Acinetobacter (ah-see-netto-BAK-ter) is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the wider class of Gammaproteobacteria. Acinetobacter species are non-motile and oxidase-negative, and occur in pairs under magnification. They are important soil organisms, where they contribute to the mineralizationof, for example, aromatic compounds. Acinetobacter are a key source of infection in debilitated patients in the hospital, in particular the speciesAcinetobacter baumannii. Contents [show] Etymology[edit source | editbeta] Acinetobacter is a compound word from scientific Greek [α + κίνητο + βακτηρ(ία)], meaning 'nonmotile-rod'. The first element acineto- is a somewhatbaroque render of the Greek morpheme ακίνητο-; the more commontransliteration in English is akineto-, as in akinetic. Description[edit source | editbeta] Species of the genus Acinetobacter are strictly aerobic nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. They show preponderantly a coccobacillary morphology on nonselective agar. Rods predominate in fluid media, especially during early growth. The morphology of Acinetobacter sp. can be quite variable in gram-stained human clinical specimens, and cannot be used to differentiate Acinetobacterfrom other common causes of infection.

Actinomycosis is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Actinomyces species[1] such as Actinomyces israelii [2] or A. gerencseriae. It can also be caused by Propionibacterium propionicus, and the condition is likely to be polymicrobial aerobic anaerobic infection.[3] Contents In animals[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Actinomycosis in animals Actinomycosis occurs rarely in humans but rather frequently in cattle as a disease calledlumpy jaw. This name refers to the large abscesses that grow on the head and neck of the infected animal. It can also affect swine, horses, and dogs, and less often wild animals and sheep. Signs and symptoms[edit source | editbeta] The disease is characterised by the formation of painful abscesses in the mouth,lungs,[4] [5] or gastrointestinal tract.[3] Actinomycosis abscesses grow larger as the disease progresses, often over months. In severe cases, they may penetrate the surrounding bone and muscle to the skin, where they break open and leak large amounts of pus, which often contains characteristic granules (sulphur granules). The purulent leakage via the sinus cavities contains "sulphur granules," not actually sulpur-containing but resembling such particles. These granules contain progeny bacteria. Sometimes there is difficulty in making the correct diagnosis. In addition to microbiological examinationsmagnetic resonance imaging and immunological blood analyses may also be helpful. [6] Anaplasmosis a rickettsial parasite of ruminants, Anaplasma spp. The organism occurs in the red blood cells and is transmitted by natural means through a number of haematophagous species of ticks. It can also be transmitted iatrogenically by the use of surgical, dehorning, castration, and tattoo instruments and hypodermic needlesthat are not disinfected between uses. Although the term is often associated with animal infection, it is also used to describe infection in humans.[1] Life cycle[edit source | editbeta] The organism can go through a complete lifecycle in the gut of certain species of ticks but the flies appear to be only a mechanicalvector, thus, not as important in maintaining the disease in any given area. The disease causes severe anemia and wasting in infected adult cattle. Young cattle and most other ruminants will not show clinical signs if infected but may serve as carriers. Distribution[edit source | editbeta]

