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THE FIRST CRUSADE

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hen Father Jeronimo decides to embark on the First Crusade from Valencia, he makes the same choice that 4000 real knights did. The Crusades were a time of intense religious excitement, and those who felt called to go believed that they were fulfilling God’s will. Many believed that signs in the heavens predicted this holy war. Moreover, the signs in the sun and the wonders which appeared, both in the air and on the earth, aroused many who had previously been indifferent…. For example, we beheld a comet on the 7th of October to the south, its brilliancy, slanting down, seemed like a sword…. A few years ago, a priest of honorable reputation, by the name of Suigger, about the ninth hour of the day beheld two knights, who met one another in the air and fought long, until one, who carried a great cross struck the other, and finally overcame his enemy…. Some who were watching horses in the fields reported that they had seen the image of a city in the air and had observed how various troops from different directions, both on horseback, and on foot, were hastening thither. Ekkerhard of Aurach from A History of the First Crusade, 1101 A.D.

Ekkerhard was a German historian who made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1101 and, on his return, wrote a history of the First Crusade. He met many people who had participated in the major battles and visited the holy places that the Christian armies had conquered. The above quote cites examples of visions people claimed to have had before the Crusade began that proved it was sanctioned by God. “Deus lo volt!” became the battle cry of the crusaders; it means, “God wills it!” Crusaders believed that it was God’s will to recapture the holy places of Christendom. Jerusalem was considered an especially holy city because Jesus had taught and died there. For hundreds of years Christians had been making pilgrimages to Jerusalem to visit the holy places where Jesus had preached. After the fall of Rome, a strong center of the Christian church grew up in Constantinople, and the Byzantine Empire continued to grow and thrive for several hundred years there. In 1071, The Seljuk Turks, a group of Turks from Turkestan in central Asia, began a conquest of Christian lands in the Byzantine Empire. In 1071, the Seljuk Muslims closed Jerusalem to Christians. The Seljuks did not want Jerusalem defiled by Christians because it was also a sacred Muslim city. According to Muslim belief, Muhammad had ascended into heaven on his night flights to visit Allah from Jerusalem. For the Muslims, keeping the Christians out of Jerusalem kept it pure; for the Christians, keeping the Muslims out of Jerusalem kept it undefiled.
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Within 10 years, the Seljuks had established a new capital just 200 miles from Constantinople, the center of the Eastern Christian church. The Byzantine emperor, Alexius Comnenus, sent an urgent message to Pope Urban II requesting immediate military aid to defend his Christian lands from the invading “infidels.” Several years previous to his request, he had seen a group of western knights under the command of Count Robert of Flanders returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. He had been so impressed by their fighting ability that he decided to try to hire about 1200 of these western warriors. He sent a request to the pope to help recruit this military aid. The pope willingly responded to the emperor’s request. In a religious council held in Clermont, France, on November 27, 1095, the pope called on all true Christians to rise up and free the Holy Land. He rallied the group with the following speech: For your brethren who live in the east are in urgent need of your help, and you must hasten to give them the aid which has often been promised them. For, as most of you have heard, the Turks and Arabs have attacked them and conquered the territory of Romania as far west as the shore of the Mediterranean and the Hellespont. They have occupied more and more lands of those Christians and have overcome them in seven battles….On this account I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ’s heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid and promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends. The crowd, clergy, and laypeople, who had gathered in the Clermont field to hear the pope’s address, responded with the shout, “Deus volt!”
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The response to the pope’s request was overwhelming. It is estimated that approximately 30,000 crusaders marched forth from western Europe in the First Crusade. About 4000 of those were knights like Father Jeronimo, who were happy to have a new battle in which to fight, the promise of new adventure, and untold riches. The rest of the crusaders were foot soldiers, archers, priests, army camp followers, and peasants. All crusaders were inspired by the pope’s promise of immediate salvation in heaven for anyone killed fighting to recover the Holy Land. For the peasants, the Crusade was an opportunity such as they had never experienced before. Peasants were free from the bonds of feudalism while they were on a Crusade. This meant that the peasant was not required to pay rent to his lord, and it gave him a once-in-a-lifetime chance to travel and experience adventure. The crusaders streamed into Constantinople from all points of the compass. They came from as far west as England and Scotland, from Germany and France in the north, and from the southern states of Spain and Italy. Once the Christian powers had gathered together in Constantinople, they marched south, their first target the Seljuk capital, Nicaea, which they took after a two-month siege. The Emperor Alexius negotiated the surrender. He distributed food and money to the crusaders, but he refused to allow them to sack the city, which caused a deep resentment among the victorious troops. From Nicaea, the crusading troops moved eastward across Turkey, where they established their first crusader state. The crusader states were built on the principles of feudal Europe. Kings were chosen to lead these states, and their appointed vassals owed the kings allegiance. In 1099, the crusaders accomplished the goal they had set; they reconquered Jerusalem. Here the crusaders could not be restrained, and they entered the city leaving a path of death and destruction in their wake. Many Muslims took refuge in the Dome of the Rock but to no avail; the crusaders tore through the mosque and slaughtered all of its occupants. The Jews of Jerusalem took refuge in the main synagogue, but the synagogue was burned to the ground, killing all inside. Not everyone in the city was killed. Some people were made captive and ordered to cart the bodies from the city. Despite the terrible brutality of the pillage of Jerusalem, the crusaders considered it a great Christian victory, as described by Raymond d’Aguilers, one of the conquering knights, Now that our men had possession of the walls and towers, wonderful sights were to be seen. Some of our men (and this was merciful) cut off the heads of their enemies; others shot them with arrows, so that they fell from the towers; others tortured them longer by casting them into the flames. Piles of heads, hands, and feet were to be seen in the streets of the city. It was necessary to pick one’s way over the bodies of men and horses. But these were small matters compared with what happened in the Temple of Solomon, a place where religious services are normally chanted. What happened there? If I tell the truth, you would not believe it. Suffice it to say that, in the Temple and Porch of Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins. Indeed, it was

