation: America's First Constitution 6. What weaknesses plagued the Articles of Confederation? What was good about it? The Articles of Confederation provided a loose bond of friendship between the states, and therefore they were able to come together to solve problems. It also established a congress to be the chief agency of the government. However, the weaknesses of this confederation were numerous. Because unanimity was nearly impossible, the amendment process of the confederation was ineffective. Congress was also incredibly weak, and held no control over any of the state governments. Congress also held no power over regulating commerce, which led individual states to establish their own, often conflicting, commerce and navigational laws. It was also unable to tax any of the colonies, which left the congress weak and uninfluential. However this confederation proved to be a landmark in government. Landmarks in Land Laws Know: Old Northwest, Land Ordinance of 1785, Northwest Ordinance of 1787 7. Explain the importance of the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance. The area which lay northwest of the Ohio River, known as Old Northwest, as a topic of heavy debate. Congress was able to pass a piece of legislation, known as the Land of Ordinance of 1785, which stated that the land of the Old Northwest was to be sold and the proceedings would be used to help pay off the national debt acquired from the war. It also was to be surveyed and divided into townships. The Northwest Ordinance explained a compromise between the different governing ideals of the Old Northwest. It decided that a state could only be established with a population of over 60,000 people, and if it forbade slavery. The World's Ugly Duckling Know: Natchez, Dey of Algiers 8. Using examples, explain the title of this section. The title of this section is called The Worlds Ugliest Duckling because it is a reference to how ugly the international competition was in America. Although America had just defeated Britain, the British continued to hold forts along the northern frontier to trade with the Indians and maintain a cushion against American invasions towards Canada. Spain also expressed its influence on the Americas through the land that it owned in the southwest and the Mississippi. In order to

enforce strangulation on the Americas, it closed off all commerce from the Mississippi river. It held an important fort at Natchez, where it also antagonized the Americas by trading with Indians. The North African pirates, such as Dey of Algiers, also possessed influence on the Americas by pillaging and threatening sailors. The Horrid Specter of Anarchy Know: Shay's Rebellion, Mobocracy 9. Were the United States of America in danger of falling apart under the Articles of Confederation? Explain. Under the Articles of Confederation, the economy was faced with extreme corruption, as each individual state began to tax others out of their own personal interest. Many impoverished backcountry farmers who had begun to lose property became desperate to convince the constitution to make amendments. This act, known as Shays Rebellion, was quickly put down, but the dissatisfaction of small landowning farmers remained. It became increasingly evident to many that the Revolution had created a mobocracy, and that the political body had been seized by a malignant disorder. A Convention of "Demigods" Know: George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry 10. What kind of men gathered in Philadelphia for the "sole and express purpose of revising" the old government? In order to save the failed meeting at Annapolis, Maryland, Alexander Hamilton called for a meeting at Philadelphia in which he would discuss the entire Articles of Confederation. At this meeting, every state was represented, except Rhode Island, by leaders hand selected by legislators. Fifty five emissaries from twelve states attended, and was essentially a meeting between demigods such as George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and James Madison. However, most of the fiery revolutionary leaders, such as John Adams, John Hancock, Thomas Jefferson, and many others were not present. This can be interpreted as a blessing in disguise though, as it was time to yield the stage to leaders who were interested in fashioning a solid political system. Patriots in Philadelphia 11. How does George Washington's quote, "We have, probably, had too good an opinion of human nature in forming our confederation." help to explain the purposes of our founding fathers. One of the main goals of the delegates in Philadelphia was to curb the unrestrained democracy in the rampant state, who had made it clear that too much freedom was evidently a major downfall of the Articles of Confederation. As shown by Shays rebellion, Congress needed to be established as a central power able to rule over the colonies without tyrannical means. In doing so, the delegates were determined to preserve the union and forestall any future uprisings against this mobocracy. Hammering out a Bundle of Compromises Know: Virginia (large state) Plan, Bicameral Legislature, New Jersey (small state) Plan, Great Compromise, Electoral College, Three-fifths Compromise

