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Transformer design challenges

Transformer design challenges

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in

Transformer Design

Prof. Dr. S. V. Kulkarni

Department of Electrical Engineering,

Indian Institute of Technology - Bombay

Powai, Mumbai - 400 076, India

1

Modern Transformers

ARWt r 2004

28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Outline of Presentation

Transformer technology: overview and perspective

Challenges and issues in design of

Magnetic circuit

Windings

Insulation

Stray loss evaluation and control

Short circuit withstand

Recent trends in computations

2

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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3

Transformer Technology: Overview and Perspective

Transformer : a mature product 100 years old

Technology hasnt changed drastically, but the challenges are:

- Continuous increase in ratings and sizes

- Limitations on weight and space

- Global market - competition

- Accurate prediction of performance parameters

- Increasing power system complexities

Increase in voltage class, rating and size requires

- Updating of design baseline

- Upgradation of manufacturing technology

- Strict process control

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

4

Requirement of modern power transformers

Accurate electromagnetic field calculations

Minimization of eddy and stray losses

High rate of loss capitalization

Withstand against system over-voltages

Reliable high voltage insulation design

Short circuit withstand design

Analysis of dynamic behavior

Controlled manufacturing practices

Elimination of hot spots in

Core, windings and structural parts

Robust structural design

Seismic withstand, transport induced stresses

Lower noise levels

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Problems against which transformer should be guarded

Overfluxing conditions

Part winding resonance

Very fast transient overvoltages related to GIS switching

Static electrification phenomenon

Ferroresonance

Power system harmonics

Geomagnetic disturbances

5

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

6

Magnetic Circuit

Trends

- lower thickness material grades

- domain refined grades

- step lap joint

- boltless yokes

Building Factor

Defined as

Building factor is generally found to increase with improvement

in material grade

- penalty for deviation from grain orientation is higher

- expected loss reduction with better grades may not be obtained

- experimental / test data should be used

) / (

) / (

kg watts loss core Epstein Material

kg watts loss core r transforme Built

factor Building =

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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7

Building factor is also a function of:

- core construction

- type of core joint

Step-lap joint Mitred joint

- number of laminations per lay

- overlap length

- angle of overlap

- gaps at joints

- operating flux density

- proportion of corner weight

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

8

Types of Core Construction

Three-phase three-limb

Three-phase five-limb

Single-phase three-limb

Single-phase two-limb

Single-phase four-limb

The choice of construction is influenced by

- users specifications, manufacturing limitations, transport

restrictions

- required zero-sequence characteristics

Bolt-less yoke construction

- better core utilization

- core loss reduction

- yoke laminations can be epoxy bonded

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Overexcitation conditions

Choice of flux density depends on specified

overexcitation conditions

Commonly specified overexcitation conditions are:

110% or 115% continuous, 125% for 1 minute,

140% for 5 seconds, 150% for 1 second

3-D FEM

model for

analysis under

overexcitation

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9

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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Flux distribution at 110% overexcitation condition

Eddy currents in frame

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

10

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

11

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

Core temperature rise

Design of optimum number of cooling ducts

Requires determination of temperature profile under

most

For most accurate temperature rise estimation, 3-D

FEM analysis required with consideration of

anisotropic thermal properties

The limits of temperature rise for core surface and

interior portions are different.

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

12

Windings

Design of windings is influenced by the following

considerations

- dielectric

- short circuit

- electromagnetic (eddy / stray losses)

- thermal

These design considerations have often conflicting

requirements:

- conductor radius : dielectric Vs short circuit

- paper covering : dielectric Vs thermal

- conductor thickness : short circuit Vs eddy loss

- first duct : thermal Vs dielectric

- radial spacer width : thermal Vs short circuit

Judicious selection of design parameters is necessary

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Choice of winding conductor

Strip Bunch CTC

Design consideration

- eddy loss reduction

- improvement in space factor

- cost-benefit analysis

13

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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14