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just and splendid that this place should be filled with the blood of unbelievers, since it had suffered so long from their blasphemies. The city was filled with corpses and blood. The Christians had regained the Holy Land but at a terrible price. They established a new crusader state there, but it was difficult to defend. The crusaders occupied a strip of land 500 miles long but only 50 wide, which left their eastern border open to attack by Muslim forces. For this reason, many large castles were built to secure the eastern frontier. Christian forces did not hold Jerusalem long. In July of 1187, a great Muslim leader named Saladin defeated a second Crusade in a decisive battle at Tiberias. Saladin was a strong leader who was able to unite many small factional Islamic groups into one army. He became the leader of both Egypt and Syria in 1171. Saladin considered the crusaders to be infidels and enemies of Islam, so his fight against them was a jihad, a holy war. After many battles with King Richard of England, also known as the Lionhearted, Saladin negotiated a peace with the European crusaders. King Richard had embarked on a third Crusade, known as the King’s Crusade. A condition of the peace was that Jerusalem would be reopened to Christians. Saladin agreed to King Richard’s terms, and in fact exceeded them by making Jerusalem open to people of all faiths; this included the Jews. Although there were eight Crusades between the years of 1096 and 1270, the European armies never gained control of Jerusalem again. They did, however, benefit in many other ways. Exposure to the Byzantine and Muslim cultures rekindled an interest in art, literature, and classical texts that swept over Europe. New, prosperous trade routes grew up between the eastern empire and the West, as crusaders brought back spices, silks, and many other luxurious goods that enticed merchants and traders. The extensive travel required by the Crusades improved technology. Europeans learned to draw better maps and use eastern navigational devices such as the compass and the astrolabe, inventions that would pave the way for the coming age of exploration. In many ways, the Crusades brought to an end the Middle Ages and prepared a way for a European Renaissance.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. Why was Jerusalem a sacred city to Muslims, Christians, and Jews? How did the fact that the city was “holy” add to the conflict over who should occupy it? Do you think the Crusades qualify as “just wars”? Why or why not? How was Pope Urban II influenced by the idea of “natural law”? How did both the Muslims and the Christians have a similar belief in “natural law”? How did this belief lead to conflict? How do you think that Raymond D’Aguilers justified the violence perpetrated by the crusaders during the pillage of Jerusalem? Why do you think that Saladin opened Jerusalem to people of all faiths? How was this a wise decision?

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CHAPTER 8: THE FINAL BATTLE
n the days that followed the fall of Valencia, the Cid and I were very busy putting the city in order. When people have been starving, there is much to do to organize the distribution of food. Also, the houses and riches of the conquered had to be divided and allocated fairly among our troops. The one regret I had was that, somehow in the confusion caused when we entered the city, my brother had escaped. Deep in my heart, I knew that I would have to fight him again, for he would never stop warring against me until all my possessions were his. It was well that we organized our forces quickly, for even as we worked, word reached us that ben Yusuf was assembling a force fifty thousand strong, and they were soon to embark in their ships and set sail for Valencia to do battle with El Cid. In the days that followed, I did my best to fortify the city for what would be our final battle, but the Cid rode out to meet Doña Gimena…

I

Several days after Don Fanez had been sent with the spoils to King Alfonso, a lone rider came to the gates. It was none other than the long-awaited Fernando Ordonez. He was greeted eagerly by El Cid, but when he told the tale of Doña Gimena and her children’s imprisonment, Rodrigo could not be consoled, even when Fernando told him that his family was even now under safe passage from King Alfonso and that he had ridden ahead to give Rodrigo the news. I tried to reason with Rodrigo, for I knew this was the worst possible time to leave the newly conquered city leaderless. “My Cid, the city has just fallen. You have won many allies, but if you leave, the conquered may take advantage, thinking that because we are leaderless we are weak. Doña Gimena and your daughters will be safe with their royal escort.” “My Lord Mutamin, do not speak to me of Valencia,” replied Rodrigo angrily. “Am I not a man? Am I not sometimes allowed to think of my family first? If it were not for Valencia, Doña Gimena would have been safe in Zaragoza.” “My Cid, you know as well as I that until ben Yusuf is conquered, no one in Spain, either Christian or Muslim, is safe. But I see that you are determined to go, so I will not stop you. I will do my best to hold Valencia in your absence.” The Cid did not have to ride far before he met his family on the road. When the Cid saw his wife and daughters again, he embraced them while they wept for joy. “Oh Gimena, you stubborn, courageous woman, why didn’t you let Fernando bring me word that you were imprisoned? You know I would have come at once.” “Yes, my lord, I knew that you would have come at once, no matter the cost. But you must consider more than your family, Rodrigo, for upon you all the families of Spain depend for their safety. You are not the only one who is capable of making sacrifices for your country.” “Come,” he said smiling, tenderly at his family. “Come, my stubborn but beloved wife, come to the town of Valencia with me and take possession of our new home. This city will be your inheritance,