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Describe the compromises that were achieved by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention. Many of the delegates who attended the conference at Philidelphia were determined to completely rework the entire Articles of Confederation. Delegates from Virginia proposed the Virginia Plan, which stated that states should be represented in Congress based on the population of the state. This favored larger states, and left many of the smaller states unsatisfied. Therefore, New Jersey came up with its own plan, the New Jersey Plan, which proposed that all states should have equal representation in a unicameral legislature. In order to quell these bitter debates, a Great Compromise was developed. It announced that there would be a house of representatives, which held representatives from each state based on population, and a senate, which consisted of two senators from each state. The three-fifths compromise was also established to determine how slaves should be counted as people in regards to population. Safeguards for Conservatism Know: Checks and Balances, Separation of Powers 13. How democratic was the Constitution as originally written? Congress was generally unanimous on many things, such as commercial and political ideals. It also agreed upon a system of checks and balances, which established three branches, the executive, legislative, and judicial branch. These three branches would be given equal power, and would balance the powers of the other two. It also agreed that manhood-suffrage democracy was an undesirable form of government. However, it did contain democratic elements in that it stood on the two biggest principles of republicanism. The only legitimate government was based on the consent of those it governed, and that the virtue of the people would be the ultimate guarantor of justice, liberty, and order. The Clash of Federalists and Anti- federalists Know: Anti- federalists, Federalists 14. Who were the anti- federalists and why did they oppose the Constitution? One of the most heated debates in the American Archives was fought between the federalists and the anti-federalists over the strong central government as written in the constitution. The ant federalists argued that the Constitution was drawn up by aristocratic elements, and was therefore antidemocratic. It also clamored that the Constitution jeopardized the freedom of the individual and that the sovereignty of the states were beign submerged. Anti-federalists newspapers ridiculed Franklin as a fool from age, and Washington as a fool from nature. The Great Debate in the States 15. Did most of the states approve of the Constitution? Why? Of the 13 states, 9 of them approved of the Constitution, providing a majority vote for the ratification of the new Constitution. The only states who disagreed were New York, Virginia, North Carolina, and Rhode Island. Many anti-federalists were forced to sit in order to complete a quorum, but it was assured that the firs Congress would add a safeguard by amendment for the establishment of the first Bill of Rights. It was only then was the ratification secured in Massachusetts, as it was mainly an anti-federalist state. The Four Laggard States Know: Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison, The Federalist

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Explain some of the opposition to ratification of the Constitution? In Virginia, dissent came from anti-federalist orators such as Patrick Henry, who professed that the constitution spelled the end of liberty. Alexander Hamilton, along with John Jay and James Madison, joined together to write one of the most influential documents of the century. These papers, known as the The Federalist, were originally designed as propaganda towards the federalist cause, and eventually became the most penetrating documents on the Constitution ever written. A hostile convention was met in North Carolina, and was dissolved without even a vote. Meanwhile, Rhode Island did not even summon a ratifying convention. A Conservative Triumph 17. What does your text mean when it says that the Constitution, "...elevated the ideals of the Revolution even while setting boundaries to them."? The Constitution was successful in its attempts to create a strong central government, yet allowing its citizens the liberties and freedoms as promised during the revolution. In issuing the doctrine of self-rule in a self-limiting system of checks and balances, the Constitution reconciled the conflicting principles of liberty and order. By doing so, one of the most paradoxical principles of American history was developed; that conservatives and radicals alike both have championed the heritage of the republican revolution. Chapter #10: Launching the New Ship of State Big Picture Ideas 1. Alexander Hamilton, get the U.S. on a solid foothold. With the Bill of Rights quickly ratified, the top problem the new nation faced was financial in nature. 2. Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton developed a plan that included (a) starting a national tariff, (b) starting a tax on whiskey, (c) setting up a national bank, and (d) paying off the national debt. 3. Politics quickly fell into two camps: (a) those who followed Thomas Jefferson became the Democratic-Republicans and (b) those who followed Alexander Hamilton became the Federalists. 4. Turmoil broke out Europe with the French Revolution, mostly between England and France. The U.S. nearly got sucked into European issues, but both Washington and John Adams kept the America out of war. This was best for the U.S. IDENTIFICATIONS: Washingtons Cabinet Washingtons Cabinet consisted of a Secretary of State, headed by Jefferson, Secretary of War, headed by Knox, and a secretary of Treasure, headed by Hamilton. Judiciary Act of 1789 The Judiciary Act of 1789 was imposed by Washington in 1789, and resulted in the establishment of a Judicial System headed by John Jay.

Federalists Federalists were a political party which stemmed from the supporters of Alexander Hamiltons views. They advocated a strong central government ruled by the educated nobility. Democratic-Republicans The Democratic Republicans were a political party which stemmed from Thomas Jeffersons political views. They believed in a government ruled by the common class citizens. Hamiltons vision vs. Jeffersons vision Hamilton was not born in the United States, and therefore did not share any strong loyalty to the states as Jefferson did. Their strong political views each formed their own political parties, called the Federalists and the Democratic Republicans. Their views differed over numerous topics, such as a strong central government, foreign affairs, and financial decisions.

