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ESACRACK/NASGRO Short Course 18.

Additional Example Problems - ESALOAD & ESAFATIG


Gerben Sinnema ESA-ESTEC 13/09/2012

ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Contents

EXERCISES: 1. Load and stress spectrum generation 2. Bolt fatigue analysis 3. Safe life analysis 4. Critical crack size determination (optional) 5. Indirect safe life and load spectra combination (optional) 6. Load spectrum generation and CID determination

18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 2 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Exercise 1 - Load and stress spectrum generation

Consider an electronic box with a mass of 20 kg, a COG height above interface plane of 100 mm and a distance between the four interface bolt locations of 200 mm. The box has the following dynamic characteristics: Eigenfrequencies 100, 150 and 300 Hz in x, y and z-direction respectively. The damping is assumed equal to 0.05 (viscous).
100

200

200
18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 3 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Exercise 1 - Load and stress spectrum generation

After manufacturing the box is transported to a test centre for testing. A total road transportation of 500 kilometres is foreseen. Random acceptance testing (X, Y and Z-dir, 70 sec/axis):
frequency 20 - 80 80 - 350 350 - 2000 PSD level + 3 dB/oct 0.04 -3 dB/oct

Before and after each acceptance test a low-level sine test is performed 5 - 2000 Hz at 0.5 g's input with a sweep rate of 2 octaves per minute. Subsequent to the testing the item is transported to the launch site by 5000 km air transport.

18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 4 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Exercise 1 - Load and stress spectrum generation

The payload stays in space. The flight limit load factors are 23, 29 and 40 g's in x, y and zdirection respectively. The launch is with the Space Shuttle. Generate the event file and the load spectrum.

18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 5 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Exercise 2 - Bolt fatigue analysis

The electronic box of Exercise 1 is attached with 4 M5 bolts of Ti6Al4V. One bolt is assumed failed. Derive the unit stresses for the bolts using a stress area of 14.2mm2. Assume a joint load factor of 0.25. The pre-stress is given as 400 MPa. Note: bolt tension may be accompanied by bending. Generate the stress spectrum and perform a fatigue analysis. What happens if the bolt material is changed to A-286 M5, W. No. 1.4944.4 screw assuming an unchanged joint load factor of 0.25

18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 6 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Exercise 3 - Safe life analysis

Consider the box in Exercise 1. A safe life analysis of the attachment feet (4 feet active) is required in order to verify box integrity.

10

100 20 200 z 200 x y 7

18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 7 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Exercise 3 - Safe life analysis

The box (see Exercise 1) and its feet are made from 7075-T7351 plate. The dimensions of the feet are: thickness 7 mm, width 20 mm and distance between bolt hole centre and box attachment 10 mm. Find suitable stress intensity factor model(s) and derive unit stresses. Determine the worst case crack location and perform a safe life analysis using initial crack sizes of a=1.91 mm and a/c=1 and a=0.81 mm and a/c=0.2 (ECSS standard initial crack size for penetrant inspection). Use a scatter factor 4. What would happen if the total box mass is only 10 kg? (otherwise same design)

18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 8 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Exercise 4 - Critical crack size determination (optional)

For the feet Of Exercise 3 the critical crack sizes should be determined. Use the limit stresses derived for launch loads: S0 = 0.41 *23 = 9.4 MPa S1 = 4.09 * 23 + 4.09 * 29 + 4.09 * 40 = 376.3 MPa S2 = 1.23* 29 = 35.7 MPa

Use the following dimensions t = 7 mm and W= 20 mm for both CC01 and SC01 models and consider the two aspect ratios a/c = 0.2 and 1

18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 9 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Exercise 5 - Indirect safe life and load spectra combination (optional)

An M8 bolt is used in proof and acceptance testing of a structure and is subsequently used for a launch. The bolt is made of Inconel 718 (UTS=1550 MPa). The test program consists of 2 proof cycles 50 nominal cycles

The nominal stress applied on the bolt is 50 MPa. The proof load is 1.5 times higher thus yielding a stress of 75 MPa. For the launch event the NASA normalized spectrum GSFC shall be used. The maximum bolt alternating stress is again 50 MPa. During test and launch the bolt is pre-stressed to 700 MPa. Determine the maximum initial defect size using an indirect safe life calculation. A scatter factor of 4 shall be considered.

18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 10 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Exercise 6 - Load spectrum generation and CID determination

Consider a spherical propellant tank with the following characteristics: The radius is 300 mm and the wall thickness is 3.0 mm. The material is Ti6Al4V STA. The tanks are forged. The eigenfrequencies are 150 Hz in x, y and z-axis. A damping of 0.05 is assumed. The MDP is 50 bar (=5.0 MPa)

The tank undergoes the following test campaign. Pressure testing:


cycles 2 (proof) 20 Pressure 1.5 MDP 1.0 MDP

18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 11 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Exercise 6 - Load spectrum generation and CID determination

Random acceptance testing (X-, Y- and Z-axis; 120 sec/axis):


frequency 20 - 80 80 - 350 350 - 2000 PSD level + 3 dB/oct 0.04 -3 dB/oct

Before and after each acceptance test a low-level sine test is performed 5 - 2000 Hz at 0.5 g's input with sweep up only, 2 octaves/min. The limit load factor has been determined to 29 g's in x, y and zdirection. During testing and launch the tank is assumed pressurized to MDP. Include one launch event in the load spectrum.

18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 12 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Exercise 6 - Load spectrum generation and CID determination

The following unit stresses shall be used (Note: S4 crack face):


cause x-direction y-direction z-direction Pressure (MDP) Tension (S0) 3 MPa/g 3 MPa/g 2 MPa/g 250 MPa/MDP Bending (S1) 2 MPa/g 2 MPa/g 1 MPa/g 5 MPa/MDP Bi-axial (S4) 0 MPa/g 0 MPa/g 0 MPa/g 5 MPa/MDP

Generate the stress spectrum and use an indirect safe life calculation to determine the maximum permissible initial crack size (critical initial defect or CID) by applying the service life 4 times. Which crack case is the most severe: internal or external crack? Which crack aspect ratio is the worst case? Why shall the crack face unit stress be used? (biaxial in ESALOAD terminology)

18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 13 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use

Exercise 6 - Load spectrum generation and CID determination

Additional tasks: In case the tank has been cleaned with IPA what effects would that have? Assume a KIscc value of 970 MPa mm1/2. On which stress line should the KIscc be implemented?

18. Additional Examples ESALOAD & ESAFATIG | Gerben Sinnema | ESA-ESTEC | 13/09/2012 | TEC-MSS | Slide 14 ESA UNCLASSIFIED For Official Use