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my daughters, Christina and Maria. I have won it for you with my own hands, and it will furnish you with rich dowries.” Mother and daughters kissed him, and then they all made their entry into Valencia with great ceremony. They were greeted at the gates by Father Jeronimo, myself, and several of our generals. Fernando Ordonez, of course, was there, looking guilty and woebegone after the tongue lashing the Cid had given him. Beside him stood his old friend, Alberto, his onetime squire, who had fought with our army at Valencia. Doña Gimena greeted him warmly, “Ah, here is my friend Fernando. He served me faithfully all the time we were imprisoned and so should be rewarded as though he had fought with you for Valencia. What say you, my Lord? Will you grant me this favor and prove to Fernando that you have forgiven him?” “As always, I will bow to your wisdom, Gimena.” Then he clapped Fernando on the back and their friendship was restored. A few days later ben Yusuf’s armada arrived; they began to set up their tents on the shore. Then the Cid led his wife and daughters up to the fortress and took them up to the top of the highest tower, from which their fair eyes could take in the whole scene. It was a beautiful clear day in March. Winter was finally over, and a gentle breeze blew from the sea. They saw how the city of Valencia lay before them, with the sea on one side and, on the other, the wide, luxuriant plantations. They held hands and thanked God for the great good fortune He had sent to them. Rodrigo placed one arm around his wife and lay the other across his daughters’ shoulders as they stood closely together. His daughters were now almost as tall as his wife, for Christina was sixteen, and Maria, fourteen. As Rodrigo held them close, he looked out at the new land he had conquered and sighed contentedly. “I have all that I cherish most here with me in Valencia, which I won by hard fighting. It belongs to me now, and only death can make me give it up. Thanks be to God, I have my wife and my daughters here with me safe at last, and no matter the menace that has come from beyond the sea, we will be ready to face it. I feel stronger of heart because you are here. By God’s grace, I shall be victorious in this battle.” As Gimena looked out at the shore, she saw mile upon mile of Almoravide tents. Then a slow, threatening beat of drums began. “What is that, Rodrigo?” Rodrigo laughed. “Don’t worry, Gimena. Although ben Yusuf doesn’t know it yet, he is bringing us a great fortune. He obviously wants to leave my daughters with a great dowry. Once we have conquered the Almoravides, they will leave behind a fortune in horses, weapons, and other treasure, for ben Yusuf is very fond of gold, I hear. And as for those drums he means to frighten us with, they will make a splendid decoration for Father Jeronimo’s new church.” “Rodrigo, I am so afraid for you,” said Gimena, as she saw the staggering numbers of the Almoravide troops.
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“Don’t be,” said Rodrigo soothingly. “This is always the hardest time, the time before a battle when the enemy has no face.” “You have been through this a thousand times, Rodrigo. I need to know, where do you find your courage?” “Each warrior each time must find it for himself. For me, this battle is easy, for I have much to fight for: my wife, my family, our new home here in Valencia, for King Alfonso, and for all the Christians and Moors who have become my friends. This is the battle that we have waited for so long, the last battle. When we have won it, we will have peace.” The relentless drums beat all night, and when dawn broke over the Moorish camp, they finally stopped for the call to prayer. My Muslim troops also knelt and bowed in prayer, while Father Jeronimo blessed the Christian troops. I have often wondered how God chooses whom to favor at such times. If all men ask for his aid in battle, and all believe that their cause is just, how does God choose who will win? The priest walked before the troops and gave them absolution before the battle. “I absolve from sin all those who die with their faces to the enemy; God will receive their souls.” Then Father Jeronimo surprised us all as he turned to Rodrigo and said, “I have said mass for you this morning, Don Rodrigo, and now I confidently beg you to grant me a favor. Let me have the honor of striking the first blow.” “I grant it to you here and now,” said El Cid. “But,” and here he smiled fondly at his old friend, “may you remember the lesson in humility God taught you at the tournament in Calahorra.” Everyone who had attended the tournament laughed as they remembered the priest’s defeat, especially Alberto, who had been the victorious knight in that conflict. “My lord Cid,” I reminded him, “the sooner we attack the better. Ben Yusuf has not had time to land all his forces yet. If we strike now, we can cut his army in two.” “Yes,” said El Cid. “We’ll drive a wedge along the shore and keep his forces split.” We all mounted our horses, and the Cid shouted encouragement to our troops, “Open the gates, for God, Alfonso, and Castile!” All the men, fully armed, went out by the towers of Valencia. The Cid sallied forth and, mounted on the faithful Babieca, looked splendid as his full armor glittered in the sun. Father Jeronimo carried the standard in front, leading the charge of our four thousand men, who valiantly rode out to fight fifty thousand of the enemy. Who can say how many lances rose and fell that day, how many shields were pierced, coats of mail torn apart, and white banners stained red with blood? How many riderless horses ranged the field? The Moors called on Muhammad and the Christians on Saint James. As the sun set, thousands of bodies stained the sand where they had fallen.
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All day long we had fought a bitter battle. We had kept ben Yusuf from landing the rest of his men on the shore but at a terrible price. We were far outnumbered, but that had never stopped us before. There was no army in the world better trained in battle than ours. El Cid charged into battle as he had so many times, his lance held aloft. Then, as the fighting got close, he wielded his sword, killing countless of the enemy while the blood ran down to his elbow. Finally he spotted ben Yusuf in the midst of the melee and rode after him. He struck three blows, but then the caliph escaped. The Cid did not see in time that an archer had taken careful aim and, while the Cid held his sword aloft, the archer’s arrow hit him under the arm, where he was unprotected by his armor. In any other battle, I would have been there to warn my Cid. It had long been our custom in battle to fight close, facing opposite directions so we could warn each other of approaching danger. But that day, by the will of Allah, I had seen my brother on the field, and I vowed that I would rid myself of him forever. As we were locked in a close battle with clashing scimitars, I suddenly heard the Cid cry out. I recognized the voice as his though I had never heard him cry out in battle other than to encourage the men. With renewed fury, I dealt my brother a fearsome blow to the arm, and as he fell forward in pain, I struck off his head. I quickly turned to my Cid and saw the arrow projecting from his side. The setting sun made his armor shine with the color of blood, and I felt within me a sudden cold fear. I rode beside my Cid and took up Babieca’s reins; then I signaled the herald to sound the retreat. Quickly we rallied our forces and rode back to the protection of the city walls. I led Babieca with the fallen Cid, while what was left of our army followed behind. We carried El Cid to his chamber, where Gimena was summoned at once. I called for my medical supplies to be brought, and then I carefully removed my Cid’s armor. I could see at once that the arrow went deep, so deep that I was worried it had struck the heart muscle. As I held a bandage over the wound to staunch the bleeding, I answered the questioning look in my Cid’s pain-filled eyes, “There will be a great loss of blood, but the arrow must be withdrawn immediately.” “Will he live?” asked Gimena, her voice fraught with worry. “If the arrow is withdrawn, he has a chance, though the loss of blood will make him very weak. If not, he will not last more than a day or two. The arrow will work its way further into his heart muscle and he will slowly but surely bleed to death internally.” “Al-Mutamin, I must lead the attack tomorrow. The enemy will only grow stronger while we grow weaker,” gasped Rodrigo through his pain. Then Gimena knelt at Rodrigo’s side and clasped his hand, “Rodrigo, if the arrow is not withdrawn, then you will surely die.” “Not before tomorrow—that is all I need.” “That is not all I need. What of our life together? What of your daughters? Who will give them in marriage if you are dead? We could take you home to Vivar. You could recover there, or to Zaragoza, where we were so happy. Someone else can lead these men. Lord Mutamin or Don Fernando.”
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“No, Gimena. What will there be for you if this battle is lost tomorrow? These men have made me their heart. I must lead them into battle or they will lose that heart. We suffered great losses today, and we are outnumbered by the enemy. “Tell her, my lord Mutamin,” said my Cid, as he turned his pleading eyes toward me. “What he says is true, Doña Gimena. I cannot lead the troops, for the Christians will not follow me. Fernando cannot lead the troops, for the Muslims will not follow him. There is only one man who can unite Christian and Muslim in all of Spain, and that man is El Cid.” “I must lead them, no matter the cost. Just as you sacrificed yourself by sitting in prison, now I must sacrifice my life so our country may live. Promise me, promise me, Gimena, that you will make sure that I lead my troops into battle tomorrow, no matter what it takes.” “I promise,” said Gimena, as she struggled to hold back her tears. El Cid kept her hand held tightly in his, and it seemed to ease his pain, “We have not spent much time together, you and I. There were so many wasted years when we might have been happy and so many wars that separated us. And yet, it seems to me that those who have spent a lifetime together have not had more than we.” “I want more, Rodrigo. I want forever,” said Gimena. “For us and for our daughters.” “You cannot save my life, Gimena. Even Lord Mutamin with all his medical art cannot do so, but you can help me to give it up.” Gimena bowed her head for a moment, and then rose and faced me. “Lord Mutamin, it is the wish of my husband that the arrow shall not be removed.” Our eyes held each other, and an understanding was exchanged between us of what exactly that would mean. Suddenly, there was a loud clatter of horses’ hooves in the courtyard below. I went to the window to silence the riders when, to my astonishment, I saw the King Alfonso’s standard carried by a group of knights. Within minutes, the king himself came through the door. When he saw Rodrigo lying on the bed, he quickly went to him and knelt beside him. “Rodrigo, I came as soon as I heard ben Yusuf’s armada had sailed from Africa. My army and I would have been here yesterday, but we were detained by a contingent of ben Yusuf’s men at Sagrahas. Now I see that if we could have come sooner, we might have saved you and all those who have fallen today.” Rodrigo and Alfonso had not seen each other for many years. In all the years Rodrigo had known the young Alfonso, he had felt the prince’s hatred, but he had never known King Alfonso, the man who had learned from his mistakes and grown to become a king. As he saw the respect in his sovereign’s eyes, he struggled to rise in the king’s presence. “No, Rodrigo, you must not tire yourself. I want you to know that I had no part in my brother’s death. Vellido conspired with ben Yusuf to kill Sancho without my knowledge. He hoped to advance himself by making me the king of the three kingdoms. I was betrayed by him, but I cannot hold myself blameless because I think Vellido only read the desire of my heart and decided to make my wish a reality. You must believe me that I would not have rewarded him for killing Sancho. I would have punished him, but you saved me the trouble. You must forgive me, Rodrigo, for all the years of banishment. I know now that you were always my truest knight.” “It is not easy for a man to conquer himself, Sire, but you, I see, have done that. If only I could live to see our country at peace.”
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“You will, Rodrigo, you will,” said the king. “No one can stand against us now. I have brought an army, and tomorrow we will ride out together, you and I. Together we will drive ben Yusuf into the sea.” “You will be a good king, my lord. Perhaps better than King Sancho could ever have been, for you, I see, have the power to change. I can die in peace knowing that my country will have a good king.” Rodrigo struggled to sit up, but the strain showed in his face. Then he addressed all of us in the room. “Tomorrow we will fight side by side, my king and I. We will ride out together. Gimena, tomorrow you and my daughters will climb the highest tower; I want you to remember me riding into battle beside my king. Now, help me to the window and summon my troops.” I went to my Cid and helped him to rise, and then, while I supported him on one side, King Alfonso supported him on the other. Together the three of us walked to the window. Rodrigo’s troops were already assembled below, all waiting for word of his injury. As we approached the window, he motioned us away, and with one last valiant effort, he spoke to his men standing on his own, with king Alfonso at his side. “Soldiers, people of Valencia, you must not be frightened. Tomorrow, I promise that King Alfonso and I will lead you into battle. Our king has brought fresh troops, and together we cannot fail. Hail King Alfonso!” A loud cheer rose from the courtyard below, “All hail King Alfonso! All hail El Cid!” Then my Cid moved quickly from the window and leaned heavily against the wall, out of sight of the crowd below. “Gimena!” he gasped. His voice was ragged and his breathing difficult as he reached for her. Gimena came quickly to his side, supporting him. He spoke urgently to her while the sweat of fever rolled down his face and his eyes glazed over. “Gimena, listen to me. Even if my strength fails me, I must lead the attack tomorrow. You understand. Dead or alive, I must lead the attack.” And then my Cid collapsed and died before he could hear Gimena’s reply, “I promise, Rodrigo, I promise.” It was a somber dawn that greeted us the next morning. During the night, some of my best craftsmen, who had been sworn to secrecy, had fashioned a metal brace to hold my Cid upon his horse. We carried my Cid’s concealed body to the stables, and mounted him upon Babieca. Any other horse would have balked at the smell of death but not she. She knew her master, alive or dead, and she seemed to know that something important was expected of her. Gimena tied a red ribbon of Castile about Rodrigo’s arm; he would carry her token into his last battle. The Cid was dressed in his best armor, and the metal braces supported his back, while yet another held his right arm raised, with the lance secured firmly in place. Over his armor he wore a long cape that covered the braces holding him, a gift from King Alfonso.