Report on Manufactures and Report on the Public Credit The Report on Manufactures was written by Alexander Hamilton, and it contained the ideas on how to better the economic structure of the US The report on the Public Credit was also written by Hamilton, and It contained an analysis of the financial status of America and also suggested solutions to solve the problem with the national debt. Jays Treaty Jays Treaty was a peace treaty signed with the British for them to stop damaging and seizing American ships. This treaty gave the Southern Federalists a bad name, and John Jay was subject to hanging. Pinckneys Treaty Pinckneys Treaty Pinckneys Treaty was a treaty made between the US and Spain, in which the Spanish promised the Americans freedom to utilize all territories in the Mississippi in order to ally themselves with the Americans and the British.. Washingtons Farewell Address Washingtons Farewell Address was the speech that Washington delivered at the end of his term as presidency. In this speech, he advised future presidents to follow his code of neutrality. Midnight appointments Midnight appointments was the name given to the appointment of judicial officers by the president John Adams. He had chosen a federalist for every position, which greatly angered Jefferson, who was to be the next president. Revolution of 1800 The Revolution of 1800 was a treaty made between the French and the Americans in which France agreed to pay for all damages done to recent ships, and it eradicated the FrancoAmerican alliance.

Judiciary Act of 1801 The Judiciary Act of 1801 was established by Washington during his term as presidency, and placed John Jay as the first Chief Justice. XYZ Affair Three American envoys, codenamed X,Y, and Z, were sent to France in order to negotiate with the French Foreign Minister. They were sent back when they were bribed to pay $250,000 in order to speak with him. Chisholm v Georgia The case was presented by Alexander Chisholm against the state of Georgia, and he argued that payments were due towards him. This was the first case of importance judged by the Supreme Court. GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: Washington for President Know: George Washington, Cabinet, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Henry Knox 1. Was Washington an important president? Explain. Washington commanded his followers by the strengths of their characters, as opposed to the arts of other politicians. One of the first orders of action that Washington imposed was establishing his cabinet, or board of trusted members. At first there were only three departments, and the head of each department was appointed by Washington. The Secretary of State was Thomas Jefferson, the Secretary of Treasury was Alexander Hamilton, and the secretary of War was Henry Knox. The Bill of Rights Know: James Madison, Ninth Amendment, Tenth Amendment, Judiciary Act, John Jay 2. What important steps were taken by the first congress? The first congress was responsible for drafting the first Bill of rights, or the first ten amendments added to the constitution. These amendments were written by James Madison, as he feared that the government might unravel the narrowly won federalist victory. In his amendments, the Ninth Amendment stated that the government was not to state certain rights prohibited to the people. The equally important Tenth Amendment also reserved all rights not explicitly delegated or prohibited by the constitution to the people. In the Judiciary act, a Judicial system was also established, with John Jay as its first chief justice. Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit Know: Funding at Par, Assumption of State Debts 3. How did Alexander Hamilton's economic plans lead to the District of Columbia? Alexander Hamilton was appointed as Washingtons Secretary of Treasury, and devised a new five step plan to correct the economic difficulties presented by the Articles of Confederation. In this, he implemented his theory of funding at par, where the government was urged to fully pay back all war debts to other countries and its citizens. It also enforced the government to take assumption of state debts. However, this made states that had a lower debt less charmed by this