Eddy loss evaluation and optimization

Eddy loss per unit volume for a thin conductor

where is frequency in rad/sec

B is peak value of tangential leakage flux

density on the conductor surface

t is dimension of the conductor perpendicular

to field

is resistivity of the conductor material

Eddy loss per unit area for a thick conductor

peak value of incident field on surface

conductivity, skin depth

24

2 2 2

t B

P

E

=

2

0

H

P

e

=

0

H

=

=

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Eddy loss: due to axial and radial leakage fields

2-D field can be calculated by:

- Roths method, Rabins method, 2-D FEM

3-D FEM: for most accurate calculations

- efforts involved can get justified for very large transformers

It is necessary to optimize the sum of copper loss and eddy loss

Balancing of ampere-turn per unit height for LV and HV

windings is essential to minimize radial field

Tap zone needs special attention

Use of different conductor widths may be done

15

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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Winding temperature rise

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Judicious choice for following parameters is required:

- conductor paper covering

- winding first duct

- radial spacer dimensions

- number and position of passes in guided oil flow arrangement

16

washer

oil guide

disk / turn

ARWt r 2004

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Modern Transformers 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

Types of windings

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

line end

32 31

30 29 28 27 26

25

24 23

22 21 20 19 18 17

16 15 14 13 12 11 9 10

spacer

cylinder

winding

1

line end

2 4 3

5 6 7 8

9 10 11

12

13 14 15 16

18 19 20

21 22 23 24

25 26 27 28

29 30 31 32

winding

cylinder

spacer

17

V

S R

V

SER

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

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Continuous disk winding Interleaved winding

Continuous disk winding with SER and SR

17

ARWt r 2004

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Modern Transformers 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

V

V

1 1 2 2 3 3

3

0

k

k

7 8

9 10

15 2 1 16 14

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

Shielded-conductor winding

Series capacitance of various windings can be calculated by a method

based on stored energy [*]

[*] Kulkarni, S. V. and Khaparde, S. A. - Transformer Engineering:

Design and Practice - Marcel Dekker, New York, May 2004

18

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Numerical methods for Impulse voltage distribution

Classical Standing Wave and Traveling Wave theories can be

applied to only uniform windings

Transformer windings are highly non-uniform

Numerical methods are now used, which can simulate non-

uniformities and multi-section windings easily due to fast and

powerful computers

A winding or set of windings is represented in equivalent

circuit form

Each winding is divided into a number of sections

Winding capacitances and inductances are lumped

Partial differential equations get converted into ordinary

differential equations which can be solved by numerical

methods

19

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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20

Computation of Impulse Voltage Distribution using State

Variable Method

The network differential equations for the equivalent circuit can be

formulated in nodal form as

where, = nodal capacitance matrix with the inclusion of input node

= nodal conductance matrix with the inclusion of input node.

= nodal matrix of inverse inductance matrix with the inclusion

of input node.

= Output vector of node voltages including input node.

The number of equations is reduced by extracting the input node m,

because voltage at that node is known.

where, C = nodal capacitance matrix without input node.

G = nodal conductance matrix without input node.

= nodal matrix of inverse inductance without input node.

y(t) = output vector of node voltages without input node.

C

m

, G

m

,

m

= mth column of with entry of m

th

(input) row removed

( ) ( ) ( ) 0 t y

t y

t y

= + +

& & &

C

( ) t y

0 0 1 1 0 0 1

1n

2n

11 22 nn

L

L

L L L

C

G

C C

G

C C

G

C

G

C

1 2 3 n

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

21

State space model :

General state space model of differential equation (without input node) is

where, X = state vector of state space

A, S = matrices of constant coefficients

B, D = column matrices of constant coefficients

v = input vector of applied impulse voltage

y = output vector of node voltages

The solution of state space equations is

Bv AX X + =

&

Dv SX y + =

( )

( )d x B e ) X(0 e X(t)

t

0

t A At

+ =

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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22

Simulation result

The voltages calculated for various nodes for a particular winding are:

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

0

1

2

1

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

0

1

2

2

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

0

1

2

3

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

0

1

2

4

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

0

1

2

5

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

0

1

2

6

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

0

1

2

7

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

0

1

2

8

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

0

1

2

9

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

0

1

2

10

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

0

1

2

11

0 10 20 30 40 50

-1

0

1

2

12

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Simulation result Continued . . . .