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I mounted my horse, and King Alfonso mounted his. In a row of three, with Babieca carrying El Cid between us, we rode to the city gates, where only yesterday my Cid had rallied his troops before we rode forth. Father Jeronimo, who had given the last rites to my Cid in secret, now blessed the troops. He did not ask to be first into battle today, for his heart was filled with sorrow, and he planned to spend the day in his church, lighting candles and praying for the soul of his fallen comrade. Fernando and Alberto, as Rodrigo’s oldest friends, had also been told the truth, but the secret was kept from all others. Today, it was King Alfonso who rallied the troops to battle. Raising his sword aloft he shouted, “Open the gates, for God, the Cid, and Spain.” Then we all rode forth together. Ben Yusuf had encouraged his men all through the night, shouting that the Cid was dead and that on the morrow they would see an easy victory. When they saw El Cid riding forth upon his splendid white horse, they quailed in fear and mindlessly broke ranks, running for the shore. It was an easy rout, easier than it should have been but for their panic. King Alfonso assumed his rightful place as leader of the army. Ben Yusuf, seeing that the day was lost, determined to at least kill the Christian king. And then it was that the strangest thing of all happened. Babieca rode, as though she and the Cid were still of one mind, straight at ben Yusuf. Before ben Yusuf could strike a blow, his horse reared before Babieca’s charge and unhorsed its master. Ben Yusuf, who had fallen to the ground, was trampled to death under Babieca’s hooves. Allah so loved El Cid that, even in death, he was granted a great victory over his enemies. Two months have passed since that final battle on the shores of Valencia. Ben Yusuf’s army has been defeated once and for all. I should feel a great sense of triumph in that, but I do not. I feel in my heart that ben Yusuf’s fall signals the beginning of the end for my people, the Moors of al-Andalus. And as for me, I am tired. I have vowed that my Cid’s last battle will be mine as well. My son can rule Zaragoza in my stead, and I will go on my hajj, my pilgrimage to Mecca, which all faithful Muslims must undertake at least once in their lives. I will travel to the birthplace of my lord Muhammad and see if I cannot find some of the answers I seek. I suppose the answer I would seek first is why, in all of Spain, only one man could unite Christians and Muslims. “We have so much to offer each other,” he said to me one summer’s night long ago, when we were both young and dared to dream of peace. Perhaps, but King Alfonso does not see it. Since my Cid’s death, he has made it clear that my men and I must leave Valencia, and the beautiful mosque there has been turned into a Christian church. There will be more fighting, and that I do not wish to see. Fernando and Alberto will help Doña Gimena rule Valencia, and King Alfonso has vowed to find the Cid’s daughters worthy husbands. He has promised to give them away himself and to grant them the richest dowries his kingdom has ever known. I have heard that he is already in negotiations with the princes of Navarre and Aragon. If so, the future kings of Spain will be descended from my Cid. A fitting tribute, I think. Father Jeronimo has given up his hard-won church and answered the call of his pope, Urban II, to join a Crusade to the Holy Land, to expel we infidel Muslims from that most sacred of Christian places, Jerusalem. It will always be strange to me that the Christians cannot understand that Jerusalem is a holy land to my people, too.

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I will soon be ready to go. I do not think that I will ever see my country again, but I will always hold it in my heart, as I will my Cid, the man who lived and died as Spain’s greatest knight.

In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate Praise be to Allah Guide us on the straight path The Path of them Thou hast blessed.

