presents

The Legend of El Cid
A Story of Medieval Knighthood

TEACHER’S EDITION
GRADE SEVEN STELLAR READING • STAR POWER WRITING

Written by Polaris Learning, Inc.® www.polarislearning.org Copyright © by Medieval Times® 2003 To arrange your trip to Medieval Times, call 1-888-WE-JOUST www.medievaltimes.com All rights reserved. The pages in this book may be duplicated for classroom use only. Printed September 2003

The Legend of El Cid
Table of Contents
I. II. Introduction: Medieval Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Chapter 1 A. Words to Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 B. Islam: A Mighty Power is Born . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8 C. Activity: El Cid Timeline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 D. Activity: Map Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 E. The Quest for El Cid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12 F. Dramatis Personae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15 G. El Cid: Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-20 H. Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1-1.2 I. Vocabulary in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3-1.5 J. Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 K. Writing: Research Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7-1.10 Chapter 2 A. Long Day’s Journey into Knighthood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-22 B. Today’s Knights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 C. El Cid: Chapter 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-30 D. Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1-2.2 E. Vocabulary in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3-2.5 F. Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 G. Writing: Response to Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7-2.10 Chapter 3 A. When Home Is a Castle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-35 B. Activity: Life Is Feudal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 C. El Cid: Chapter 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-44 D. Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1-3.3 E. Vocabulary in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4-3.6 F. Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 G. Writing: Personal Narrative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8-3.9 H. Activity: How Illuminating! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10-3.11

III.

IV.

Teachers: Please note that there is a Medieval Faire activity at the end of this packet. Students can earn Scriptorium Scrip for completion of exercises throughout this packet to spend at the Medieval Faire.

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V.

Chapter 4 A. A Woman’s World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-47 B. El Cid: Chapter 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-56 C. Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1-4.2 D. Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3-4.5 E. Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 F. Writing: Persuasive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7-4.8

VI. Chapter 5 A. Surely You Joust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57-59 B. El Cid: Chapter 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60-66 C. Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1-5.2 D. Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3-5.4 E. Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 F. Writing: Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6-5.8 VII. Chapter 6 A. The Andalusian Horse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67-68 B. El Cid: Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69-74 C. Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1-6.2 D. Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3-6.5 E. Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6 F. Writing: Article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7-6.8 VIII. Chapter 7 A. The Wills of War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-77 B. El Cid: Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-85 C. Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1-7.3 D. Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4-7.6 E. Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7-7.8 F. Writing: Persuasive Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9-7.10 IX. Chapter 8 A. The First Crusade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87-90 B. El Cid: Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91-98 C. Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1-8.3 D. Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4-8.6 E. Discussion Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7-8.8 F. Writing: Article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.9 G. Activity: Medieval Faire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.10-8.14 Appendix A: California State Standards for Grade Seven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1-A.7 Appendix B: Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.8-A.9

Introduction

Medieval Times

ou are about to embark on a great adventure; you will travel back to medieval times, where you will witness fantastic feats of fighting skill as six bold knights face each other in combat to determine who will become the king’s new champion. The year is 1062; the place is Spain. To prepare for your Medieval Times adventure, you must learn the customs and legends of the day. You may think of the Middle Ages as the time of King Arthur and his fabled kingdom, Camelot, with lofty castles, brave knights performing doughty deeds, and beautiful damsels in distress. King Arthur may be England’s most famous knight, but in the land of Spain, there was another just as mighty, Rodrigo de Vivar. This is his story. Rodrigo lived at a time when Spain was not a united country but rather a series of smaller states and kingdoms that divided the Iberian Peninsula. Rodrigo came from Christian Castile, the largest kingdom; to the east was Aragon, another Christian power, which battled with Castile for preeminence. To the south lay the real threat, however—the Moors. The Moors were Muslims who had swept up from Africa in 711 A.D. They crossed at the Straits of Gibraltar, where Africa and Spain are just 7 miles apart. To ensure victory, their caliph, or ruler, burned his ships, so his army had no retreat. It was either conquer or die for the Moors, and conquer they did. Only the intervention of Charles Martel, King of the Franks, who traversed the northern Pyrenees Mountains to halt the Moorish assault, stemmed the tide. Otherwise, the whole of Europe might have fallen to Moorish power. His grandson Charlemagne continued the battle his grandfather had begun

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and was able to help establish a small Christian stronghold at the base of the Pyrenees. Rodrigo was from a noble family. His father, Don Diego Lainez, was a favorite of the king, and so Rodrigo grew up in the king’s household and was raised with the Infantes, the royal children. Rodrigo became famous for his loyalty; he fought for King Ferdinand against the rival Kingdom of Aragon and became the king’s champion. He fought with Prince Sancho against the Moorish city of Alcocer. But when King Sancho was treacherously murdered, Rodrigo sought justice and was banished for his trouble. During Rodrigo’s time, Spain was never at peace. If he wasn’t fighting rival Christians, he was fighting Moors. Even on the night before Prince Sancho was to knight him, he was forced to fight. Tired of the endless round of fighting, Rodrigo let two Moorish kings go. Al-Mutamin, the powerful caliph of Zaragoza, was one of these kings. He was a skilled soldier, but his vocation was that of scholar. He studied at the famous University of Cordoba and was well versed in medicine, law, astronomy, and mathematics. It is al-Mutamin who gave Rodrigo the title by which his legend would be known: El Cid, the Lord. When Rodrigo released al-Mutamin, they formed a friendship that lasted a lifetime. And when ben Yusuf, an Arab tyrant, threatened to attack from Africa, destroying anyone, Moor or Christian, who stood in his way, alMutamin joined Rodrigo and fought beside him to stave off the attack. When all the world was at war, Rodrigo and alMutamin showed how men with different views can live in peace. When the end finally came for Rodrigo, it was alMutamin who fulfilled the dying hero’s last request, and it was al-Mutamin who felt honor bound to tell his friend’s story. Rodrigo’s is the story of a boy who becomes a man, a man who becomes a hero, and a hero who gallops into legend as the mighty El Cid.

We hope that Rodrigo’s story will help prepare you for your visit to the tournament at Medieval Times, where you will see courage, chivalry, and honor equal to those of the legendary El Cid.