23

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Time in micro-seconds

P

e

r

u

n

i

t

v

o

l

t

a

g

e

State Variable method

SEQUEL

SPICE

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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The results of State variable method, SEQUEL and SPICE at node 6

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Part winding resonance

24

Can be triggered by line fault

Waveshape of overvoltage seen at transformer terminals is generally of

non-standard shape; hence normal tests (LI, SI, PF) will not ensure

checking of withstand against part winding resonance

Most of the failures reported in literature involved failure of tap windings

(being inner parts, higher frequencies cannot penetrate; tap winding is

subjected to lower frequency of few tens of kHz)

Interleaving of tap winding may not always be best option

If tap winding natural frequency is closer to excitation frequency, part

winding resonance can occur which results in very high local voltages

The transformer winding natural frequencies are generally in the range of

5 kHz to few hundred kHz

The natural frequency of the line is given by

where is the wave propagation velocity (300 for overhead transmission

lines and 100 for cables) and L is length of line in meters (distance of a

transformer from the point where a switching operation or ground fault

occurs)

Placement of breaker can be accordingly decided

L

v

f

4

=

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

As voltage rating increases, insulation design becomes the most

important aspect of power transformers

Comprehensive design verification is essential for reliability

and optimization

Pressure on designers to reduce material content of which

insulation is a major component

Margins between withstand levels and working stress levels are

reducing

It is important to accurately estimate stress levels for various

critical electrode configurations inside the transformer

Insulation design

25

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Major insulation:

- Insulation between windings

- Insulation between winding to core (limb/yoke)

- Insulation between coil and tank

- Insulation between high voltage leads and earth parts

Minor insulation :

- Insulation between turns / discs

Four types of tests :

- Lightning impulse test

- Switching impulse test

- Short duration power frequency test

- Long duration test with PD measurement

26

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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27

Conversion of test levels to one equivalent test level called as

Design Insulation Level

- generally taken as short duration one-minute power frequency test

~ 1.25 Long duration power frequency level

~ 0.55

Switching impulse level

~ 0.44

Lightning impulse level

Multiplication factor Test type

Reference: Dahinden, V., Schultz, K., and Kuchler, A. Function of solid insulation

in transformers, TRANSFORM 98, April 1998, Germany, pp. 41-54.

The basis for using a certain value or range of these factors is explained in:

Kulkarni, S. V. and Khaparde, S. A. - Transformer Engineering: Design and

Practice - Marcel Dekker, New York, May 2004

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

28

Sub-division of oil duct increases kV/mm withstand stress

Barrier against propagation of discharge streamer in oil

Electric stress is inversely proportional to permittivity

Barriers should be as thin as mechanically possible, otherwise

there will be more stress in oil

First duct should be as small as possible with due

considerations to adequate cooling requirements

LV HV

Design of oil ducts

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Average stress in HI-LO gap is generally designed to be in the

range of 5.5-6 kV/mm

) 5 . 0 ( insulation solid gap HILO

DIL

E

av

=

Manufacturing tolerance is added based on variations in

material dimensions on the shop-floor

For winding to main limb or end limb, value of stress

designed is lower or use of electrostatic shield is necessary to

shield sharp corners

29

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

It is important to know contribution and significance of

various factors affecting stress levels

Detailed FEM analysis is desirable while doing optimization

30

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

(Reference: D. A. Koppikar, S. V. Kulkarni, A. K. Dubey, "Optimization of EHV

Transformer Insulation by Statistical Analysis", ISH'97, International Symposium

on High Voltage Engineering, Montreal, 25 - 29 August 1997, Vol. 6, pp. 289-292)