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Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 8

Read the following questions and circle the letter of the answer that best completes it. 1. The main reason al-Mutamin does not want Rodrigo to ride out to meet Doña Gimena is because a. she and her children are perfectly safe traveling with a royal escort. b. he is sure that Fernando Ordonez will escort them safely to the city. c. he thinks that leaving the newly conquered Valencia leaderless is dangerous. d. he is afraid to try to hold Valencia in El Cid’s absence. Doña Gimena did not allow Fernando Ordonez to tell Rodrigo of her imprisonment because a. she did not want to anger him. b. she knew that he would come to rescue her. c. she did not trust Fernando to take the news to Rodrigo. d. she was afraid of that Princess Uracca would kill them if she intercepted the message. Valencia will be all of the following except a. a new home for Rodrigo’s family. b. an inheritance for Rodrigo’s daughters. c. a place that will furnish rich dowries for Rodrigo’s daughters. d. a brief place to stop before Rodrigo’s family returns to Zaragoza. When Rodrigo leads his wife and daughters to the top of the citadel to view Valencia, he feels all of the following except a. contentment because everything he cherishes is with him in Valencia. b. frightened that the Almoravide army so outnumbers his own. c. gratitude to God that his family is safely united again. d. strong of heart because Gimena is with him. The favor Father Jeronimo asks of Rodrigo is a. to be allowed to strike the first blow against the Almoravides. b. to hang the Almoravide drums in his church when the battle is over. c. to stay in his church and pray for Rodrigo’s success. d. to grant absolution to the troops before the battle. El Cid’s troops go out to fight ben Yusuf on the plains because a. they do not want the city to be besieged. b. they far outnumber ben Yusuf’s troops. c. they hope to drive a wedge between the Almoravide forces. d. they do not want to risk being trapped inside the city. Al-Mutamin is unable to warn El Cid about approaching danger because a. he is locked in battle against ben Yusuf. b. he sees the archer too late. c. he is locked in a close battle with his brother. d. he does not hear El Cid cry out.
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Stellar Reading Reading Comprehension

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 8

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Rodrigo does not want the arrow removed because a. he is afraid of the tremendous pain it will cause. b. the loss of blood will make him too weak to fight. c. if the arrow is removed, he will die. d. he is afraid of al-Mutamin’s Moorish medicine. Rodrigo must lead his troops into battle the next day for all of the following reasons except a. ben Yusuf’s troops will only get stronger, while theirs grow weaker. b. he is the only one who can unite the Christian and Moorish troops. c. his men will lose heart if he does not lead them. d. he knows that he will recover his strength by then.

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10. The main reason Gimena promises Rodrigo that she will make sure he leads his troops into battle is because a. she wants to honor his wishes. b. she does not want to disappoint his men. c. she knows it is what is best for all Spain. d. she wants him to die a hero’s death. 11. King Alfonso has come to see Rodrigo for all of the following reasons except a. he wants to claim the crown of Valencia. b. he wants to assure Rodrigo that he had no part in King Sancho’s death. c. he has brought reinforcement troops to help fight against the Almoravides. d. he wants to seek Rodrigo’s forgiveness for the years of banishment. Rodrigo tells Alfonso that he will be a good king because a. Alfonso is more powerful than King Sancho ever was. b. Alfonso has proven that he has the power to change. c. Alfonso has become skilled in battle. d. Alfonso is more devious and clever that King Sancho.

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13. Rodrigo feels a great sense of joy before he dies because a. Gimena promises to take him back to Vivar. b. he is finally reunited with his king. c. his daughters will make good marriages. d. he is delirious with fever. 14. Rodrigo is able to lead his troops in battle because a. he feels so encouraged by King Alfonso’s visit. b. al-Mutamin’s medicines help him recover his strength. c. he knows that Doña Gimena and his daughters will be watching. d. his dead body is held on his horse by metal braces.

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Stellar Reading Reading Comprehension

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 8

15. El Cid’s army wins the battle because a. with Alfonso’s reinforcements, they outnumber the Almoravides. b. they fight with superior strategy. c. the Almoravides panic when they see El Cid riding to battle after they were told he was dead. d. the Almoravides retreat before the battle begins. 16. Ben Yusuf is killed when a. al-Mutamin beheads him. b. King Alfonso stabs him through the heart. c. he is unhorsed and trampled to death by Babieca. d. Father Jeronimo kills him. 17. Al-Mutamin plans to go on a hajj for all of the following reasons except a. he is tired of fighting. b. King Alfonso has told him that he and his men must leave Valencia. c. he is seeking an answer to why only one man could unite Christians and Muslims. d. he hopes to fight the crusading Christian armies in the Holy Land. 18. The marriages that King Alfonso is arranging for El Cid’s daughters will accomplish all of the following except a. fulfill the one duty Doña Gimena asked of Rodrigo that he was unable to perform. b. provide an honorable and wealthy home for both girls. c. ensure that the future kings of Spain will be descended from El Cid. d. bring peace to the land of Castile. 19. Father Jeronimo is going on a Crusade because a. he is bored now that the fighting in Valencia is over. b. he wants to expel the Muslims from Jerusalem. c. he wants to show the Muslims and Christians of Jerusalem how they can live together in peace. d. he plans to dedicate his crusade to King Alfonso. Al-Mutamin feels a deep sense of loss after El Cid’s death for all of the following reasons except a. he feels that ben Yusuf’s fall signals the beginning of the end for the Moors of al-Andalus. b. he will miss ruling his city, Zaragoza. c. King Alfonso and Father Jeronimo both demonstrate that, without El Cid, they cannot live in peace with the Moors. d. he feels deeply the loss of his best friend.

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Vocabulary

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 8

Read the following sentences and see if you can figure out the meaning of the underlined vocabulary words from the context. The sentences are listed in the order they appear in the story, so if you want more context clues, you can look them up. Also, name the part of speech of each vocabulary word as it is used in the sentence. When you finish, check your answers in the dictionary, and then write your own sentence using the vocabulary word. 1. Also, the houses and riches of the conquered had to be divided and allocated fairly among our troops. a. appraised b. sold c. distributed d. withheld part of speech: sentence: He was greeted eagerly by El Cid, but when he told the tale of Doña Gimena and her children’s imprisonment, Rodrigo could not be consoled, even when Fernando told him that his family was even now under safe passage from King Alfonso and that he had ridden ahead to give Rodrigo the news. a. comforted b. persuaded c. convinced d. disturbed part of speech: sentence: Fernando Ordonez, of course, was there, looking guilty and woebegone after the tongue lashing the Cid had given him. a. contented b. miserable c. smug d. repentant part of speech: sentence: A few days later ben Yusuf’s armada arrived; they began to set up their tents on the shore. a. family b. enemies c. peasants d. fleet part of speech: sentence: “Thanks be to God, I have my wife and my daughters here with me safe at last, and no matter the menace that has come from beyond the sea, we will be ready to face it.” a. visitor b. reinforcement c. danger d. opportunity part of speech: sentence: “Rodrigo, I am so afraid for you,” said Gimena, as she saw the staggering numbers of the Almoravide troops. a. dwindling b. overwhelming c. sparse d. spreading part of speech: sentence:

