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# C5303

## 1 ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY 2D FRAME STRUCTURE

1.1 Introduction

A frame structure is a load bearing unit constructed by joining members with pin/hinge or welding. A main characteristic of such a structure is that it is built with a series of basic triangles (? = ).

? ?

Other characteristics are it must fulfill the equilibrium and stability requirements. 1.2 Stability

Stable structure = It will not undergo any change in shape when loaded, consisting of a minimum number of members for maintaining its original shape. The basic stable form is a triangle. Generally a stable structure fulfills the equation: m 2j 3 j = number of joints 3 = M = 0 Fx = 0 FY = 0 and M = 0 Examples C m = 3, j = 3 C 2j - 3 = 2(3) - 3 = 3 =m B A Stable Unstable
rectangle

D D m = 4, j = 4 2j - 3 = 2(4) - 3 = 5 m<5 B

Stable

Stable

Unstable

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1.3 Indeterminacy Indeterminacy is a structural property with respect to the method of solution based on static equilibrium equations. For example, a statically determinate structure should have a minimum number of support reactions (r = 3) for equilibrium requirement, and can be solved by using three basic equilibrium equations ( M = 0, FX = 0, FY = 0 ). External Statically determinate ( = ) Frame structure External Statically indeterminate ( > ) a) Externally determinate b) Internally determinate fulfills r=3 Internal ( r = R, H, M ) Internal

( r = R, H, M )

## fulfills m > 2j - 3 (c) + (d) m + r > 2j

**A Statically indeterminate structure consists of more members/reactions than the minimum required for equilibrium. However it is generally stronger than statically determinate structures and more difficult to solve. Examples a) b)

r = 3 m = 11 j = 7 m + r = 2j Stat. determinate c) d)

?????

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m = 2j - 3

## External r = 3 Internal m + r = 2j & External

Frame Structure

Stable m 2j - 3 r 3

m > 2j - 3

Di > 0

## Internal m + r > 2j & External

D>0

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1.4 Analysis of Internal Forces Statically Determinate Structure Analysis to determine all external forces (reactions) and internal forces (member forces). Solution methods: Equilibrium of joints method Section method Graphic method (next article) Tension Coefficient method (next article) 1.4.1 Equilibrium of Joints/Hinges Method Pre-requisite: b) Two type of equilibriums for pin joint Horizontal : Vertical: FX = 0 FY = 0 .. (1) .. (2)

Max. of 2 unknowns can be solved b) Components of inclined forces & Trigonometric properties

F
FY FX FX

F
FX FY F

FY FX

FY F

## ** must be wrt. horizontal

Fy = 0

M = 0

Determine all support reactions Start at any joint with 2 unknowns. Draw all forces acting at the joint and assume tension type ( Solve the forces by using FX = 0 dan FY = 0 Repeat for other joints with 2 unknowns. )

* If the frame & and loads are symmetrical solve for either side only.

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Examples

1.

Determine all reactions and member forces (magnitude and type) for the structure shown below. 100 kN Solution T/balas: MB = 0: 3RA = 100(1.5) RA = 50 kN

## A Joint B: FBC 28,87 60O 50

FY = 0: 50 + FBC sin 60O = 0 FBC = - 57.74 kN (C) B @ By symmetry : FBC = FAC = - 57.74 kN (C)

## 2. a) State all characteristics for the frame below

b) Determine the magnitude and value of member forces by using the method of joint equilibrium 20 kN C 40 kN D 20 kN E 1,5 m AX A AY 10 kN G 2m 2m F 2m B BY

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Solution a) Characteristics r = 3 m = 11 j = 7 m = 2j - 3 = 11 stable, int. & ext. statically determinate b) Member forces Reactions : MB = 0: 6Ay = 20(5) + 10(4) + 40(3) + 20(1) FY = 0: Ay + By = 90 kN By = 43,33 kN Ay = 46,67 kN FY = 0: Ax = 0

