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Introduction to Production Technology Presenter: Ta Quoc Dung

Introduction to Production Technology

Presenter: Ta Quoc Dung
Presenter: Ta Quoc Dung
Contents
Contents

Chapter 1. Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Chapter 5.

Introduction Process Overview Performance of Flowing Well Artificial Lifts Enhanced Oil Recovery

of Flowing Well Artificial Lifts Enhanced Oil Recovery G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology Content

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

Content

2

Learning Objectives

Having go through this course, students will be able to:

Describe the overview of Petroleum Production Technology

Describe the role of Production Engineer in a Petroleum Operating Company.

Describe a production system and its facilities both onshore and offshore.

Understand the concept of inflow performance, lift performance and their integrated nature.

Understand the enhanced oil recovery process.

nature. Understand the enhanced oil recovery process. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology Learning

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

Learning Objectives

3

Chapter 1

Introduction

Chapter 1 Introduction G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 4

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

4

Content

1.1. Historical Background

1.2. Origin of Petroleum

1.3. Petroleum Production

1.4. Production Engineer

Petroleum 1.3. Petroleum Production 1.4. Production Engineer G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology Chapter 1

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

Chapter 1 - Content

5

Historical Background

Oil has been used for many thousand years.

Initially, oil was collected from seepage or tar ponds.

6000 BC, thick gummy asphalt was used to waterproof boats and heat home.

3000 BC, Egyptians used asphalt in the construction of the pyramids, to grease the axles of the Pharaoh’s chariots, as an embalming agent for mummies and in medicine.

500 BC, Chinese were using natural gas to boil water.

500 BC, Chinese were using natural gas to boil water. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

1.1.

Historical Background

6

Historical Background

1885, internal combustion engine was invented by Karl Benz. Later, Gotlied Daimler improved on this invention.

1894, Rudolph Diesel created the engine bearing his name.

Since then, oil started to play a dominant role in the world.

Initially, gas was burned off or left in the ground. After World War II, natural gas industry boom due to:

Welding techniques Pipe rolling Metallurgical advances => Construction of reliable long distance pipelines

=> Construction of reliable long distance pipelines G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.1.

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

1.1.

Historical Background

7

The First Oil Wells

The First Oil Wells G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology “Colonel” Edwin Drake’s well at

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

“Colonel” Edwin Drake’s well at Titusville, Pennsylvania, marked the start of the oil industry in 1859

1.1.

Historical Background

8

The First Oil Wells

First wells were shallow, less than 50 meters in depth.

However, they could give quite large production, e.g. 4000 barrels per day for a single well.

Oil was collected in wooden tank, called “barrel”. Many different sized barrels in the background. Current standard, one barrel is 159 liters.

the background. Current standard, one barrel is 159 liters. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

1.1.

Historical Background

9

The First Oil Wells

The First Oil Wells G EOPET Woodford well 1500 bbl/d, July 1862 Philips well 4000 bbl/d,

GEOPET

Woodford well 1500 bbl/d, July 1862 Philips well 4000 bbl/d, Oct 1861
Woodford well
1500 bbl/d, July 1862
Philips well
4000 bbl/d, Oct 1861

Introduction to Production Technology

1.1.

Historical Background

10

The First Oil Wells

The First Oil Wells G EOPET Well “jungle” at Spindletop, 1903 Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

GEOPET

Well “jungle” at Spindletop, 1903

Oil Wells G EOPET Well “jungle” at Spindletop, 1903 Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.1. Historical

Introduction to Production Technology

1.1.

Historical Background

11

What is Petroleum?

Petra = Rock

Oleum = Oil

Petroleum is a mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons which may exist in the solid, liquid, or gaseous states, depending upon the composition and conditions of pressure and temperature to which it is subjected.

Gaseous = natural gas

Liquid = condensate, crude oil

Solid = asphalt, tar, bitumen

Liquid = condensate, crude oil Solid = asphalt, tar, bitumen G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

1.2.

Origin of Petroleum

12

Petroleum Components

Petroleum Components G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.2. Origin of Petroleum 13
Petroleum Components G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.2. Origin of Petroleum 13

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

1.2.

Origin of Petroleum

13

Origin of Petroleum

Origin of petroleum

Organic Inorganic

Primary Requirements for Petroleum Reservoir formation:

Primary Requirements for Petroleum Reservoir formation: G EOPET Organic life Water for transportation Tectonic

GEOPET

Organic life Water for transportation Tectonic activities

Introduction to Production Technology

1.2.