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WORDS TO KNOW
1. Moors: the name given to the Islamic invaders of the Iberian Peninsula because they came from Morocco Allah: the name of the one God of Islam Mecca: the birthplace of the prophet Muhammad. It is considered sacred as the place of origin of the Islamic religion. Muhammad: the most important prophet of Islam. Born in Mecca around 570 A.D., he was a well-respected trader. When he turned about 40, he experienced a revelation and believed that the angel Gabriel had appeared to him and ordered him to proclaim the word of God. Muhammad is considered the seal of the prophets, the last and greatest of God’s messengers to man. Sunni Muslims: Muslims who believe that the religious leader should be elected. At Muhammad’s death, there was a crisis in the Islamic community about who should be its new leader. The Sunni Muslims elected Abu Bakr to lead them after the prophet’s death. Shi’i Muslims: Muslims who believe that religious leaders should be related by blood to Muhammad. The Shi’i Muslims chose Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law, as his successor. 7. al-Andalus: the Moorish part of southern Spain. From 711 A.D. to 1066, its power grew to cover most of the Iberian Peninsula. Caliph: means “successor” in Arabic. Very much like Christian kings, caliphs were rulers of individual territories. Al-Mutamin was the caliph of Zaragoza. Emir: similar to an emperor, he rules over a confederation of multiple cities or states. Ben Yusuf was an African emir.

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

8.

9.

10. Almoravides: a group of Islamic fundamentalists who first came to Spain at the invitation of the caliphate states to serve as allies in their wars against the Christians but who soon began to conquer Moorish cities as well. The well-educated and sophisticated
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Moors considered them ignorant and barbaric. Their emir, ben Yusuf, was a tyrant who wanted to force all men to obey his strict form of Islam. 11. Cordoba: the capital city of Moorish Spain, it was the largest city in Europe for many years. A seat of great learning and religious tolerance, it attracted the best scholars from among Christians, Muslims, and Jews.

12. madrasa: originally the student quarters in a mosque. Many of these grew into famous universities, such as the one al-Mutamin attends in Cordoba. 13. mosaic: an intricate pattern formed by tiles 14. mosque: comes from the Arabic word masjid, meaning “a place to prostrate oneself.” A mosque is a place of public worship in which men come to pray. Women are encouraged to pray at home. On Friday afternoons, the holy day of the Muslim week, religious services are held. The mosque is kept open at all times and may be used as a court, public meeting place, lecture hall, or a place for meditation. 15. mihrab: an alcove in a mosque’s wall, it indicates the quibla, the direction of prayer. Muslims always pray facing toward Mecca, the place where Muhammad first proclaimed the religion of Islam. 16. minaret: a tower usually built on the outside of a mosque from which the faithful can be called to prayer 17. Qur’an (often spelled Koran): considered by Muslims to be the literal word of God, dictated by the angel Gabriel from a written version in heaven, and then passed on by God’s instrument, the prophet Muhammad. The Muslims’ holy book, it is considered by Muslims to be the complete guide to life and contains answers to every question.

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18. 19.

surra: a chapter in the Qur’an. The Qur’an is divided into 114 surras. dhimmi: “people of the book.” Muslims do not consider their religion as separate from Judaism or Christianity but rather as transcending them. Zaragoza: one of the most important cities of the caliphate state. Ruled by al-Mutamin and located in the Ebro River valley, it was in a strategic location between Christian and Moorish powers. Taifa, or caliphate: the cities and states ruled by Moorish caliphs. tribute: basically extortion money, to keep rival powers from invading. King Ferdinand demanded tribute from many Moorish cities. In exchange for their payment to him, he would not attack them and would come to their defense if they were attacked by another power. Five Pillars of Islam: the five specific duties every Muslim is required to fulfill during his lifetime. These are known as the Pillars of Faith. They are: 1. Reciting of the Shahada: Publicly proclaiming that “There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the prophet of Allah” 2. Salat: praying five times a day and attending the Friday religious services 3. Zakat: giving alms to the poor 4. Sawm: fasting during the holy month of Ramadan each year 5. hajj: going on a pilgrimage to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad. Devout Muslims are required to do this at least once in their lives. Ka’ba: the most sacred shrine in Islam, located at the center of Mecca. A ritual surrounding the Ka’ba is an important part of the hajj. jihad: a holy war. Many of the first converts to Islam were those conquered by caliphate states. Muslims who die in a holy war are guaranteed a place in heaven. Reconquista: The reconquest of Moorish territory by the Christian kingdoms of Spain. Begun about 1083, it concluded with the conquest of Granada in 1492; it was the last of the Moorish cities to fall.

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ISLAM: A MIGHTY POWER IS BORN
he legend is told in Spain of how the conquest of its Christian powers first began. In ancient times, so the story goes, there was built a tall and mighty tower in which was kept a dark secret. The king who built the tower and knew the secret held within sealed it with a great padlock and decreed that each of his successors must take a vow not only to never enter the tower but to add a padlock to it in his turn, thus keeping its secret preserved ever more inviolate by each succeeding king. Twenty-six kings came and went respecting his wishes, and then to the throne came a rash and impulsive young man named Roderic. Determined to penetrate the secret of the tower, and against the advice of all his counselors, he had the 27 padlocks opened. Once the door was open, he entered the chamber within and climbed its long spiral staircase. When he reached the top, he beheld a mural painted on the walls all about him. The mural portrayed Arab horsemen with deadly scimitars fastened at their belts, while they brandished spears held aloft. Roderic was amazed at the sight and could not fathom what the mural meant. Was this the secret that had been so carefully kept all these years? If so, he was not impressed. Then he saw in the middle of the room a table made of gold and silver set with precious stones. Upon it were carved the words: “This is the table of King Solomon, son of David, upon whom be peace.” An urn on the table contained a scroll of parchment. Roderic carefully unrolled it and read the words, “Whenever this chamber is violated and the spell contained in this urn is broken, then the people you see before you painted on these walls will most surely invade Spain, overthrow its kings, and conquer the entire land.” Roderic sat and held his head in despair. His disregard of his royal obligation would cost him his kingdom, and this destiny was not his to bear alone, but all the Visigothic kings of Spain would fall by his folly. This story is preserved in both Christian and Muslim sources. For the Christians it meant that it was all the careless Roderic’s fault that they were conquered. For the Muslims it meant that their conquest was decreed by prophecy and fate. So how did this mighty power that would topple the Visigothic kings begin? The story is a strange one. It all began with a young man named Muhammad, who was born in the prosperous trading city of Mecca about 570 A.D. Orphaned while young, he spent the first years of his life in poverty. Muhammad was born a member of the noble Quraysh tribe, however, and was able to depend on the charity of his kinsmen until he was old enough to earn his living as a camel driver and merchant. He was so fair and honest in his dealings that he soon earned the name of al-Amin, the trustworthy. Like Arab merchants for generations before him, Muhammad was able to profit from Arabia’s position at the crossroads of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Arabia was crisscrossed with trading routes linking the Arabian Peninsula with the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean. Muhammad traveled with camel