tan = 1,5/1 = 56,3o Joint A: FAC FY = 0: FAC sin 56,3o + 46,67= 0 FAC = - 56,1 kN (C) A 46,67 Ttk. C 20 C - 56,1 Joint G 32,1 G 10 Joint B: FBE FBF 43,33 Joint E 20 FDE E FY = 0: FEF sin 56,3o + 20 + (- 52,1) sin 56,3o = 0 B FX = 0: FBF + FBE cos 56,3o = 0 FBF = 28,9 kN (T) FY = 0: FBE sin 56,3o + 43,33 = 0 FBE = - 52,1 kN (C) FDG FY = 0: FDG sin 56,3o + 32,1 sin 56,3o = 10 F DG = - 20,1 kN (C) FX = 0: FFG + FDG cos 56,3o = 32,1 cos 56,3o + 31,1 FFG = 60,1 kN (T) FCG FCD FY = 0: FCG sin 56,3o + (- 56,1 sin 56,3o) + 20 = 0 F CG = 32,1 kN(T) FX = 0: FCD + FCG cos 56,3o = - 56,1 cos 56,3o FCD = - 48,9 kN (C) FAG FX = 0: FAG + FAC cos 56,3o = 0 FAG = 31,1 kN (T)

31,1

FFG

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## FEF Joint F FDF 60,1 Check : F 28,1 - 52,1

FEF = 28,1 kN (T) FX = 0: FDE + FEF cos 56,3o = - 52,1cos 56,3o FDE = - 44,5 kN (C)

FY = 0: FDF sin 56,3o + 28,1 sin 56,3o = 0 28,9 FDF = - 28,1 kN (C)

FX = 0: FDF cos 56,3o + 60,1 = 28,1 cos 56,3o + 28,9 FDF = - 28,1 kN (C) OK
20 kN C
- 48,9

40 kN D
-20,1 - 44,5 - 28,1

20 kN E
28,1 - 52,1 (Optional)

- 56,1 32,1

A AY

31,1

G 10 kN

60,1

28,9

B BY 43,33

46,67

3.

By using the method of joint eqilibrium determine the values and magnitudes of forces for all members in the structure below. B C D 3m

G 20 kN

E 60 kN

3 @ 4 m = 12 m

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HA RA

G RF 20 kN

E 60 kN

FX = 0:

HA = 0

## tan = 3/4 = 36,870

Member forces Anggapkan semua daya adalah tegangan Joint A FAB A RA = 20 Joint B B 20 Joint C C 26,67 FCG Joint G -33,33 G 0 20 Joint F FDF FY = 0: FDF + 100 = 0 FX = 0: FEF = - 80 (C) - 80 F 100 Joint E FY = 0: FDE sin = 60 FDE E Check: FX = 0 FDE cos + (- 80) = 100 cos - 80 = 0 FDE = 100 kN (T) FEF FDF = - 100 kN (C) FFG FDG FY = 0: FDG sin + (-33,33 sin ) = 20 FDG = 66,67 kN (T) FX = 0: FDG cos + FFG = - 33,33 cos FFG = - 80 kN (C) FCD FY = 0: FCG = 0 FX = 0: FCD = 26,67 (T) FBC FBG FY = 0: FBG sin + 20 = 0 FX = 0: FBC + FBG cos = 0 FBG = - 33,33 kN (C) FBC = 26,67 kN (T) FAG FY = 0: FAB = 20 (T) FX = 0: FAG = 0

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- 80 60

OK

B 20

26,67 0 -33,33

26,67

D 100

66,67 G 20 - 80 100

-100 E F - 80 60

A 0 20

4.
HA

By using the method of joint eqilibrium determine the values and megniudes of forces for all members in the structure below. B C 25 kN h
45O 45O

HB RB

A 3m Solution Reactions: MB = 0 : FY = 0 :

E 3m

600 60 kN

## h/3 = tan 450

h=3m HA = 73,92 kN ( )

3HA + 60 cos 600 (3) = 60 sin 600 (6) RB = 60 sin 600 = 51,96 kN ()

FX = 0 : HB + 25 = HA + 60 cos 600 HB = 78,92 kN () Member forces Joint A FAB FX = 0 : 73,92 A Joint B RB = 51,96 78,92 B 0 45
O

FY = 0 : FAG

FBC

FBE

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## Joint C C 26,96 25 45O FCE 73,48

B
78,92 51,96 0 73,92 A -73,92 E -21,96 D 600 60 73,48

FY = 0: FCE + 73,48 sin = 0 FCE = - 51,96 kN (C) Check FX = 0 : 73,48 cos - 26,96 - 25 = 0 OK