A. It is typical to find that most individuals harbour a small number of worms. Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. pyogenes is to perform a Gram Stain.[4] Infections are usually asymptomatic. haemolyticum was initially classified as C. In the 1980s and 1990s. Perhaps as many as one quarter of the world's population are infected. Symptoms look like those of β-hemolytic streptococci or viral infection. Growth is enhanced in blood and by carbon dioxide. [3] facultative anaerobic. haemolyticum can easily be confused with this organism. especially if the number of worms is small.[1] Due to is resemblance to another type of bacteria.[5] Astrovirus . Otherspecies of the genus Ascaris can cause disease in domestic animals. [4] Ascariasis Ascariasis is a disease of humans caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. burrow through the gut wall. [3] Adult worms have a life-span of 1–2 years which means that individuals may be infected all their lives as worms die and new worms are acquired. are found. formerly known as Corynebacterium hæmolyticum.[2]Controversies regarding classification were resolved in 1982 when a new genus. notably tetracycline. catalase negative rods (but transition to the coccal shape occurs as the organism grows) with arrangements described as matchbox or Chinese letters arrangements.[3] There they break into the alveoli and pass up the trachea where they are coughed up and swallowed. [2] Infection occurs by swallowing food contaminated with Ascaris eggs from feces. A rash of the chest and of the abdomen.Corynebacterium. Organisms are Gram-positive. pyogenes subspecies hominus. the spectrum of diseases caused by A. and routine plating of specimens suspected of containing A. Since its initial description. anaplasmosis is notably present in the south and west where the tick hosts Ixodes spp. because the degree of disease is related to the number of worms in the intestine as well as to the size and health of the human 25-year-old persons and manifests as exudative pharyngitis and/or tonsillitisaccompanied by cervical lymphadenopathy. and DNAcharacteristics. The larvaehatch in the intestine. haemolyticum infection is most common in 15. Arcanobacterium(enigmatic bacterium) was created based on its peptidoglycan. and migrate to the lungs through the blood system. haemolyticum on human blood agar is suggested to distinguish it from Streptococcus pyogenes as A. Detection Hemolysis is detected on human blood agar plates. or extremities is seen in 20% to 25% of cases enhancing the risk of diagnostic error as streptococcal infection or penicillin allergy. with a prevalence of 45% in Latin America and 95% in parts of Africa. fatty acid. The most reliable way to distinguish it from S. while a small proportion are heavily infected.lumbricoides among human hosts is best described empirically by the negative binomial distribution. in 1946 from US servicemen and peoples of the South Pacific suffering from sore throat. neck. A.[1] Ascariasis is particularly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions where hygiene is poor. Some genes have been identified in humans that may increase susceptibility to infection. when β-lactam therapy is initiated without exact diagnosis. History[edit source | editbeta] It was first described by MacClean et al. They maintain their position by swimming against the intestinal flow caused by peristalsis. [4] The distribution of A.In the United States. is abacterial species. The larvae pass through the stomach for a second time into the intestine where they mature into adult worms. has led to the point where the disease is no longer considered a major problem. Early in the 20th century. something that is characteristic of many worm infections. haemolyticum has been expanded to include sepsis andosteomyelitis. control of ticks through new acaricides and practical treatment with prolonged-action antibiotics. none are currently available in the United States. Althoughvaccines have been developed. this disease was considered one of major economic consequence in the western United States. such as Ascaris suum which infects pigs.

the astroviridae.[1] In addition to humans. and turkey poults (classified as genus Aviastrovirus). Along with thePicornaviridae and the Caliciviridae. icosahedral viruses that have a characteristic five.[2] Signs and symptoms in humans[edit source | editbeta] Members of a relatively new virus family. Infected people do not need hospitalization because symptoms reduce by themselves. Some research studies have shown that the duration of the symptoms are approximately three to four days. [2] Astrovirus has a non-segmented. followed by nausea. after a short time. [4] .or sixpointed star-like surface structure when viewed by electron microscopy. astroviruses are now recognised as a cause of gastroenteritis in children and adults.Astrovirus is a type of virus that was first discovered in 1975 using electron microscopes following an outbreak of diarrhoea in humans. single stranded. positive sense RNA genome within a non-enveloped icosahedralcapsid. astroviruses have now been isolated from numerous mammalian animal species (and are classified as genus Mammoastrovirus) and from avian species such as ducks. Astroviruses are 28–35 nm diameter. malaise and abdominal pain.[3] Human astroviruses have been shown in numerous studies to be an important cause of gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The main symptoms are diarrhea. single-stranded RNA. chickens. the Astroviridae comprise a third family of nonenveloped viruses whose genome is composed of plus-sense. fever. Astrovirus infection is not usually a severe situation and only in some rare cases leads to dehydration. vomiting.

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