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Vocabulary

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 8

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The relentless drums beat all night, and when dawn broke over the Moorish camp, they finally stopped for the call to prayer. a. constant b. sporadic c. noisy d. melodious part of speech: sentence: The priest walked before the troops and gave them absolution before the battle. “I absolve from sin all those who die with their faces to the enemy; God will receive their souls.” a. punishment b. resolution c. condemnation d. forgiveness part of speech: sentence: The Cid sallied forth and, mounted on the faithful Babieca, looked splendid as his full armor glittered in the sun. a. ventured b. retreated c. dallied d. escaped part of speech: sentence: Who can say how many lances rose and fell that day, how many shields were pierced, coats of mail torn apart, and white banners stained red with blood? How many riderless horses ranged the field? a. grazed b. arranged c. roamed d. lined part of speech: sentence: El Cid charged into battle as he had so many times, his lance held aloft. Then, as the fighting got close, he wielded his sword, killing countless of the enemy while the blood ran down to his elbow. a. put down b. wore out c. used d. misplaced part of speech: sentence: As I held a bandage over the wound to staunch the bleeding, I answered the questioning look in my Cid’s pain-filled eyes, “There will be a great loss of blood, but the arrow must be withdrawn immediately.” a. stop b. start c. hide d. verify part of speech: sentence: And then my Cid collapsed and died before he could hear Gimena’s reply, “I promise Rodrigo, I promise.” It was a somber dawn that greeted us the next morning. a. dull b. bright c. cheerful d. dreary part of speech: sentence:
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Vocabulary

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 8

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When they saw El Cid riding forth upon his splendid white horse, they quailed in fear and mindlessly broke ranks, running for the shore. It was an easy rout, easier than it should have been but for their panic. a. sallied forth b. recoiled c. wailed d. cheered part of speech: sentence: When they saw El Cid riding forth upon his splendid white horse, they quailed in fear and mindlessly broke ranks, running for the shore. It was an easy rout, easier than it should have been but for their panic. a. victory b. battle c. path d. journey part of speech: sentence:

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Stellar Reading Discussion Questions

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 8

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER 8
1. How does El Cid react when he finds out about his family’s imprisonment? Do you think that he is right to be angry with Fernando? Why or why not? Do you think that Fernando made the right choice in not telling Rodrigo? Why or why not? Why doesn’t al-Mutamin want Rodrigo to ride out to meet his family? Why does Rodrigo insist on going anyway? In what ways is Rodrigo a good husband and father? In what ways might it be difficult to be a member of his family? Why is Rodrigo angry with Gimena for not sending him word of her imprisonment? Do you think she made the right choice not to tell him? Why or why not? Why does Doña Gimena ask Rodrigo to reward Fernando for his faithfulness? Do you think he deserves a reward? Why or why not? As Rodrigo takes his family to the top of the citadel to see Valencia, what do you think he is feeling? What hopes do you think he has for the future? How will Valencia make a good home for his family? As they look out at the shore, what destroys their sense of peace? How do you think Rodrigo finds his courage each time he rides into battle? Do you think that he is unafraid or able to fight in spite of his fears? Why is this battle with the Almoravides so important to him? Do you agree with Rodrigo that once they have won the battle there will be peace? Why or why not? Why does Father Jeronimo feel he can give absolution to the soldiers before the battle? Why does Father Jeronimo ask to be allowed to strike the first blow? How is this a holy war for him? Why does El Cid’s army ride out to fight on the plains? What disadvantages do they face on the plains? Do you think they make the right choice? Why or why not? How is Rodrigo wounded? Why couldn’t al-Mutamin warn him in time? Why does Rodrigo refuse to let al-Mutamin remove the arrow from his side? How does Gimena feel about Rodrigo’s decision? Why does she finally agree to allow the arrow to remain? What understanding is there between Gimena and al-Mutamin? Do you think Rodrigo is right that no one else can lead his troops? Why or why not? How does King Alfonso’s visit reassure Rodrigo? How has Alfonso proven himself to be a good king? Do you agree with Rodrigo that he has become a better king than Sancho would have been? Why is Rodrigo so taken with the idea of riding into battle at his king’s side? Why does he use his last strength to address his men outside in the courtyard? Do you think he made the right choice?

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Stellar Reading Discussion Questions

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 8

10. How does Gimena fulfill Rodrigo’s dying wish? How do King Alfonso and al-Mutamin help her? How does Babieca help them? Who else was told the secret? How do you think Rodrigo’s death affected them? 11. Why are the Almoravides so much easier to fight on the second day of battle? How are they defeated? How is ben Yusuf killed? How has El Cid proven himself victorious even after his death?

12. Why has al-Mutamin decided to go on a hajj? What answers does he seek? Why does he feel such a deep sense of sorrow at El Cid’s death? What has he lost besides a friend? Why do you think El Cid was the only man who could unite Christians and Muslims? If al-Mutamin is right about ben Yusuf’s defeat being the beginning of the end for the Moors of Spain, do you think that he made the right decision to fight with El Cid against his own people? Why or why not? 13. How does King Alfonso treat al-Mutamin after El Cid’s death? Why? Why has Father Jeronimo decided to join the Crusades? How do these choices show that neither one of them understands what El Cid was really fighting for? How do you think this makes al-Mutamin feel? Do you think that people from different religions and cultures can ever learn to live in peace? Why or why not? 14. How does King Alfonso fulfill the only obligation the Cid could not? How will he ensure that the Cid’s daughters are well provided for? Why does al-Mutamin think that it is a fitting tribute that the future kings of Spain will be descended from El Cid? 15. Whom do you think is the greater hero, al-Mutamin or Rodrigo? Why? Why do you think Rodrigo is the one remembered? 16. In what ways do you think that El Cid was Spain’s greatest knight?

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Writing Article

Medieval Times El Cid: Chapter 8

WRITING AN ARTICLE
You learned how to write a news article in Chapter 6, but there are many other types of articles that go into making a newspaper. Reporters are often given specific beats so they can become experts in their field of writing. Possible beats might be 1. Major news 2. Food 3. Entertainment 4. Heraldry 5. Sports 6. Etiquette 7. Business 8. Society 9. Politics 10. Health Writing Situation: Your second article will come from what you observe during your field trip to the tournament at Medieval Times. Before you go, decide from the list above what beat you want to cover. The class should be divided so a variety of beats are covered. Take notes during the tournament, and maybe you can even interview one of the participants after the show. Directions for Writing: After you come back from the show, write the information you have gathered into an article. Be sure to check the Medieval Times website photo gallery to find great pictures to illustrate your article.