31

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

End insulation Design

Sub-division of oil duct from HV

winding to LV winding and yoke is done

so that margin in each of the resulting

oil ducts is approximately same

Use of contoured angle rings along

equipotential lines to minimize creep

stress

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32

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

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Contoured angle rings Non-contoured angle rings

Reference: Kulkarni, S. V. and Khaparde, S. A. - Transformer Engineering:

Design and Practice - Marcel Dekker, New York, May 2004

33

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Select a contour as shown in the

earlier figure

Find cumulative stress values in

each oil duct and compare with

the reference withstand

equation:

kV/cm

(Reference: Nelson, J. K. An

assessment of physical basis for

the application of design criteria

for dielectric structures, IEEE

Transactions on Electrical

Insulation, Vol. 24, No. 5,

October 1989, pp. 835-847)

38 . 0

1

75

= d E

oil

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34

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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35

Cumulative creep stress calculation

(Reference: Nelson, J. K. Some steps toward automation of the design of composite dielectric

structures, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 1, No. 4, August

1994, pp. 663-671.)

(i) Note down the voltage values along the pressboard at the different points

(e.g., at every 1 or 2 mm steps)

(ii) Note down the highest stress point, i.e., the point along the pressboard at

which the stress is highest

(iii) Determine on which side of the highest stress point the field is higher and

extend the path by one spatial step in that direction

(iv) Find the cumulative stress when the path is extended in either direction and

choose a path extension in the direction yielding higher cumulative stress

(v) Repeat the above step number (iv) until the complete creepage path along

the angle ring is encompassed

(vi) Withstand for each of these creepage distances is calculated by,

kV/mm

(Reference: Derler, F., Kirch, H. J., Krause, C., and Schneider, E. Development of a

design method for insulating structures exposed to electric stress in long oil gaps

and along oil / transformerboard surfaces, International Symposium on High

Voltage Engineering, ISH'91, Dresden, Germany, August 1991)

37 0

2 cr

d 15 E

.

=

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING

High voltage lead clearances

Oil and paper stresses can be calculated by analytical formulae

or FEM analysis

Stressed oil volume (between max. stress and 90% of max.

stress) is then calculated

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

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36

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37

The 50 % power frequency breakdown probability stress can be

determined by

kV/mm

where SOV is in cm

3

( ) 5 . 2 5 . 11

5 . 9

1

50

+ =

SOV E

The safe withstand value is lower than E

50

value and is

influenced by risk of failure and quality of oil processing during

manufacture.

Different manufacturers will generally have different safety

margins based on experience

Barriers are generally put between lead and earth, close to lead.

Extra advantage due to barriers may not be considered as they

may not be along equipotential lines

Reference: Ikeda, M., Teranishi, T., Honda, M., and Yanari, T. Breakdown

characteristics of moving transformer oil, IEEE Transaction on Power

Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-100, No. 2, February 1981, pp. 921-928.

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

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38

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39

Stray loss evaluation and control

Stray losses in windings

- Eddy current losses

- Circulating current losses

Stray losses in structural components:

- Flitch-plate

- Frame

- Tank

- Lead terminations

Stray losses due to leakage field

Stray losses due to high-current field

Individual stray losses cannot be separated from load loss

Experimental limitations of measuring losses in structural components

Transformer is a complex three-dimensional structure with materials

having nonlinear properties

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Factors affecting stray losses

=======================

Eddy loss per unit surface area of a plate, subjected to (on one

of its surfaces) a magnetic field of H

rms

Hence, the total power loss in a steel plate with a permeability

can be given in terms of the peak value of the field (Ho) as

2

rms

2

0

e

H

2 2

H

P

=

ds

2

H

2

a P

S

2

0 s

l

=

where a

l

is the linearization constant

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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Factors affecting stray losses

=======================

Effect of surface excitation:

- Tangential (e.g. bushing mounting plate)

- Radial (e.g. tank)

Effect of type of material

- magnetic (mild steel)

- high resistivity non-magnetic material (stainless steel)

- high conductivity non-magnetic material (aluminum)

The thickness of material should be judiciously selected

depending upon the material properties

The thickness of stainless steel structural component should be

as small as possible from the stray loss considerations.