26,96

C
25 73,48 -51,96

1.4.2 Analysis of Internal Forces Section Method Concept: A section is made through members (figure below). Then determine member forces from equilibrium of sub-frame ( FY = 0, FX = 0, M = 0 ) Hint: Ftop

Mint.bot = 0 Mint.top = 0

Ftop Fbot

Fint Fbot

FY @ FX = 0 Fint
P1 P2 P3

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C A RA G

E h B F RB

P1 C h A a RA Equilibrium of left sub-frame: For MG = 0: For MD = 0: For FY = 0: FCD.h + RA.a = P1.a/2 FFG.h + P1 a = RA 3a/2 FDG sin + RA = P1 G FFG F G FCD D FDG C

P3 E B RB

## FCD = FFG = FDG = (P1 - RA)/sin

[Mint.bot = 0] [Mint.top = 0]

@ FX = 0 ..................... Or, from equilibrium of right sub-frame. For MG = 0: For MD = 0: For FY = 0: FCD.h + RB.2a = P2.a/2 + P3.3a/2 FFGh + P3a = RB 3a/2 FDG sin + P2 + P3 = RB FCD = FFG = [Mint.bot = 0] [Mint.top = 0]

## FDG = (RB - P2 - P3 )/sin

The selection of sub-frame and equilibrium equations strictly individuals. Analysis steps: i. ii. iii. iii. Determine all support reactions Draw a section through members ( 3 unknowns). Draw all forces acting on the frame and assume tension type ( -ve answers means compression ) Solve the forces by using FX = 0 dan FY = 0 ( )

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iv.

## Repeat for other joints with 2 unknowns.

* If the frame & and loads are symmetrical solve for either side only. The method of section seems to be more appropriate when dealing with small frames or when only a few numbers of member forces are required.

Examples

1.

By using the section method determine the magnitudes and types of forces FAB and FAC for the frame below. B D 6m

C 6 kN E 3 kN

## 3 @ 8 m = 24 m Solution Reactions: MF = 0 FY = 0 24RA = 6(16) + 3(8) RA + RF = 9 kN = tan-1 6/8 RA = 5 kN RF = 4 kN = 36,87O

Member forces - Draw a section through AB and AC as shown below and consider the equilibrium of left sub-frame, assume all forces are of tension type. B FAB A RA = 5 kN Note: If the right sub-frame is considered, more works are required. B FAB 6m A C E F D FAC C FY = 0 FX = 0 FAB sin + 5 = 0 FAC + FAB cos = 0 FAB = - 8,33 kN (C) FAC = 6,67 kN (T)

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FAC 6 kN 3 kN RF =4 kN 3 @ 8 m = 24 m FY = 0: FX = 0: @ FAB sin + 6 + 3 = 4 FAC + FAB cos = 0 FAB = - 8,33 kN (C) FAC = 6,67 kN (T) either one

2.

MB = 0: FAC(6) + 3(8) = 4(16)FAC = 6,67 kN (T) By using the section method determine the magnitudes and types of forces FBD, FCD and FCE for the frame in example 1. (By considering left sub-frame).

Solution Draw a section through BD, CD and CE as shown B FCD A C RA = 5 kN 6 kN FCE @ FX = 0: FBD + FCD cos + FCE = 0 FBD = - 6,67 kN (C) FBD D FY = 0: FCD sin + 5 = 6 MD = 0: FCE(6) + 6(8) = 5(16) FCE = 5,33 kN (T) E MC = 0: FBD(6) + 5 (8) = 0 FBD = - 6,67 kN (C) FCD = 1,67 kN (T)

3.By using the section method determine the magnitudes and types of forces FBD, FCD and
FCE for the frame in example 1 (by considering right sub-frame). Check it yourself .!

1.5

Zero-Force Member

In certain circumstances the use of zero force members are necessary to prevent premature buckling of compression members or vibration in tension members. These members can be identified without having to do any calculation as follows. Two cases i) At the junction of perpendicular non-concurrent planar forces no external force a) b)

0 0

ii)

## At the junction of non-perpendicular non-concurrent planar forces no external force a)

0 0

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Example Identify all zero force members in the frame below. (No calculation is necessary) 30 kN B C 60 kN D 3m

G 20 kN

3 @ 4 m = 12 m

Solution Zero force members FAG, FDE, DEF, FFG and FCG.

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