Rancho de Montaner
• • • • • • Proudly offers Andalusian foals for sale or barter. They are the greatest war horses on the Iberian Peninsula! Exceptional Temperament Naturally High-Stepping Powerfully Built Superbly Elegant Remarkable Aptitude for Training Available to knights who will treat them with kindness and respect Interview required with both knight and squire

“Babieca is the greatest horse I have had. She has the strength and speed of a noble war-horse. She anticipates my every move. My life literally depends on her.” —Rodrigo
de Vivar, proud owner of a four-year-old Rancho de Montaner Andalusian mare

Bonus Activity: Newspapers do not make enough money to operate by selling papers; advertising is what keeps them in business. Write an ad that you think might appeal to medieval readers. Remember, an ad is basically persuasive writing, so you need to give your readers convincing reasons to buy your product. Some other ideas for your newspaper might be an advice column, classified ads, horoscopes, book and restaurant reviews, articles on science and medicine, and obituaries.

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Activity Medieval Faire

Medieval Times

MEDIEVAL FAIRE
airs and tournaments were such exciting events that they were usually announced a year before they were to take place. People would flock to the fair from towns within a few days’ walking distance. Why, you might ask? Because there was no TV—but seriously, the fairs provided unique entertainment, with games of skill, fortune telling, entertainment, and exotic food.

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What better way to end your tour of medieval Spain than to hold your own Medieval Faire? You can earn Scriptorium Scrip to spend on libations and games by doing your best on your schoolwork. Here are some ideas for booths at your Medieval Faire. Try these or invent your own.

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orium Sc ript rip c

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Redeemable at the Medieval Faire GAMES OF SKILL Pot the Chicken The object of the game is to shoot the rubber chicken into the plastic cauldron using the homemade slingshot. To Make a Slingshot Supplies: a rubber chicken Supplies: 2 lengths of rubber tubing, large black plastic cauldron each 6 feet long slingshot (see instructions) piece of leather or cloth 12 inches by 5 inches leather punch or scissors duct tape 1. 2. Using the leather punch or pair of scissors, place two holes in each end of the piece of leather or cloth. This is your sling Thread one piece of rubber tubing through the hole in the cloth. Push the cloth to the center of the tubing. Thread the tubing through the hole on the other side of the cloth. Now take the other length of tubing and do the same thing. Tie the tubing together at each end and then wrap duct tape around the knot several times to create a handle. Two students stand 6 feet apart, each holding a handle of the slingshot. The player places the rubber chicken in the sling, pulls it back, and aims for the cauldron before releasing the chicken. 5 Scriptorium Scrip or other prizes can be rewarded for each chicken that lands in the cauldron.

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Activity Medieval Faire

Medieval Times

Dragon Slayer This is an archery game in which a giant picture of a dragon is the target. Supplies: a child’s archery set a large piece of cardboard with a picture of a dragon

If you have access to an opaque projector, you can project the pictures from the page onto the cardboard, sketch it with a pencil, and then go over the lines with magic marker or paint. If you don’t have access to the projector, draw or paint it free hand. Mark target areas in red: 10 points if you hit the dragon’s tail, 20 for his nose, 30 for his heart, and so on. Scriptorium Scrip or other prizes can be awarded. A Pig’s Tale This is a variation on the greased pig game. The balloons are blown up and tied. They are then rubbed with a dishsoap and glycerin mixture. Players’ hands are then made slippery with the dishsoap and glycerin mixture. Players try to grab a balloon by the pigtail or knot while an electric fan or a blow dryer keeps the “pigs” in motion. Players cannot grab the balloon by the sides: doing this will disqualify them. A bucket of water and a towel for washing up should be available. Scriptorium Scrip can be awarded for each pig that is captured. Supplies: pink balloons dishsoap glycerin electric fan or blow dryer bucket of water towel

Joust for Fun The object of the game is to skewer the hoop with your lance, tearing the tissue paper and getting the hoop off the clothesline. Supplies: small embroidery hoop tissue paper cut into squares, or Kleenex cardboard wrapping paper tubes decorated with aluminum foil or crepe paper clothesline clothespin wagon

Set up the clothesline between two trees or poles about 6 feet off the ground. Hang the embroidery hoop on the clothesline using the tissue paper and clothespin. The embroidery hoop should tear away easily from the clothesline. The “knight” is pulled in the wagon toward the hoop. While the wagon is in motion, the “knight” tries to skewer the hoop with his cardboard lance. Scriptorium Scrip is awarded for each hoop successfully speared by the lance .
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Activity Medieval Faire

Medieval Times

GAMES OF KNOWLEDGE Who Wants to Win a Million Ducats? This is a trivia game. Students prepare for the game by writing a series of 60 questions, of graduated difficulty, about El Cid. There should be at least ten 5-point questions, ten 10-point questions, ten 25point questions, ten 50-point questions, ten 100-point questions, and ten 500-point questions. If the player answers the question correctly, he or she earns Scriptorium Scrip or other prizes for each 100 points earned. Supplies: index cards pencil

Sample questions: 5 points What does El Cid mean? 10 points What was El Cid’s real name? 25 points Of what city is al-Mutamin the caliph? 50 points Who kills Prince Sancho and why? 100 points What is the purpose of the castle keep and how is it divided? 500 points Explain the hierarchy of a feudal society and the function of each of its levels. Name That Knight By asking questions of graduated difficulty about the seven knights in the story, students can play a variation of “Who Wants to Win a Million Ducats?” The same basic rules apply. Dear Abu Supplies:

index cards pencils

Students prepare for the game by writing examples of situations with knights that might come up in court. The player then decides if the knight handled himself chivalrously. Bonus: If the knight did not behave in a chivalrous manner, then the player must tell how the knight should correct his behavior. The player earns 25 points for a correct answer and 50 points for the bonus answer. 1 Scriptorium Scrip for every 75 points earned. FOOD Traditional food, such as raisins, dates, hummus, and pita bread, can be served. Or you might want to serve some modern food and just give the dishes clever names. El Cid’s Power Potion (energy drink) Chivalry Shake (frozen smoothie or ice cream drink) Elixir de Vivar (soda) Libation de Leon (fruit drink)

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Activity Medieval Faire

Medieval Times

Castilian Crisps (potato chips) Burgos Burgers (hamburgers) Sancho’s Sausage Rolls Cream Puffs del Aragon Zaragoza Zest (fruit salad) Andalusian Almond Mix (trail mix) Chicken Kabobs CRAFTS My Faire Lady: Gimena’s Circlets Students make circlets to wear on their heads. Supplies: wire circlets green florist tape small silk flowers long ribbons in different colors scissors

Students select the flowers they like and tape them onto the wire circle. Students can then wind two or three ribbons around their circlet. Let the ends of the ribbons trail down the back. My Faire Lady: Uracca’s Cone Hats Supplies: floral cone fabric tulle stapler glue gun sequins ribbon gold braid elastic chin straps with metal ends (available at fabric stores) Staple the fabric to the cone. Poke two holes near the bottom edge of the cone and insert the chin strap. Staple the tulle to the point of the cone. Using the hot glue gun, glue the gold braid onto the edge of the cone. Decorate with ribbon and sequins. Moktar’s Medicinal Matters Students can make pomanders by sticking the cloves in the oranges to keep the germs at bay. Supplies: oranges cloves