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caravans along these routes and made several trading journeys as far as Syria. Exotic spices from the east; rich textiles, such as silks from China; paper; steel; and new crops traveled along these routes. When he was 25, Muhammad married his employer, a wealthy widow named Khadija, who had been made rich by prosperous trading, and he suddenly had more time on his hands. Unlike many rich merchants in his position, however, Muhammad spent his days and nights meditating in the hills around Mecca. When he was about 40, he experienced a vision that would change his life—and the future of the world. Muhammad believed that the angel Gabriel came to him in a dream and ordered him to recite a sacred verse. Muhammad became convinced, after this experience, that it was his duty and destiny to bring God’s word to his fellow men. In the beginning, only a few of Muhammad’s close relatives and friends believed in his vision and accepted him as a prophet. In time, however, he gained more and more converts, and the rich men of Mecca began to worry. They feared that the new religion would challenge their authority and ruin the profitable pilgrimage trade that centered on the sacred shrine, the Ka’ba, located in the heart of Mecca. The Ka’ba is a stone building that stands at the center of the Sacred Mosque at Mecca. It is a sanctuary dedicated to God that Muslims believe dates back to the time of Adam. It is the holiest shrine in Islam. In 622, Muhammad’s followers were forced to flee Mecca for Medina, almost 200 miles away. This event is called the hijra, or flight, which Muslims today consider the formal year of the founding of their religion; as such, it marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. In Medina, Muhammad was accepted as a political and religious leader. He soon won many followers, who followed him into battle against the people of Mecca. In 630, Muhammad reentered Mecca triumphant and purified the Ka’ba by destroying all the idols that were housed inside. In an amazing feat, within two years, he persuaded all the other cities and tribes of Arabia to yield to his authority. For the first time, all the warring tribes of the peninsula acknowledged one authority, and all the warring tribes of Arabia were united. In 632, Muhammad died suddenly. With the news of his death, the new nation faced a crisis: Who would succeed him? Muhammad was not only considered by his followers to be the last and greatest of the prophets but also to be the model of what is best in men: in his family life, as a husband and father; in his professional life, as a merchant, soldier, and statesman; and in his religious life, as a prophet and reformer, he was the perfect example for his believers. Who could follow in such perfect footsteps? A rift soon developed between rival factions. Many of his followers elected the prophet’s faithful friend, Abu Bakr, as caliph, or successor, but others believed that the succession should be determined by blood, and they followed Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, the husband of the prophet’s daughter Fatima. The followers of Abu Bakr became Sunni Muslims, and the followers of Ali became Shi’i. This division still separates followers of Islam today. Despite this division, Abu Bakr held the tribes of Arabia together, and his successor, Umar, actively engaged in a war of conquest. The armies of Islam seemed unstoppable. Its soldiers fought with a ferocity and disregard for their own safety, encouraged by the belief that if they died fighting in a jihad, their souls would go straight to Heaven. Within a hundred years after Muhammad’s death, his followers had conquered the Persian Empire, which had existed for 1200 years and most of India, up to the borders of China. They did not conquer the Byzantine Empire, but its borders were pushed far back. Syria, Alexandria, and Egypt fell; by the end of the century, Muslims controlled the entire coast
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of North Africa. Then in 711, the prediction made by the secret mural King Roderic saw painted on the walls of the tower was fulfilled. A Muslim commander, Jebel-el-Tariq, crossed the strait of Gibraltar into Spain. The name Gibraltar comes from the Spanish interpretation of his name. Determined to succeed or die, he marched forward at the head of 12,000 men. When he met Roderic’s army, he rallied his men with the battle cry, “Before us lies the enemy; behind us lies the sea; we have only one choice, to win!” Roderic’s army was soundly defeated, and, true to the legend of the mural, within three years the Muslims, or Moors, as the Christians called them, had conquered all the way to the Pyrenees Mountains. Charles Martel and his army of Franks stopped the Moorish advance, and it was his grandson Charlemagne kept the Moors in Spain, by constant vigilance and warfare along the mountain border. In Spain, the Muslim Moors were now in power and would remain in power until they were expelled in 1492, true to the prophecy of the tower.

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EL CID TIMELINE

622

570 711 1083 1492

630

610

632

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

Match the events with their dates. Write the event’s letter in its date box.

A

Reconquista begins.

B

• Muhammad’s followers forced to flee to Mecca from Medina • Beginning of the Muslim calendar • Founding year of Islamic religion

C

Muhammad dies, leaving a rift between the followers of Muhammad’s friend, Abu Bakr, and Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law.

D

Reconquista ends. Muslims are expelled from Spain, fulfilling the tower prophesy.

E

Muhammad has a vision of the angel Gabriel and is inspired to spread God’s word to his fellow man.

F

Muhammad returns to Mecca and destroys the idols in the Ka’ba.

G

Muhammad is born in Mecca

H

Jebel-el-Tariq’s army defeats King Roderic’s army, fulfilling the tower prophesy.

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MAP OF MEDIEVAL SPAIN
FRANCE
ASTURIAS

AT L A N T I C O C E A N

Pyrenees Mountains Calahorra Vivar
Ja Riv lon er

Leon Burgos

ARAGON Zaragoza E
br o

CASTILE

Ar l Rivazon er

r ve Ri

Alcocer

Valencia AL-ANDALUS Cordoba

Gran GRANADA
Gibraltar
C RO CO

ada

M

I ED

T

RR E

A

MO

AFRICA

FOLLOW THE LEADER
El Cid traveled extensively through medieval Spain. Follow his travels by drawing a line from one city to the next. Here is the order of his journey. 1. Vivar (birthplace) 2. Burgos (for training as a knight) 3. Alcocer (the siege of Alcocer) 4. Burgos (to get reinforcements for the battle) 5. Alcocer (the battle in which he meets al-Mutamin. He goes back and forth between Burgos and Alcocer as Prince Sancho rules Alcocer.) 6. Calahorra (for the tournament) 7. Burgos (This was when he traveled wherever King Sancho was fighting King Alfonso, but their base was in Burgos.) 8. Zaragoza (Rodrigo fights for al-Mutamin) 9. River Jalon (where Rodrigo leaves Gimena and his daughters) 10. Valencia (the siege and last battle) 10

