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writing is one important issue that are rising in academic environment, especially among students who are from non-English speaking countries. When students are directly asked to compose academic papers, it usually means they have to present their own opinion about, at least, a scientific topic. In doing so, students have to read a lot of literatures and cite appropriate ones in order to provide robust evidences to support their ideas. As academic writing has many requirements including providing important evidences and reading academic sources, in this essay, I explain key
features, frequent problems and the process approach of academic writing. At the end of this essay, I describe a plan to effectively write academic essays for over 6 weeks. Key Features Good writing essays have some critical features in order to help academic scholars to communicate their ideas appropriately and effectively. According to Gillet (2013), the features are including complexity, formality, precision, objectivity, explicitness, accuracy, hedging and responsibility. Indeed, writing academic features are important in order to present academic essays in factual, objective and formal ways. Complexity is an important feature of academic writing. It means that academic essays should use complex structure, grammar and vocabulary. As academic essays may contrast and categorize a lot of factual information, it is needed to use some sentences that more complex than that in informal or spoken languages. For example, in order to combine two similar opinions and to explain ideas objectively, writers may use subordinate clauses and passive sentences simultaneously. A next feature of scientific writing is formality. Formality means that academic scholars have to describe their ideas in formal languages instead of informal or spoken languages. For instance, “Dad” may be used in spoken languag e but it should be replaced by “Father” in scientific papers. If, as another example, any academic scholar tends to use his own informal languages, other academic scholars who read his scientific essay may confuse owing to his unknownly informal languages.
Since academic authors intend to discuss academic issues. These signalling words are directly embedded in academic essays to help readers easily understand academic ideas mentioned in academic literacy. To present clear academic opinions. alternatively. a writer should write “the earthquake is measured 7 on Richter scale”. academic writing should contain a precision feature. For instance. This feature of academic writing is called explicitness. A precision feature asks scientific authors to give information as precise as possible to readers. instead of saying “the earthquake is very big”. Signalling word such as however. in which academic writers have to discuss intended academic issues instead of their own personal matters. Due to this. in their particular fields. currency. For instance. they may confuse readers who read their scientific essays. owing to and due to this. In scientific or academic environment. academic writers whose economics background should understand differences among money. A primary objective of academic essays is to discuss a scientific idea so that those emphasis on academic debates. academic scholars should say “Most big cities in Asia have terrible traffic jam”. academic authors shall describe a concise magnitude of scientific matters in order to give other academic scholars exact information. in order to clearly present their ideas. Another interesting feature of academic writing is hedging. there is a . academic scholars should support their academic essays with figure. In turn.In order to provide information as exact as possible. This characteristics is widely called objectivity. they do not understand specific differences among those. Moreover. For instance. This feature is known as an accuracy feature of academic literacy. table or graph to give clear information. instead of saying “Big cities have terrible traffic jam”. academic authors must have robust English literacy ability. In this case. Academic writers have to understand what specific words to use. are few examples of these words. academic scholars should provide clear their stance about their claims. fund and capital. If. for example. This is more concise and precise so that readers could get clear picture about the earthquake or scientific issues that a academic writer mentions. It is also called using cautious language. they tend to use signposting words to combine or contrast some facts or ideas. some facts or factual information may be true for specific condition but not true for the other condition.
It is likely that students. can be supposed as public opinion (Sowden. Frequent Problems According to Sowden (2005) some international students have problems in doing academic writing as they have differently cultural backgrounds. This feature of academic literacy is known as responsibility. As there is interaction among students. can follow the stages of the process approach in their daily academic life. drafting. students can effectively write their academic essays as they get useful feedbacks from their peers and tutors. By composing academic essays in a less stressful way. Some Arabic languages may have longer sentences than English that may hinder progress these students perform academic writing well. Academic authors must support their claims with some evidences or factual information so that they can persuade and argue readers that their claims are a robust opinion. 2011). another objective of the process approach is to reduce anxiety among students. evaluating and revision (Hyland. When academic scholars explain their academic ideas. especially international students (Demirel. academic essays have to reflect author’s responsibility to support their academic opinion. In addition. In other words. this approach can be used to share diffciulties that scholars can write their academic essays in a less stressful way. so that. The bilingual students may not cite other research as other knowledge. do not cite other works that they mention in their work. In turn. In addition. 2005). 2002 as cited in Demirel. Chinese students. different styles among student’s first languages and English may raise some difficulties when foreign students are writing academic essays or papers (AlKhasawneh.possibility that a few big cities may not have terrible traffic jam. in their own culture. . 2005). Another example is Asian students are likely to compose descriptive papers instead of critical papers as their cultural background are not encouraged students to criticize other opinions (Sowden. who have experienced the process approach. 2011). the last saying is a cautious stance as it states that most big cities in Asia have terrible traffic jam. students could maximize their ability to produce well academic papers. The Process Approach A main objective of the process approach is to give students a chance to exprience the nature of writing such as pre-writing. for instance. 2010). they have to provide strong arguments or evidence to support their claim.