Origin of Petroleum

life Water for transportation Tectonic activities Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.2. Origin of Petroleum 14

14

Type of Hydrocarbon Produced

Oil produced is classified by shrinkage, density or GOR. Normally, high value oil has high API density.

density or GOR. Normally, high value oil has high API density. G EOPET Introduction to Pr
density or GOR. Normally, high value oil has high API density. G EOPET Introduction to Pr

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Introduction to Production Technology

15

Other Uses of Oil

Other Uses of Oil Crude Oil Refinery Bottled Gas Gasoline Jet Fuel Fuel Oil (home heating
Crude Oil Refinery Bottled Gas Gasoline Jet Fuel Fuel Oil (home heating Fuel Oil (factories)
Crude Oil
Refinery
Bottled Gas
Gasoline
Jet Fuel
Fuel Oil (home heating
Fuel Oil (factories)
Diesel Oil
And others
Petrochemical
Plant
Petroleum Products

Introduction to Production Technology

1.2.

Solvent for paint Insecticides Medicines Synthetic Fibers Enamel Detergents Weed Killers & Fertilizers Plastics Synthetic Rubber Photographic Film Candles Waxed paper Polish Ointments & Creams Roofing Protective Paints Asphalt

Candles Waxed paper Polish Ointments & Creams Roofing Protective Paints Asphalt G EOPET Origin of Petroleum

GEOPET

Origin of Petroleum

16

Petroleum from Beginning to the End

Exploration

Evaluation

Drilling

from Beginning to the End Exploration Evaluation Drilling Production Separation Completion Transport Refining

Production

Separation

Completion

Evaluation Drilling Production Separation Completion Transport Refining Treatment Treatment Transport End Users G

Transport

Refining

Treatment

Separation Completion Transport Refining Treatment Treatment Transport End Users G EOPET Introduction to Pr

Treatment

Transport

End Users

Transport Refining Treatment Treatment Transport End Users G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.3.
Transport Refining Treatment Treatment Transport End Users G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.3.
Transport Refining Treatment Treatment Transport End Users G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.3.

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

1.3.

Petroleum Production

Treatment Treatment Transport End Users G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.3. Petroleum Production 17

17

Key Areas in Production Technology

Production technology is both a diverse and complex area. It is, possible to identify several key subject areas:

Well Productivity Well Completion Well Stimulation Associated Production Problems Remedial and Workover Techniques Artificial Lift / Productivity Enhancement Surface Processing

Lift / Productivity Enhancement Surface Processing G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.3.

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Introduction to Production Technology

1.3.

Production Technology

18

Production Technology Topics WELL WELL PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE G EOPET PRODUCTION PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT/
Production Technology Topics WELL WELL PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE G EOPET PRODUCTION PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT/
Production Technology Topics WELL WELL PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE G EOPET PRODUCTION PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT/
Production Technology Topics WELL WELL PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE G EOPET PRODUCTION PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT/
Production Technology Topics WELL WELL PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE G EOPET PRODUCTION PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT/
Production Technology Topics WELL WELL PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE G EOPET PRODUCTION PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT/
Production Technology Topics WELL WELL PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE G EOPET PRODUCTION PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT/
Production Technology Topics WELL WELL PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE G EOPET PRODUCTION PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT/

Production Technology Topics

WELL WELL PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE

G EOPET PRODUCTION PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT/ ENHANCEMENT/ ARTIFICIAL ARTIFICIAL LIFT LIFT PRODUCTION PRODUCTION

GEOPET

PRODUCTION PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT/ ENHANCEMENT/ ARTIFICIAL ARTIFICIAL LIFT LIFT

PRODUCTION PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY

PRODUCTION PRODUCTION PROBLEMS PROBLEMS

WELL WELL DIAGNOSIS MONITORING, MONITORING, DIAGNOSIS AND WORKOVER WORKOVER AND
WELL WELL DIAGNOSIS MONITORING, MONITORING,
DIAGNOSIS AND
WORKOVER WORKOVER AND

Introduction to Production Technology

WELL WELL COMPLETION COMPLETION

SURFACE SURFACE PROCESSING PROCESSING

STIMULATION STIMULATION AND AND REMEDIAL REMEDIAL PROCESSES PROCESSES 1.3. Production Technology
STIMULATION STIMULATION AND AND REMEDIAL REMEDIAL PROCESSES PROCESSES 1.3. Production Technology

STIMULATION STIMULATION AND AND REMEDIAL REMEDIAL PROCESSES PROCESSES

STIMULATION STIMULATION AND AND REMEDIAL REMEDIAL PROCESSES PROCESSES 1.3. Production Technology

1.3. Production Technology

19

Scope of Production Engineer

Production Engineer is responsible for the production system.

The production system describes the entire production process and includes the following principal components:

The Reservoir The Wellbore Production Conduit Wellhead, Xmas Tree and Flow Lines Treatment Facilities

Wellhead, Xmas Tree and Flow Lines Treatment Facilities G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.4.