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

42

Reference: Kulkarni, S. V. and Khaparde, S. A. - Transformer

Engineering: Design and Practice - Marcel Dekker, New York, May 2004

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

Tank loss

-Its a 3-D problem, very difficult to exactly estimate

-2-D FEM or semi-analytically numerical methods like RNM-3D are used

-Can be very high if not properly shielded

Guidelines for shielding with magnetic shunts:

1. They can be of CRNGO or CRGO laminations.

2. Width can be maximum of around 200 mm

3. Gap between 2 shunts placed on tank should be as minimum as mechanically

possible.

4. Thickness of shunts depends on amount of flux collected.

5. Length of shunt should be ideally from top yoke centre to bottom yoke

centre. Shunt should be vertically continuous (one piece without any gap)

6. Shunts should cover at least 67% of area in front of windings.

Two types of shunts

-Flat

-Edgewise: better but the effect can be noticeable only for large power

transformers

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

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Width-wise Edge-wise

Tank shunts

44

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Copper or aluminum shielding on tank

- Used for odd shapes of tank

- Shields should have sufficient thickness

- Shields must be continuous as far as possible

- Path of reflected flux should be studied

Frame loss

-For low distribution transformers, go and return arrangement for leads

should be used

-Frame of stainless steel is generally not recommended

High current loss: How to reduce:

- Use of non-magnetic material or electromagnetic shielding

- Placement of high current bars thickness-wise with respect to plate

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Flitch plate loss

Loss may be low but loss density can be very high resulting into

hot spots

Types of flitch plate: Mild steel, Mild steel with slots, Stainless steel and

Laminated

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

46

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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47

Mild Steel Flitch Plate

Reference: Koppikar, D. A., Kulkarni, S. V., Srinivas, P. N., Khaparde, S. A.,

and Jain, R. Evaluation of flitch plate losses in power transformers, IEEE

Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 14, No. 3, July 1999, pp. 996-1001.

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

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48

Stainless Steel Flitch Plate

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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49

Bushing mounting plate

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Current

(Amper

es)

Analytical

(Watts)

3D

FEM

(Watts)

From Steady

State

Temperature

Rise

(Watts)

From

Initial

Temperat

ure Rise

(Watts)

2000 56 66 65 58

2250 68 84 74 70

2500 81 103 95 93

2800 98 130 119 116

50

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

Short Circuit Forces and Withstand

The basic equation for the calculation

of electromagnetic forces is

where B is leakage field density vector, I is

the current vector and L is the length of

winding.

Radial force in x-direction due to

axial leakage flux density and axial

force in y-direction due to radial

leakage flux density, as shown in the

figure.

B I L F =

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

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51

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Radial forces :

The radial forces are acting outwards on the outer winding

tending to stretch the conductor, producing a tensile stress

(also called as hoop stress).

The radial forces are acting inwards on the inner winding

tending to collapse or crush it, producing a compressive

stress.

The average hoop stress can be considered as uniform over

the entire disk winding.

In a layer / helical winding, the average hoop stress is not

uniform, i.e., it is highest for the innermost layers and it

decreases towards the outer layers.

52

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Axial forces :

The axial forces due to radial fringing leakage field at

winding ends are directed towards the center of winding

from both ends for uniform ampere-turn distribution in

windings with equal heights (ideal condition).

The compressive force is maximum at the center of the

windings.

Both the inner and outer windings experience compressive

forces with no end thrust on clamping structures at winding

ends.

For asymmetrical axial winding disposition (winding

electromagnetic centres not at same level), axial forces on

two windings are in opposite direction and they tend to

increase the asymmetry

Strict sizing and dimension control required during

processing and assembly of windings.