E

N

A

N

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THE QUEST FOR EL CID
legend is a story that is based on the life of someone who actually lived, and the events of the story have some basis in historical fact. The legend of El Cid begins, like all legends, with a real man, Rodrigo de Vivar. He was born into a noble family and he became a knight who served the kings of Castile. He married the noble Gimena, had two daughters, fought in hundreds of battles, endured banishment, conquered Valencia, and he became friends with the caliph of Zaragoza, alMutamin, also a great soldier and a brilliant scholar. The real alMutamin wrote two famous books, one on mathematics and one on astrology. The story is told that the Moors of Alcocer, a Muslim city that El Cid conquered, were so impressed with Rodrigo’s treatment of them that they called him El Cid, the Lord, as a sign of respect. Other stories report that he was not a benevolent lord at all and that those who disobeyed him found his punishments harsh and swift. The reason El Cid is the stuff of legends is that he fought in so many battles without getting killed, and he defeated ben Yusuf, the leader of the Almoravide army that invaded Spain in 1086. Until El Cid defeated him at Valencia, ben Yusuf had never lost a battle, and both sides had begun to think of ben Yusuf as invincible. This important defeat of the Almoravides began the Reconquista, the reconquest of all the Moorish lands of Spain by Christian powers. This is El Cid’s greatest achievement. His victory over the Almoravides tipped the balance of power in Spain. From that point on, the Christian powers conquered city after city of the Moors. Oddly, for a man who lived such a violent life, the real Rodrigo died peacefully in his bed in Valencia, not much of an ending for such a hero. After El Cid’s death, his body was taken to the monastery of San Pedro de Cardena. There, the legend began. Based on these legends, The Poem of the Cid, the finest epic poem to have survived from medieval Spain, was written about 100 years after his death. The author of the poem is unknown though some speculate that he may have been a friar at the monastery in Cardena. Although some of the poem is based on fact, its main purpose is to portray the Cid as a hero, a man who is superior in battle, possesses excellent qualities of leadership, religious devotion, family obligation, vassalage, generosity, courage, and devotion. These are the qualities the Cid displays that make him valor mas, a man worth more than other men. The siege of Alcocer and some of the siege of Valencia come from the poem.

A

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The burial of El Cid’s body at Cardena gave rise to a tomb cult there. It is probable that the cult attracted jongleurs, or minstrels, who would have composed and written poems about El Cid for the entertainment of visiting pilgrims, and so the Cid’s legend grew. The French playwright Corneille used these stories to create the play El Cid, in which the plot of the Castilian Princess Uracca and Gimena’s troubled love for him are dramatized. Perhaps the most memorable of these Cardena stories is of El Cid leading his troops to battle even after his death. The story you will read here draws from all these sources—both historic and literary—to create an old, yet new, hero for your generation. As you read and discuss the story of El Cid, you will become a part of preserving his legend.

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DRAMATIS PERSONAE
al-Mutamin (ahl-MOO-ta-min): The narrator of the story, he becomes the caliph of Zaragoza. Spared by El Cid after the siege of Alcocer, he vows never to fight against Rodrigo’s countrymen again. He fights by Rodrigo’s side at Valencia. Rodrigo de Vivar, El Cid (Rod-REE-go day Vee-VAHR, ehl Sid): Based on the real knight, who lived 1040–1099, he is noble, compassionate, and loyal. Through his bravery and skill, he becomes the king’s champion. Banished by King Alfonso, he serves Lord Mutamin, the Moorish caliph of Zaragoza, who becomes his closest friend. Together, the two face the threat of ben Yusuf, the Almoravide emir, and save Spain from conquest. Don Diego Lainez (Dohn Dee-AY-go LINE-yez): Rodrigo’s father and a former lieutenant to King Fernando. After he is humiliated by Count Gormaz, he calls upon Rodrigo to avenge his honor. King Ferdinand I, King of Castile (Ka-STEEL): a daring warrior in his prime, he loves Rodrigo like a son. He appoints Rodrigo his personal champion after Rodrigo defeats Don Martin at the tournament. Before he dies, he divides his kingdom into three parts, setting off a civil war among his rival children. Prince Sancho: King Ferdinand’s eldest son. Rodrigo serves as his squire until Sancho knights him on the field of Alcocer. He has a special friendship with Rodrigo. The Prince hates his brother Alfonso, however. After his father’s death, he wars with his siblings. He is killed by the treachery of one of Alfonso’s knights working in collusion with ben Yusuf. Prince Alfonso: Made wretched by Sancho’s ill treatment of him, he becomes subtle and treacherous. When King Ferdinand dies, he is made king of Leon, and after Sancho’s death he becomes king of Castile as well. After Sancho’s death, he learns from his mistakes and becomes the good king he was meant to be. Princess Uracca (Oo-RAH-kuh): In love with Rodrigo, she knows their love is hopeless because he is not of her class. She hates Gimena and envies her the happiness she has with Rodrigo. Count Gormaz: the King’s champion before Rodrigo, and Gimena’s father. He is arrogant, strong, and unforgiving. After he insults Don Diego, he is killed by Rodrigo in a duel. Gimena (Hee-MAY-na): Count Gormaz’s beautiful daughter and King Ferdinand’s niece. She is beloved of Rodrigo, but after he kills her father, Gimena is honor bound to avenge her father’s death. When Rodrigo is banished, she forgives him and marries him. King Ramiro: King of Aragon, he is constantly at war with his brother King Ferdinand and with the Moorish caliph at Zaragoza. He proposes a contest for the city of Calahorra in which his champion, Don Martin, is killed.

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THE KNIGHTS
Rodrigo: the red and black knight. Called to fight Don Martin for the contested city of Calahorra Vellido Dolphus (Vay-EE-doh DAHL-fus): the green knight. From Asturias, he is devious and cunning. He quickly ingratiates himself with Prince Alfonso and teaches the prince his treacherous ways. He defeats Fernando Ordonez at the tournament by trickery and conspires with ben Yusuf to kill King Sancho. He is killed by Rodrigo. Don Martin (Dohn Mar-TEEN): the red and yellow knight. King Ramiro’s champion, he has killed 27 knights in armed combat. Fernando Ordonez (Fur-NAN-doe Or-DOHN-yez): Son of the wealthy Count Ordonez, he fights with Rodrigo at the siege of Alcocer. He is defeated by the trickery of Vellido Dolphus at the tournament at Calahorra. When Rodrigo is banished, Fernando joins him. Rodrigo entrusts the care of Gimena and his daughters to Fernando, and Fernando fights at Rodrigo’s side against ben Yusuf. Alberto del Mau (Al-BEHR-toe dehl Mah): the blue knight. The youngest knight at the tournament, he is Fernando’s squire during the battle for Alcocer. At the tournament, it is revealed that he is not really Alberto but rather a peasant who took Alberto’s identity when he died as a young boy. Determined to become a knight, he follows through with his training. Count Ordonez helps him escape after he is arrested, and he also joins Rodrigo when the latter is banished. Father Jeronimo (Her-OH-nih-moh): the black and white knight. A priest who joins El Cid to fight the Moors. After Rodrigo is banished, it is he who performs the marriage ceremony between Rodrigo and Gimena; he also joins him to fight at Valencia, where he is made bishop. After El Cid’s death, he goes on the First Crusade to the Holy Land.