proposal, as opposed to those states with large debts. As a compromise, the new capital would be in the south, in what is now known as the District of Columbia. Customs Duties and Excise Taxes Know: Revenue Tariffs, Protective Tariffs, Excise Taxes 4. Explain Hamilton's overall economic plan for America. Hamilton was not greatly worried about Americas devastating 75 million dollar debt, instead stating that it was a kind of union adhesive. In order to collect the money to pay interest to this debt, Hamilton devised tariff revenue, which depended heavily on foreign trade. He imposed a tariff on the value of dutiable imports, and later another tariff on a few domestic items such as whiskey. These were known as excise taxes. Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank Know: Bank of the United States, Strict Construction, Loose Construction, Elastic Clause 5. How did the issue of the Bank of the United States reveal a difference in understanding about the Constitution between Jefferson and Hamilton? Hamilton was a strong advocate of creating a national bank, called the Bank of the United States, for the central government, as he believed this would better the economy. However, Jefferson believed that this was no authorization for Hamilton to create such a bank, embracing his theory of strict construction. Hamilton, in response, contended for a loose interpretation of the constitution. In doing so, they invoked the elastic clause, which allowed congress to amend laws based on the time and the necessity. Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania Know: Whiskey Rebellion 6. Was the Whiskey Rebellion a victory for freedom, order, or both? Explain. The Whiskey Rebellion took place in Pennsylvania in 1794, and was a sharp challenge to the new central government. By boldly tarring and feathering tax collectors under their belief that the whiskey tax was a burden on economic necessity, collections were brought to a halt. To deal with this, Washington led a troop of 13,000 men, marched to western Pennsylvania and disposed of the rebellion without much contest. This displayed the new power of the central government. The Emergence of Political Parties Know: Factions, Parties 7. Why did political parties develop during George Washington's presidency? Were they good or bad? Previous conflicts over national political parties such as Tories and Whigs, and antifederalists and federalists were known as factions, sprung into existence over hotly contested special issues, and then faded away. When Madison and Jefferson first organized an opposition to Hamilton, they began a long-lived political party. As their campaign began to spread, political parties began to emerge, resulting in our two-party system of government today. George Washingtons Proclamation of Neutrality In 1789, revolution broke out in France. Fighting under the slogan Liberty, Equality and Fraternity, the revolutionists won control of the government. Once in power, they turned upon

the former rulers, beheading thousands of the French nobility, among them King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette. The French Revolution alarmed the monarchs and the ruling classes of other countries, and their effort to prevent revolution from spreading brought them into conflict with the new French government. By 1793, a number of countries, including England, were at war with France. The European conflict plunged the United States into the most serious crisis it had faced in its four brief years under the Constitution. American sympathies were divided, with some citizens favoring England, others France. When both the British and the French interfered with American shipping, already overheated tempers rose to the boiling point. As a further complication, back in 1778 the Continental Congress had signed a treaty in which it promised to aid France in the event of war. French sympathizers insisted that the American government live up to the terms of the treaty. Aid to France, would, however, bring the United states into conflict with England. Finally, after careful consideration and with the backing of his cabinet, President Washington issued his famous Proclamation of Neutrality. Congress then supported this position by enacting neutrality legislation. April 22, 1793 Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, great Britain and the United Netherlands on the one part and France on the other, and the duty and interest of the United States require that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent powers: I have therefore thought it fit by these presents to declare the disposition of the United States to observe the conduct aforesaid toward these powers respectively, and to exhort and warn the citizens of the United States carefully to avoid all acts and proceeding whatsoever which may in any manner tend to contravene such disposition. And I do hereby also make known that whoever of the citizens of the United States shall render himself liable to punishment or forfeiture under the law of nations by committing or aiding or abetting hostilities against any of the said powers, or by carrying to any of them those articles which are deemed contraband by the modern usage of nations, will not receive the protection of the United States against such punishment or forfeiture . . .

The Impact of the French Revolution Know: Democratic-Republicans, Federalists, French Revolution, Reign of Terror 8. In what way did the French Revolution expose the differing views of DemocraticFederalists?

Republicans and

Jeffersons Democratic Republican party believed in the rule by common people, rather than aristocratic governing. When the French Revolution sprung out, many of the aristocratic