53

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Dynamic Behavior under Short-Circuits

54

The transformer windings along with

supporting clamping structure form a

mechanical system having mass and elasticity.

The applied electromagnetic forces are

oscillatory in nature and act on the elastic

system comprising of winding conductors,

insulation system and the clamping structure.

The forces are dynamically transmitted to

various parts of the transformer and can be

quite different from the applied forces.

To find out the stresses and displacements

produced by short circuit forces, it is

necessary to analyze the system dynamically.

Method for calculating dynamic response is

quite complex

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Different numerical methods are available for determining the

dynamic response of transformer under short circuit

conditions.

Due to lack of precise knowledge of dynamic characteristics

of various materials used in transformers, the methods for

assessing dynamic performance under short circuits have not

been yet perfected.

The dynamic calculations can certainly increase theoretical

knowledge of the whole phenomenon, but it may be difficult

to use the results of analysis for designing the transformer.

It is fairly easy to calculate natural frequencies of windings

and check the absence of resonance.

Hence, established static calculations along with natural

frequency determination could form a basis of short circuit

strength calculations until the dynamic analysis is perfected

and standardized.

55

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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Failure Modes due to Radial Forces

56

Radial collapse of inner winding is common, whereas

outwards bursting of outer winding generally does not take

place.

If a winding is tightly wound, conductors in radial direction

can be assumed to have uniform tensile stress.

Most of the space in radial direction is occupied with copper

(except for the small paper covering on conductors): high

stiffness to mass ratio.

The natural frequency is much higher than the excitation

frequency and hence chances of resonance are remote.

The chances of winding failing with tensile hoop stress are

unlikely if conductor with a certain minimum 0.2% proof

strength is used.

The 0.2% proof stress is defined as that stress value which

produces a permanent strain of 0.2%.

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Failure Modes due to Radial Forces Continued . . . .

57

Windings subjected to compressive stresses:

Inner winding conductors, which are subjected to the axial

compressive load, may fail due to bending between supports or

buckling.

(1) (2)

Forced buckling (1): occurs when the winding cylinder has

significant stiffness as compared to winding conductors.

Free buckling (2): this kind of failure occurs mostly with lower

thickness of winding cylinders.

An adequate number of winding supports need to be provided to give

strength to the winding against the radial forces.

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

Failure Modes due to Axial Forces

58

If a layer winding is not wound tightly, some conductors may

just axially pass over the adjacent conductors, which may

result into damage to conductor insulation and a eventual turn-

to-turn fault.

If winding is set into vibration under the action of axial forces,

conductor insulation may get damaged due to relative

movement between winding and axial insulation spacers.

There could be deformation of end clamping structure and

windings due to high axial end thrust.

To maintain effective pressure on windings a clamping ring

made of stiff insulating material (pre-compressed board or

permawood) is used.

There are two principal types of failures, viz. bending between

blocks and tilting.

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Effect of Pre-Stress

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Pre-stress is the clamping pressure applied on windings, after

completion of core-coil assembly.

It has significant impact on the response of windings during

short circuit.

It increases the stiffness of windings thereby increasing the

mechanical natural frequencies of windings.

It reduces the oscillatory forces acting on the insulation.

With increase in value of pre-stress, the displacements also

decrease.

The value of pre-stress should be judiciously chosen

depending upon the characteristics of core-winding assembly.

The chosen value of pre-stress must get maintained during the

entire life of a transformer.

59

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Short-Circuit Withstand

60

General guidelines and precautions that can be taken at

specification, design and production stages of transformers for

improvement in short-circuit withstand are:

Windings should be made of high grade proof-stress copper

instead of annealed copper.

Use of epoxy bonded CTC in place of strip conductors on

large transformers.

Use of lower current densities for critical transformers.

Matching of AT/mm of LV and HV windings along their

height.

Supporting inner winding with thicker insulating cylinders.