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Activity Medieval Faire

Medieval Times

Persian Potions Supplies: small muslin bags bath powder dried rose petals dried lavender scented oils, such as lavender or rose (optional) ziplock baggies Students place a scoop of bath powder in the muslin bag and then add the dried flower of choice. Scent may be added to make the aroma more intense. Place muslin bag in plastic baggie so powder does not leak. Treasure Boxes Students decorate and personalize their own treasure boxes. Supplies: small cardboard boxes decorative stones glue paint stencils

Calahorra Catapult Construction directions and pattern are on website: www.trebuchet.com/plans.html Supplies: pattern from website string craft knife straight edge empty ball point pen cutting board grapes for ammo glue 1.5 pencils 4 cm square thin cloth needle, thread, and cotton fabric coins or sand for weight

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Appendix B Answer Key Chapter 1 p. 9: El Cid Timeline 570 G 610 E 622 B 630 F 632 C 711 H 1083 A 1492 D pp. 1.1–1.2 Reading Comp. 1. a 8. d 2. b 9. b 3. d 10. a 4. c 11. c 5. c 12. c 6. c 13. a 7. d pp. 1.3–1.5 Vocabulary 1. c adj 2. d noun 3. b adj 4. a adj 5. b noun 6. a noun 7. c verb 8. a noun 9. b adj 10. d noun 11. c noun 12. b noun 13. a verb 14. d noun 15. a verb 16. c noun 17. b noun 18. d noun 19. a noun 20. b verb Chapter 2 pp. 2.1–2.2 Reading Comp. 1. e 9. b 2. c 10. c 3. a 11. a 4. c 12. b 5. c 13. d 6. b 14. d 7. d 15. b 8. b Chapter 3 pp. 3.1–3.3 Reading Comp. 1. d 9. b 2. b 10. a 3. c 11. d 4. b 12. c 5. a 13. c 6. d 14. d 7. d 15. a 8. a 16. c pp. 3.4–3.6 Vocabulary 1. b noun 2. c noun 3. a noun 4. b noun 5. c noun 6. d noun 7. b adj 8. c noun 9. d noun 10. a noun 11. b noun 12. a adv 13. d verb 14. c noun 15. b noun 16. a verb 17. d adj 18 b noun 19 a adj 20. c verb

Medieval Times

Chapter 4 pp. 4.1–4.2 Reading Comp. 1. d 9. b 2. c 10. c 3. d 11. c 4. a 12. d 5. b 13. b 6. a 14. b 7. c 15. a 8. a pp. 4.3–4.5 Vocabulary 1. a noun 2. b noun 3. d noun 4. c noun 5. a verb 6. a verb 7. d adj 8. b verb 9. b noun 10. c verb 11. a noun 12. a verb 13. b noun 14. d noun 15. c noun 16. c noun

pp. 2.3–2.5 Vocabulary 1. a noun 2. c adj 3. b verb 4. d adj 5. b adv 6. d adj 7. b adj 8. a adj 9. c noun 10. a adj 11. d verb 12. c noun 13. b verb 14. b adj 15. a adj 16. d noun 17. b verb 18. c noun 19. a verb 20. c verb

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Appendix B Answer Key Chapter 5 pp. 5.1–5.2 Reading Comp. 1. c 6. b 2. b 7. a 3. d 8. b 4. b 9. a 5. c 10. d pp. 5.3–5.4 Vocabulary 1. b verb 2. c noun 3. a noun 4. a noun 5. b adj 6. b verb 7. a verb 8. c adj 9. b verb 10. d noun 11. a noun 12. c noun 13. b verb 14. d adj 15. d adj Chapter 6 pp. 6.1–6.2 Reading Comp. 1. b 7. a 2. d 8. d 3. d 9. b 4. d 10. c 5. d 11. b 6. c 12. d pp. 6.3–6.5 Vocabulary 1. b adj 2. b verb 3. d verb 4. c adj 5. b verb 6. a verb 7. c adj 8. a noun 9. d verb 10. a verb 11. d verb 12. b adv 13. c verb 14. c verb 15. a noun 16. b adj 17. c adj 18. d adj 19. a noun 20. d verb Chapter 7 pp. 7.1–7.3 Reading Comp. 1. d 11. d 2. b 12. b 3. c 13. a 4. d 14. a 5. a 15. c 6. b 16. d 7. c 17. b 8. d 18. c 9. b 19. a 10. a 20. d pp. 7.4–7.6 Vocabulary 1. a noun 2. c verb 3. b noun 4. d noun 5. a verb 6. c noun 7. b adj 8. a adj 9. d verb 10. b noun 11. d noun 12. b verb 13. d verb 14. a verb 15. c verb 16. b noun 17. a noun 18. a noun

Medieval Times

Chapter 8 pp. 8.1–8.3 Reading Comp. 1. c 11. a 2. b 12. b 3. d 13. b 4. b 14. d 5. a 15. c 6. c 16. c 7. c 17. d 8. b 18. d 9. d 19. b 10. c 20. b pp. 8.4–8.6 Vocabulary 1. c verb 2. a verb 3. b adj 4. d noun 5. c noun 6. b adj 7. a adj 8. d noun 9. a verb 10. c verb 11. c verb 12. a verb 13. d adj 14. b verb 15. a noun

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Picture Credits

Medieval Times

Picture Credits: Most of the pictures in this volume are from the Medieval Times archives © Medieval Times. Other pictures in this document are used in accordance with the end user license agreement from ArtToday.com. Additional pictures credits are as follows: p.12 The Decameron by John William Waterhouse: Trustees of the National Museum and Galleries, Mereyside; p. 13 A Conditorre by Frederic Leighton, Pavonia by Frederick Leighton, Il Ramoscello by Dante Gabriel Rossetti bequest of Grenville Winthrop; p. 24 The Lady of Shallot, Art Gallery of Toronto, Canada, bequest of Mrs. Philip P. Jackson; The Crystal Ball by John William Waterhouse, Delaware Art Museum; p. 29 Beata Beatrix by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Delaware Art Museum; p. 45 Fair Rosamund by John William Waterhouse; p. 46 Ophelia by John William Waterhouse, courtesy of Julian Hartnoll; p. 49 The Vigil by John Pettie; p. 72 Portrait of Elizabeth Siddal by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Delaware Art Museum; p. 78 Loves Messenger by Maric Sportall Stillman, The Delaware Art Museum; p. 82 Tristram and Isolde by John William Waterhouse; p. 86 Saint Cecilia by John William Waterhouse; p. 96 God Speed by Edmund Blain Leighton