Americans grew nervous, as the sober-minded Jeffersonians felt that a few thousand aristocratic heads were a cheap price to pay for liberty and freedom in the Americas. This was especially felt during the tragic Reign of Terror, where thousands of heads rolled in French streets daily. Washington's Neutrality Proclamation Know: Franco-American Alliance, Neutrality Proclamation, Citizen Genet 9. Explain the reasoning for and against Washington's Neutrality Proclamation. Due to the Franco-American Alliance, many Democratic Republicans believed it was Americas duty to help its former ally. However, Washington argued that it was unwise to meddle in European affairs, and to avoid conflicts for another generation before it was populous and powerful enough to stand on its own. He issued a Neutrality Document, which stated the governments neutrality in the widening conflict. A representative of the French Republic, Citizen Genet, believed that the neutrality promise did not reflect the true beliefs of the American people, and recruited armies to invade Spanish Florida and Louisiana, and British Canada. Soon after, he was removed by Washington and replaced with a less impulsive emissary. Embroilments with Britain Know: Anthony Wayne, Battle of Fallen Timbers, Treaty of Greenville 10. How did British actions towards Native Americans and American merchant ships incite many Americans? British agents traded firearms and other weaponry with the natives, who, led by the war chief Little Turtle, defeated armies led by both Josiah Harmer and Arthur St. Clair. However, under the leadership of Anthony Wayne, the Americans rounded up the British and forced them to sign the Treaty of Greenville after they had been abandoned by the British. Overseas, Britain also imposed its authority by capturing and imprisoning about three hundred American merchant fleets. Patriotic Americans were incensed by these actions, and demanded Washington to take action. Jay's Treaty and Washington's Farewell Know: Jay's Treaty, Farewell Address 11. Did John Jay betray American interests in Jay's Treaty. In Jays treaty, the British were consent to pay for damages of the recently captured ships, and the United States were forced to pay debts still owed to British merchants on pre-revolutionary grounds. This was an outrage, as it seemed like a direct surrender to Britain. The Jeffersonian south were especially enraged, as the majority of the share of pre-revolutionary debts would have to be paid off by Southern planters. In his Farewell Address, Washington strongly advised against permanent alliances, and to stick to his plan of neutrality.

John Adams Becomes President Know: John Adams, High Federalists 12. What handicaps did John Adams face as he became president?

After Washington stepped down, John Adams became his successor by only a narrow margin of 71 to 68 votes in the Electoral College. As a president, John Adams was a prickly intellectual aristocrat, with no appeal to the masses and no desire to cultivate any. He had also stepped into Washingtons position with no successor to take his spot. As his vice president, Thomas Jefferson was also his political enemy. In addition, Adams was deeply resented by Hamilton, who often conspired against him with the war faction of the Federalist Party, known as high federalists.

Unofficial Fighting with France Know: John Marshall, XYZ Affair, "Millions for Defense, but Not One Cent for Tribute 13. What French actions brought America close to war in the closing years of the 18th century? In a flagrant violation of the Franco-American alliance, the French began to capture defenseless American ships. In response, John Adams sent three envoys over to speak with the French Foreign Minister; one of them was John Marshall. In the XYZ Affair, the envoys were bribed $250,000 to only speak with Talleyrand. This seemed intolerable, and war hysteria began to sweep through the United States. Propaganda was established, such as the catchphrase Millions for defense, but not once cent for tribute. War was mostly confined to the sea, and the newly established Navy seized over 80 French Ships. Adams Puts Patriotism above Party Know: Napoleon Bonaparte, Convention of 1800 14. How did avoiding war with France hurt John Adams' political career? John Adams was aware that if he began a war with France, he would bring new plaudits to the Federalist party and perhaps win a second term as president. However, he acted upon Washingtons advice and sent a peace envoy to France instead. In the convention of 1800, France, headed by Napoleon Bonaparte, agreed to annul the Franco-American treaty, but also agreed to pay all damages done to American ships. In doing so, Adamss bubble of popularity was pricked by his desire for peace. The Federalist Witch Hunt Know: Alien Laws, Sedition Act 15. Explain the reasons for the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Alien Laws struck at undesirable immigrants. Even though they were never enforced, this was an arbitrary grant of power to the executive branch, contrary to American tradition and to the spirit of the constitution. However, it was deemed necessary because it was defensible as a war measure. The Sedition acts declared that anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed its officials would be punished by imprisonment and by fine. The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions Know: Compact Theory, Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, Nullification 16. Which was more dangerous to the US Constitution: the Alien and Sedition Acts or the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions? Explain. 16. I believe the Alien and Sedition Acts were more dangerous to the U.S constitution than the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions imposed a new compact theory, in which a federal government was created by the union of the thirteen states.

Therefore, the federal government was supported by the state, which also got to decide on whether to pass the Alien and Sedition acts or not. The Alien and Sedition acts were full violations of the constitution, and intruded upon the liberties provided for the people by the constitution. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were merely an attempt at nullification for these acts. Federalists versus Democratic-Republicans 17. What were some key differences between Federalists and Democratic Republicans? The key differences between Federalists and Democratic Republicans could be expressed by the political differences between Jefferson and Hamilton. Hamilton and the Federalists advocated a strong central government and a rule by the aristocratic and intelligent. They supported foreign trade that was untainted by the influence of the government. Jeffersons party, the Democratic Republicans, favored instead a government ruled by the common citizens in America, as well as an economy built on agriculture. The Federalists believed in friendly relations with the British, while the Democratic republicans believed in an alliance with the French.