Ensuring tight-fitting wooden dowels on core in close contact

with the insulating cylinders.

Estimation of natural frequencies of windings and ensuring

that there is no excited resonance.

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Short Circuit Withstand Continued . . . .

Strictly controlled manufacturing process for the windings.

Elastic stabilization of windings and tight tolerances concerning

winding lengths under specified clamping force and relative

positioning of windings.

Core and coil clamping structure consisting of robust and stiff

parts duly fastened.

Securing all winding exit leads and connections to bushings and

tap-changers.

Use of fibre glass cylinder for the inner winding.

Vapour phase drying of coil assemblies in specific cases for

better dimensional control.

(For more exhaustive list refer: Kulkarni, S. V. and Khaparde, S. A. - Transformer

engineering: design and practice - Marcel Dekker, New York, May 2004)

61

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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62

Coupled Systems

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

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63

About Coupled Fields

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Coupled field treatment for accurate and realistic analysis.

Coupled field simulation plays important role to get an

optimum performance.

Classification: 1) weakly coupled 2) strongly coupled.

Weak coupling: solution of one field as load to another field.

It is flexible, modular and easy to use.

Strong coupling: Coupled field equations are solved

simultaneously.

It simultaneously manages all physical aspects of considered

fields.

It is used when interactions are highly nonlinear and the

coupled fields have comparable time constants.

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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64

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Thermo-Magnetic Simulation

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )

t

T

mc T A q T k

t

T

l

V

T

+ =

+ =

) , ( ) (

.

A

A

Coupling Relations (Weakly Coupled):

( )

( ) ( )

ref

ref

T T

T

+

=

1

=

d

t

A

l

V

q(A,T)

c

c

2

1

Coupled Field Equations:

where, k is the thermal conductivity,

m is the mass density, c is the specific heat, q is the loss term.

Material temperature dependence:

Loss calculation

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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65

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Thermo-Magnetic Simulation

Transformer losses consist of eddy loss, DC I

2

R loss, and

additional stray losses in structural components.

The calculated joule losses can be used as loads to the

thermal model to predict the temperature rise.

The winding eddy loss and stray losses increase due to

current harmonics.

t h j

N

h

h

e t t

) ( ) (

1

=

= A A

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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66

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Field-Circuit Coupling

Electromagnetic Model:

Circuit Coupling:

Here, L

ext

and R

ext

are external inductance and resistance respectively

V

t

A

J A

0

1

U

I

L R

ext ext

finiteelement model

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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67

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Field-Circuit Coupling: Conductor models

t l

V

sol

sol

sol

=

A

J

str

str str

str

A

I N

= J

U

f

i

g

R P

P S

B C

i

g

M

B

Q

T

T

0

0

0

0

0 0

0 0

0 0 A A

&

&

&

str

l

str

Istr

str

l

sol

Isol

sol

sol

A A

(a) (b)

Global System of Equation:

Stranded Conductor:

Solid Conductor:

here, Q, B, M, C, S, P and R are the matrices of the constant coefficients, f

and U are the source terms, and g is the voltage gradient (V/l).

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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68

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Transient Simulation of Transformer

+

+

0

0

1 1

t

V

t

V

A

A

A A

J A A =

1 1

( ) t i

S

N

J

c

c

=

In eddy current region

In non-eddy current region

where N

c

is the number of turns and S

c

is the total cross-sectional area of

the windings.

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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69

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Half-Turn Effect in Transformers

H

V

L

V V V

H L

2 1

N N

2

N 1

1

N

2

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

70

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Half-Turn Effect in Transformers

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

71

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Half-Turn Effect in Transformers

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

72

ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Half-Turn Effect in Transformers

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Split-Winding Transformer

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

Thank You

74

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75

Modern Transformers ARWt r 2004 28 -30 October. Vigo Spain

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ARWtr 2004 Lecture: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES IN TRANSFORMER DESING by Prof. S.V.Kulkarni

http://webs.uvigo.es/arwtr04

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