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Medieval Times Chapter 1

Alvar Fanez: A close friend of Rodrigo’s, he fights along side him at Valencia and is sent with tribute to King Alfonso. Rodrigo has him bring Gimena and their daughters to Valencia. Hermana (Er-MAH-nah): El Cid’s first horse, a brown Andalusian and sister to Babieca.

Babieca (BAH-bee-EK-a): Rodrigo’s faithful horse. She carries him safely from the field at Alcocer and does so again when he is attacked by Vellido’s men. She is the fastest horse in Spain, and the most loyal. She carries El Cid into battle even after he is dead.

al-Quadir (ahl-kuh-DEER): The caliph of Valencia. He plots with ben Yusuf to have Prince Sancho killed. While his people starve during the siege of Valencia, he lives in luxury. He is thrown to his death by his own people. Mundhir al-Hayib: al-Mutamin’s rebellious brother. Ruler of the fertile Huerta lands north of Valencia. He joins forces with al-Quadir to fight his brother. Ben Yusuf (ben YOO-suf): The emir of the Almoravides, the Islamic invaders from Africa. His cruelty and tyranny are legendary, and he has vowed to kill anyone who stands in his way of conquering the Iberian Peninsula, whether they are Moor or Christian. His huge army has never been defeated—until he meets El Cid at 15 Valencia.

Stellar Reading

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1: AL-MUTAMIN
“La ilaha illa Allah, Muhammad rasul Allah. There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the prophet of Allah.”

I

am called al-Mutamin, the Caliph of Zaragoza. I am what the Christians of my country call a Moor because over three hundred years ago, my people came across the strait of Gibraltar from the African city Morocco—hence the name Moor. We do not call ourselves Moors but rather Muslims, which means that we are followers of Islam and the prophet Muhammad, and the land we founded is al-Andalus— and it is a pearl beyond price. I have spent much of my life fighting. In my youth, my home city of Zaragoza was often under attack, either by Christians from Aragon and Castile or by rival Moorish caliphs from other cities, who wanted the rich possessions of Zaragoza to enhance their own glory. Zaragoza is located on the northern frontier of al-Andalus, the Moorish lands of Spain, and as such is in a precarious position. In my long career as a soldier, there was one man I came to know well who was different from all others. His name was Rodrigo de Vivar, or as we Muslims whom he befriended called him, El Cid, the lord. El Cid was a valiant knight; he was mighty in battle and an expert with the lance and sword. When he was just nineteen years of age, he defeated the older and more experienced champions of Castile and Aragon, proving his prowess. But this is not what made him remarkable—what set him apart from other men was that he had the vision to be just and the courage to be merciful. I fought at El Cid’s side in many battles and lived in his camp during the siege of Valencia. He was Spain’s greatest knight; he saved the country when everyone thought it would fall to ben Yusuf and his Almoravide army, but above all, he was my friend, and I am honor bound to tell his story before it vanishes into the mists of time. To understand the friendship that grew between El Cid and myself, it is important to understand the life I lived before our paths crossed. I was born in Zaragoza, a wealthy Muslim city of which my father was the caliph, al-Muqtadir. My father was constantly at war because Zaragoza is a Muslim city in the middle of the Christian kingdom Aragon. One Christian king after another would try to conquer our city and claim it as his own, but none succeeded. Even rival Muslim cities tried to attack us. Zaragoza was built on the Ebro River, so rival Moors would come by sea up the coast and then march up the fertile Ebro Valley. In my youth we were attacked many times, but my father was a mighty warrior, and as such, he had engineered the city to withstand a siege, and so our city never fell.

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As a child, I was trained in the arts of war. It was expected that, as the eldest son, I should follow in my father’s footsteps and become a mighty soldier so that I could defend our people. But as I grew, it became my will, as it became the will of my father, that I should travel to the capital of alAndalus, Cordoba, a seat of great learning, and attend the university there. It was understood that once I received my education, I would return to Zaragoza and fulfill the duty as the future caliph, and since my father was a wise man and realized that all the knowledge I gained at the madrasa would make me a better and wiser king, I was granted permission to attend. When I arrived in Cordoba, I was amazed at the city’s beauty. I thought, as the son of the caliph, that my early life had been filled with luxury and that my city was great and powerful—what I saw in Cordoba changed my perception of both. More than half a million people lived in the city, the streets were paved, and in the hours of dusk each evening the lamplighters would set the city aglow. The houses were things of rare beauty and luxury. They had balconies constructed of the rarest marble for their inhabitants to cool themselves in the summer and hot air ducts that ran beneath the intricate mosaic floors to warm them in the winter. There were gardens, fountains, and orchards everywhere. Cordoba was called “the jewel of the world,” and a beautiful and costly jewel it was. As a student, there was no place better than Cordoba to study. It was the well of knowledge from which the most educated of humanity came to drink. There were dozens of libraries free for public use and seven hundred mosques for worship. The entire city was educated. Both boys and girls attended the eight hundred schools, and the wise Caliph Hakim II had built twenty-seven public schools for the education of the poor. My studies included The Qur’an, the sacred book of Islam. The Qur’an contains the teachings of our prophet, Muhammad, as he proclaimed them to men. Nearly five hundred years ago, Muhammad was born in the town of Mecca. When he was forty years old, he had a revelation that the angel Gabriel came to him while he was asleep and told him to recite the words, “In the name of the Lord who created, Created man from a clot of blood, Recite! For thy Lord is most kind, Who has taught by the pen, Taught man what he did not know.”