Following this.In order to increase efficacy of the process approach. Whitaker (2009) points out another possible plan to conduct academic writing as follows: Choose a topic Think (brainstorm) Research Discover your thesis Plan (Outline) Write Revise Editing Proofread . After doing peer reviews. revision and proofreading (Demirel. planning. students should revise their essays and proofread their writing before collecting theirs to a tutor or lecturer. students are usually asked to proceed some stages. Prewriting is a stage in which each students will write their outlines. 2011). In the planning stage. students may compose a timetable of their writing progress. The Plan for over 6 Weeks According to Demirel (2011). drafting. especially about what their main ideas will be explored further. a possible plan to write academic essays as follows: Subject selection Proposal writing Annotated bibliography Introduction section Literature review Data collection Writing the results and conclusion Handing the final paper to the tutor In addition. peer reviews. student can start to write their ideas in the drafting stage. Some stages are including prewriting.
namely.DRAFT OF ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Al Fadda. Take it step by step : Following a process approach to academic writing to overcome student anxiety. ELT Journal. (2012). Difficulties in academic writing: From the perspective of King Saud University of postgraduate students. Problem sources among Arabic students are including weak English foundation. first language styles and isolated environment. This author claims that the process approach could reduce Turkish students when they write their academic essays. when a English teacher implements the process approach. ESP World. difficulties to find appropriate sources for their papers and unfamiliarity with academic writing. (2011). pp.(2010). (2000). Badger. Moreover. Environmental issues includes limited opportunity to practice English. . pp. For instance. Journal of Academic Writing. are including first language background. E. Demirel. The process approach could help students in reducing anxiety since the process method gives students chances to interact with other students and to practice academic writing frequently. Lack of academic literacy may be influenced by some internal and external factors. R & White. 54 (2). lack of writing in academic world and using Arabic in English classes. pp. M. 123130. for example. 2 (28). Writing for academic purposes: Problems faced by Arab postgraduate students of the college of business. motivation and lack of English skills. 123. UUM. pp. As each approach has weaknesses and strengths. process approach and genre approach. he or she may provide some inputs such as appropriate articles and previous student’s works for her or his students so that the process approcah’s weak point of lack input can be covered. The writer argues that Arabic students have some problems when they start to write their academic papers. A process genre approach to teaching academic writing. Moreover. Some issues that the most stressfull for students are the complexity of writing rules or conventions. There are three approaches in teaching writing. Internal factors. English Language Training. H. F. 5 (3). G. Al-Khasawneh. the author suggests that teachers and native English students may help Arabic students to increase their English writing. In addition. external factors are including different styles between Arabic and English such as writing styles and alphabets. S. adaptation should take in order to cover its weaknesses. problem sources in terms of methods of English teaching are including teacher’s low proficiency in English. 222-227. product approach. environment issues and methods of English teaching. Lastly. weak English foundation are including grammar. spelling and referencing. 153-160. 1 (1).
Using english for academic purposes a guide for students in higher education: academic writing. they may face difficulty when they compose their academic essays. owing to different culture. 59 (3). According to Whitaker (2009). 226-233. reporting verbs. In the first section. Gillet (2013) points out some features of academic writing such as complexity. Academic writing guide 2010. precision. (2013).Gillet. (2009). 2013 from http://www.pdf This tutorial book contains a lot of information regarding with academic writing. this citation also explains about some important characteristics of academic writing such as summarizing.pdf.1093/elt/cci042. objectivity.com/ writing/feature/ featfram. pp. formality. C. Furthermore. Whitaker. ELT Journal Volume. 2013 from http://www. thinking (brainstorming). University of Technology Sydney Library. especially in academic essays. Retrieved on July 20. For instance.uefap.au/sites/default/files/attachments/ page/Academic%20Writing%20Guide%20Part%201%20-20Academic%20Writing. then. .lib. the next section tells about guidelines to prevent from basic English mistakes in writing such as grammar. A. the writer explains about important features of academic writing. Another example is as most foreign students from Asia are seldom asked to criticize other scholar’s opinion. objective and formal ways. some plans in writing academic essays are including choosing a topic. structure and writing styles. writing. referencing. Retrieved on July 20. a group of Japanese students refused to cite other works in their papers since they think that knowledge they mentioned is public knowledge. (2005).doi:10. 2013 from http://www. especially when they are asked to do literature review or criticize other scholar’s papers. what students should do in each stage is clearly explained with simple guidelines and examples. explicitness. doing research. paraphrasing. and formal languages. Plagiarism and the culture of multilingual students in higher education abroad. accuracy. revising. discovering your thesis.edu. (2013).uts. Indeed. writing academic features are important in order to present academic essays in factual. editing and proofreading. This bibliography is important as it is published in 2013 as a book and it contains a lot of useful information about academic writing. passive sentences. Moreover. Academic writing. A. Sowden. planning (outline). This handbook provides information on a complete plan to compose qualified academic writing. vocabulary. Sowden (2005) argues that international students may face some difficulties in Western academic environment.sk/Curriculum/academicsupport/academicwritingguide. hedging and responsibility.htm.vsm. City University of Seattle. Retrieved on July 20.