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After my Lord Muhammad had this vision, he felt as though these words were written on his heart and that he had been called to proclaim Allah’s message to man. As he went about reciting the revelations he received, his followers wrote them down on whatever came to hand: leaves, scraps of bark, and even the blade bones of camels, but the main task of preserving the prophet’s words was entrusted to the qurra, or reciters. It was the second caliph, Umar, who, fearing that the prophet’s words might be lost if something catastrophic happened, such as all the qurra being killed in battle, insisted that the prophet’s teachings be written down. This was completed twenty years after the prophet’s death, in the 114 chapters, or surras, that became the Qur’an. The Qur’an is the holy book of Islam; it contains the laws by which we live and govern, and within its writings are to be found the answer to any question. My people consider Muhammad “the Seal of the Prophets, the last and greatest of Allah’s messengers.” And to the faithful of my people, he is a model of all things: the perfect father, husband, soldier, merchant, statesman, poet, and leader. But he is not worshipped; only Allah, the one God, is worshipped. Islam means “submission” to the will of Allah, as revealed in the Qur’an. We believe that there is but one God, Allah, and that he is served by angels and will, on the Day of Judgment, assign men to Heaven or Hell, according to how well they have lived. Through regular prayer we express our love of Allah. Each day we pray to Allah five times—first thing in the morning, around midday, midafternoon, at dusk, and before going to bed. Prayer is preceded by washing our hands, arms, ears, nose, and feet. Our mosques usually have fountains for this ritual washing. During my stay in Cordoba, I went to the mosque each morning to pray. There, I found the light of its virtue and the peace of its shadows. Once inside, I would face the mihrab, which shows the direction of Mecca, and bow and kneel as I recited the prayer: In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, The Merciful One, the Compassionate One, Master of the Day of Judgment. Thee alone we serve, to Thee alone we cry for help. Guide us in the straight path The Path of them Thou hast blessed, Not of those with whom Thou art angry Nor of those who go astray. Although the Christians regard us as heretics, we do not consider Islam a different religion, but rather one that embraces and transcends Judaism and Christianity. Twenty-eight prophets are named in the Qur’an, including Adam, Moses, David, and Jesus. We recognize Jews and Christians as dhimmi, people of the book. Although Christians, Jews, and Muslims from all over Europe and Africa were able to live together in harmony in Cordoba, outside the city, even with so many beliefs in common, war has ever been the way between us, and sometimes I believe that there will never be peace.
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Although the Qur’an formed a large part of my studies, there were many other subjects that I pursued. Our belief at the madrasa, and throughout the Muslim academic world, was that all knowledge can be circumscribed into one great whole and that the acquisition of knowledge is how we come to know Allah; therefore, all subjects assume equal importance in our pursuit of wisdom. I studied mathematics and learned to measure the path of the stars through the night sky with astronomy. Astrology taught me to read the course of events Allah had determined for men written in the movements of the stars and planets. I studied the works of the great astrologer, AbuMashar, and learned how the moon controls the pull of the tides. Alchemy taught me how to refine precious metals and measure changes in weight and temperature. And although we never found the secret of turning lead into gold, we did learn many other mysteries about the elemental world. I read the tales of men who traveled the trade routes and learned about distant lands such as Egypt, Persia, and India. I read the works being compiled in the Mujam al-Buldan, the great geographical dictionary that sought to name all the places of the earth. I studied maps and atlases. I learned all about the coastlines of Iberia and Africa and how my city might better prepare for attack. I studied agriculture and engineering to learn new ways to better irrigate the fertile valley of Zaragoza. I studied the scope of architecture and the intricacy of decoration. I studied law that I might be a fair and just ruler. I wanted to learn all that I could to help my people when I became their caliph. Cordoba was the model of all that I wanted Zaragoza to be. If Cordoba was Spain’s crowning jewel, then Zaragoza could be its scepter. Of all my studies, however, it was the art of medicine that fascinated me most of all. The doctors of Cordoba had studied all the medical knowledge of the Greeks, and they had improved on their observations. The great physician Ibn-Sina, known to the Christians as Avicenna, had written fortythree medical works, including al-Qanaun fit as-Tibb, the great canon of medicine. This great work was an encyclopedia of a million words that summarized Greek, Syrian, Persian, and Arabic knowledge. Ibn-Sina had also made many important observations of his own, which were included in his books. He recognized, for example, that diet and climate have an important influence on health and that emotional stress can produce physical illness. He observed that disease could be spread by water and recommended that drugged wine could be used to relieve pain. It was in the hospitals of Cordoba that I learned the skills of a surgeon and how to mix herbs into medicines to ease and cure many ailments. The hospital is where I would have liked to spend all my days, easing the suffering of the sick and afflicted, but Allah had chosen another path for me. I went to Cordoba to study when I was a boy of thirteen years. I returned to Zaragoza at my father’s summon when I was twenty-three. I would have been happy to continue my studies for many more years, but I had to return home when my city was attacked by the Christian kingdom of Aragon. Leaving Cordoba where all men, regardless of race or religion lived in harmony, was one of the most difficult partings, of the many partings, that I would experience in my

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life. In the academic paradise that I had come to know in Cordoba, I had almost forgotten the constant wars of my childhood. But things had changed in my city since I had been away. The once powerful frontier city that I had known Zaragoza to be had weakened in my absence. The taifas, or caliphate cities of al-Andalus, had been at war among themselves, and they were weakened by constant fighting. This made the Christian kingdoms of Aragon and Castile an even greater threat. And so it was with diplomacy that my father avoided conquest this time. He had made an agreement with Castile to pay them an annual tribute of gold in exchange for their protection. This bargain had kept the peace for many years, but in the summer of 1062, the tide turned again, and Aragon was encamped on the border of our neighboring city Alcocer, poised for attack. Once again it was time for me to pick up the sword, and it was by the sword that I first met El Cid.

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Stellar Reading Reading Comprehension

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 1

Read the following questions and circle the letter of the answer that best completes it. 1. Al-Mutamin is all of the following except a. the emir of Valencia. b. the caliph of Zaragoza. c. called a Moor by the Christians of his country. d. a follower of Islam. Al-Mutamin feels honor bound to tell the story of El Cid because a. it was Rodrigo’s last request. b. El Cid was his friend, and he feels he must tell El Cid’s story before it vanishes. c. al-Mutamin does not want the Christian storytellers to lie about what happened. d. all valiant knights deserve to have their stories told. The Moorish city Zaragoza is often under attack by a. the Christian forces of Aragon. b. the Christian forces of Castile. c. rival Moorish caliphs. d. all of the above Al-Mutamin believes that the main thing that made Rodrigo remarkable was that a. he was an exceptional soldier. b. he was knighted when he was just nineteen. c. he had the vision to be just and the courage to be merciful. d. he was willing to fight at al-Mutamin’s side. Al-Mutamin’s city, Zaragoza, never fell to the attacking enemies because a. it was located in an area secure from attack. b. there was no easy access to the city. c. it had been engineered to withstand a siege. d. it was a poor city and so was not attractive to rival powers. The main reason al-Mutamin’s father sends him to Cordoba is a. to keep al-Mutamin safe from the fighting. b. so al-Mutamin can teach at the madrasa there. c. so that through the knowledge al-Mutamin gains at the madrasa, he will become a better leader for his people. d. experience the luxury of the greatest city in Europe. What al-Mutamin loves most about Cordoba is a. its famous madrasa. b. its magnificent buildings. c. that even the poor are educated. d. that Christians, Muslims, and Jews all study together in an academic paradise.
1.1

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

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Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 1

8.

The main reason the Qur’an formed such a large part of al-Mutamin’s studies is because a. he is interested in the history of Muhammad. b. he is impressed with the poetry of the surras. c. he plans to become a religious leader and preach the word of Allah. d. it is the most important book in the Muslim religion, and Muslims believe that within its pages are contained the answers to all questions. Muhammad believed that he was called as a prophet to preach God’s word when a. he wandered the hills around Mecca meditating. b. he had a vision in which the angel Gabriel appeared to him and told him to recite. c. he had more free time when he married a wealthy wife. d. he visited the Ka’ba.

9.

10. At Cordoba, al-Mutamin shows his submission to Allah by doing all of the following except a. fighting in a jihad. b. studying the Qur’an. c. praying five times a day. d. washing at the fountain before he enters the mosque. 11. Al-Mutamin studied many subjects in Cordoba for all of the following reasons except a. he believed that all knowledge can be circumscribed into one great whole, so all subjects have equal importance. b. he believed that the more learning he had, the better he would be able to serve his people when he became the caliph of Zaragoza. c. his father did not want him to waste his time on medicine, his only interest. d. Cordoba was an academic paradise, where knowledge on all known subjects was readily available.

12. Al-Mutamin would have liked to stay in Cordoba and a. avoid helping his father fight in the constant wars of Zaragoza. b. avoid the responsibility of becoming the caliph. c. become a doctor and attend to the afflicted. d. become a famous astrologer. 13. Al-Mutamin had to leave Cordoba when a. he was called home to fight against Aragon. b. he had finished his studies. c. it was conquered by the Christians of Castile. d. it was conquered by ben Yusuf.

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Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 1

Here are some vocabulary in context practice exercises. Remember, context is the rest of the sentence or paragraph, which gives you clues to the word’s meaning. Context clues may include synonyms, antonyms, or a general sense of meaning. Read the following sentences and see if you can figure out the meaning of the underlined vocabulary words from the context. The sentences are listed in the order they appear in the story, so if you want more context clues, you can look them up. Also, name the part of speech of each vocabulary word as it is used in the sentence. When you finish, check your answers in the dictionary, and then write your own sentence using the vocabulary word. 1. In my youth, my home city of Zaragoza was often under attack, either by Christians from Aragon and Castile or by rival Moorish caliphs from other cities, who wanted the rich possessions of Zaragoza to enhance their own glory. a. wealthy b. allied c. competing d. obscure part of speech: sentence: Zaragoza is located on the northern frontier of al-Andalus, the Moorish lands of Spain, and as such is in a precarious position. a. western region b. land c. kingdom d. border part of speech: sentence: Zaragoza is located on the northern frontier of al-Andalus, the Moorish lands of Spain, and as such is in a precarious position. a. secure b. unsafe c. prime d. fortunate part of speech: sentence: El Cid was a valiant knight; he was mighty in battle and an expert with the lance and sword. a. courageous b. violent c. skillful d. cautious part of speech: sentence: When he was just nineteen years of age, he defeated the older and more experienced champions of Castile and Aragon, proving his prowess. a. power b. skill c. youth d. experience part of speech: sentence: I thought, as the son of the caliph, that my early life had been filled with luxury and that my city was great and powerful—what I saw in Cordoba changed my perception of both. a. discernment b. will c. curiosity d. ability part of speech: sentence: 1.3

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

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Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 1

7.

The Qur’an contains the teachings of our prophet, Muhammad, as he proclaimed them to men. a. suggested b. contrived c. announced d. lost part of speech: sentence: When he was forty years old, he had a revelation that the angel Gabriel came to him while he was asleep and told him to recite the words.... a. divine vision b. divine prayer c. conclusion d. concealment part of speech: sentence: It was the second caliph, Umar, who, fearing that the prophet’s words might be lost if something catastrophic happened, such as all the qurra being killed in battle, insisted that the prophet’s teachings be written down. a. surprising b. disastrous c. confusing d. compelling part of speech: sentence:

8.

9.

10. Islam means “submission” to the will of Allah, as revealed in the Qur’an. a. resistance b. verification c. revelation d. obedience part of speech: sentence: 11. During my stay at Cordoba, I went to the mosque each morning to pray. There, I found the light of its virtue and the peace of its shadows. a. lamp b. questions c. goodness d. deceit part of speech: sentence: 12. Although the Christians regard us as heretics, we do not consider Islam a different religion, but rather one that embraces and transcends Judaism and Christianity. a. friends b. infidels c. colleagues d. curiosities part of speech: sentence: 13. Although the Christians regard us as heretics, we do not consider Islam a different religion, but rather one that embraces and transcends Judaism and Christianity. a. surpasses b. excludes c. contradicts d. loves part of speech: sentence:

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Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 1

14. Although Christians, Jews, and Muslims from all over Europe and Africa were able to live together in harmony in Cordoba, outside the city, even with so many beliefs in common, war has ever been the way between us.... a. discord b. discontent c. anonymity d. accord part of speech: sentence: 15. Our belief at the madrasa, and throughout the Muslim academic world, was that all knowledge can be circumscribed into one great whole and that the acquisition of knowledge is how we come to know Allah; therefore, all subjects assume equal importance in our pursuit of wisdom. a. encompassed b. divided c. found d. confounded part of speech: sentence: 16. I studied the scope of architecture and the intricacy of decoration. a. usage b. freedom c. complexity part of speech: sentence:

d. simplicity

17. It was in the hospitals of Cordoba that I learned the skills of a surgeon and how to mix herbs into medicines to ease and cure many ailments. a. people b. diseases c. ambitions d. comforts part of speech: sentence: 18. In the academic paradise that I had come to know in Cordoba, I had almost forgotten the constant wars of my childhood. a. school b. madrasa c. city d. heaven part of speech: sentence: 19. And so it was with diplomacy that my father avoided conquest this time. He had made an agreement with Castile to pay them an annual tribute of gold in exchange for their protection. a. negotiation b. force c. warfare d. contemplation part of speech: sentence: 20. This bargain had kept the peace for many years, but in the summer of 1062, the tide changed again, and Aragon was encamped on the border of our neighboring city Alcocer, poised for attack. a. reluctant b. hovering c. ambitious d. satisfied part of speech: sentence:
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Stellar Reading Discussion Questions

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 1

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER 1
1. Why is Zaragoza’s location dangerous? What makes it attractive to attacking armies? Why do you suppose both Muslims and Christians attack the city? How does this show that warfare was not simply religious in nature? Why does al-Mutamin feel honor bound to tell Rodrigo’s story? Why does al-Mutamin think that Rodrigo was an exceptional man? Why might mercy and justice be unusual traits in a society based on warfare? What is unusual about Rodrigo’s friendship with al-Mutamin? What does this reveal about both men? What made Cordoba such an exceptional city? Why do you think religious tolerance was encouraged there? How might religious tolerance have allowed the city to become “the jewel of the world”? Why was al-Mutamin sent to Cordoba? Why do you think that he studied so many subjects? Do you think that people learn more when they study one subject in depth or when they study a wide variety of subjects? Explain your answer. How might the things al-Mutamin studied at the madrasa help him become a better leader for his people? Why is he called back to Zaragoza? How did Islam begin? What things does Islam have in common with Christianity and Judaism? What is meant by the idea that Islam transcends Judaism and Christianity? Why do you think, with so much in common, that there has always been war among Christians, Jews, and Muslims? How is this war continued in our world today? Do you agree with al-Mutamin that there will never be peace? Why or why not? How might peace be achieved?

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Writing Research Report

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 1

There are three major steps in writing a research report: 1. ASK important questions about your topic. 2. RESEARCH information about your topic. 3. CONNECT the information you gather into a well-organized written report. Writing Situation: You know from the reading in Chapter 1 that the Muslims made significant contributions to world civilization in the areas of science, geography, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, art, and literature. Al-Mutamin was a model of the Moorish scholar who’s goal it was to be educated in all areas of art and science.

NN 3. CO ECT ESEARCH 2. R 1. ASK

ARC

Directions for Writing: Research one of the leaders listed below in the areas of art, science, or government. Use at least one Internet source in your research; then connect your ideas and write your findings in a research report. Medicine Ibn-Sina (also known as Avicenna), 980–1037 A highly skilled physician and author of over three hundred books, he wrote a comprehensive summary of the medical knowledge of his times. Ibn-al-Nafis, died 1288 The head of the hospital in Cairo, he was the first known scientist to discover the circulation of the blood. Al-Zahrawi, died 1013 Known by Christians as Abulcasis, a gifted surgeon, he wrote a book that summarized all surgical knowledge of the day, including a description of surgical methods and instruments, many of which he designed himself. Al-Haytam Muslim scientists of the era did extensive research into the study of optics and how the eye works. Al-Haytam explored such natural phenomena as rainbows, eclipses, mirages, and optical illusions. Astronomy and Astrology Abu-Mashar, died 896 Discovered the relationship between the moon and the tides. Religion Al-Ghazzali, 1058–1111 A teacher, pilgrim, and religious scholar, he wrote the masterpiece of Islam, Ihya’ Ulum al-Din (The Revival of the Science of Religion) Philosophy Ibn-Rushd 1126–1198 Born in Cordoba, he studied the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle and believed that religious truths could be reconciled with reason. 1.7

Writing Research Report

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 1

Literature Omar Khayyam, died 1123 The most famous poet of Islam, author of the Rubiyyat. Travel and Geography Ibn-Battuta, 1304–1377 Traveled over 75,000 miles on his hajj and wrote the accounts of his travels in his book, in which he described the laws and customs of the many peoples he saw and lived with. History and Sociology Ibn-Khaldun, 1332–1406 Involved in the turbulent politics of North Africa, he used his experience and knowledge of history to compile The Muqadimmah, which describes the history of the world and the theories behind the rise and fall of various civilizations. Warfare and Statesmanship Saladin, 1138–1193 A brave and chivalrous warrior, Saladin united Egypt, Syria, and Iraq. He defeated the members of the Third Crusade, and even though he maintained Islamic control of Jerusalem, he allowed pilgrims of all faiths to visit their holy places in peace. Suleyman the Magnificent, 1495–1566 He ruled the Ottoman Empire for half a century, conquering Rhodes, Hungary, and Iraq. He gained control over the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Red Sea. His empire was one of the wealthiest and most sumptuous the world has ever known. Architecture Sinan, 1489–1588 He designed more buildings than any other architect. Originally a soldier in the army of Suleyman the Magnificent, he designed forts and bridges for military use. At 49, he became the royal architect and restored two of the world’s most sacred shrines, the Dome of the Rock and the Wailing Wall. After you have chosen someone to write about, the next step is to formulate questions to ASK such as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
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What are the origins of Islam? What beliefs did Muslims develop about the importance of education? In what parts of the world did Islam flourish when the subject you selected to research lived? Where was he born? What was his childhood like? Where did he receive his education? What significant contributions did he make? What was his most significant contribution? How did his contribution affect the world in which he lived? How does his contribution affect the world in which we live today?

Writing Research Report

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 1

GATHERING GRID
RESEARCH the questions about the leader that you have chosen, and write the information in the spaces provided.
QUESTION What beliefs did Muslims develop about the importance of education? Answer Source

In what parts of the world did Islam flourish when the subject you selected to research lived? Where was he born? What was his childhood like? Where did he receive his education? What significant contributions did he make? What was his most significant contribution?

How did his contribution affect the world in which he lived?

How does his contribution affect the world in which we live today?

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Writing Research Report

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 1

After you have researched your answers to these questions, it is time to CONNECT your ideas and organize your essay as follows: I. Introduce your topic: Describe its beliefs in the importance of education, and explain how those beliefs led to Muslim contributions in art and science. Introduce your subject and then explain what significant contribution he made.

II.

Describe your subject’s early years: where and when he was born and into what circumstances.

III.

Describe your subject’s education, and explain how it affected his choice of academic pursuit.

IV.

Explain your subject’s contributions, and analyze how they affected the world in which he lived.

V.

Summarize the contributions of Islamic scholars, and describe how your subject’s contribution changed the world in which we live.

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