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Introduction to Production Technology

1.4.

Production Engineer

20

Elements of A Production Technology System

Elements of A Production Technology System G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.3. Petroleum Production

GEOPET

Elements of A Production Technology System G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.3. Petroleum Production

Introduction to Production Technology

1.3.

Petroleum Production

Elements of A Production Technology System G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.3. Petroleum Production

21

Role of Production Engineer

Production Engineer performs tasks to achieve optimum performance from the production system.

To achieve this the technologist must understand:

Chemical and physical characteristics of the fluids.

System which will be utilised to control the efficient and safe production/injection of fluids

The importance of the Production Chemistry and Flow Assurance input has only recently been widely acknowledged.

input has only recently been widely acknowledged. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.4.

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Introduction to Production Technology

1.4.

Production Engineer

22

Contribution to Oil Company Operations

Contributes substantially, in particular to economic performance and cash flow.

The overall incentive will be to maximise profitability.

The objectives of an oil company operation could be classified as:

Maximising magnitude and accelerating cash flow.

Minimising cost/bbl, i.e. total cost minimisation may not be recommended.

i.e. total cost minimisation may not be recommended. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.4.

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Introduction to Production Technology

1.4.

Production Engineer

23

Contribution to Oil Company Operations

Cash flow

The overall objectives would ideally be to maximise both cash flow and recoverable reserves. This would normally require maintaining the well in an operational state to achieve:

maintaining the well in an operational state to achieve: G EOPET Maximum production rates Maximum economic

GEOPET

Maximum production rates Maximum economic longevity Minimum down time

Introduction to Production Technology

1.4.

Production Engineer

24

Contribution to Oil Company Operations

Costs

In this category there would be both fixed and direct costs.

On this basis the production technologist would seek to:

Minimise capital costs Minimise production costs Minimise treatment costs Minimise workover cost

Ensuring that the company’s operation are safe, efficient and profitable.

company’s operation are safe, efficient and profitable. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 1.4.

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Introduction to Production Technology

1.4.

Production Engineer

25

Time Scale of Involvement

Specialist task teams to fields or groups of wells i.e. field groups or asset teams.

Specialist groups or individual who provide specific technical expertise.

This ensure that there is a forward looking and continuous development perspective to field and well developments.

The production engineer is involved in the initial well design and will have interest in the drilling operation from the time that the reservoir is penetrated.

operation from the time that the reservoir is penetrated. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

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Introduction to Production Technology

1.4.

Production Engineer

26

Time Scale of Involvement

The inputs of production engineer will last throughout the production life of the well, to its ultimate abandonment.

The production engineer will contribute to company operations on a well from initial planning to abandonment.

The inputs in chronological order to the development and the operation of the well are listed below.

development and the operation of the well are listed below. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

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Introduction to Production Technology

1.4.

Production Engineer

27

Time Scale of Involvement

Drilling

 

Casing string design.

Drilling fluid selection.

Completion

 

Design/installation of completion string.

Production

 

Monitoring well and completion performance.

Workover/re-completion

 

Diagnosis/recommendation/installation of new or improved production systems.

Abandonment

of new or improved production systems. Abandonment G EOPET Identify candidates and procedures. Introduction to

GEOPET

Identify candidates and procedures.

Introduction to Production Technology

1.4.

Production Engineer

28

Questions

1. Which company is producing oil the most in Vietnam? What is its average day-rate?

2. Locate main oil and gas production fields in Vietnam?

3. Name some oil refinery projects in Vietnam?

in Vietnam? 3. Name some oil refinery projects in Vietnam? G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

Chapter 1 - Questions

29

Chapter 2

Process Overview

Chapter 2 Process Overview G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 30

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Introduction to Production Technology

30

Content

2.1. Production Systems

Onshore Offshore

2.2. Production Facilities

Wellhead Manifold/Gathering Separator Gas Compressor Pipeline Metering, Storage and Export Facilities

2.3. Utility Systems

Metering, Storage and Export Facilities 2.3. Utility Systems G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology Chapter

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Introduction to Production Technology

Chapter 2 - Content

31

Basic Process Scheme

Basic Process Scheme G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 32

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Introduction to Production Technology

32

Production

Wellheads

Injection

Wells

Production Wellheads Injection Wells G EOPET Process Overview Production and Test Manifolds Gas Compressor LP HP

GEOPET

Process Overview

Production

and Test

Manifolds

Gas Compressor

LP

HP

Metering and

Storage

Gas

Meter

Export

Pig

Launcher

Gas

Pipeline

Production Separators

1-Stage

2-Stage

Crude

Pump

Pig

Launcher

Oil

Meter

Oil

Pipeline

Tanker

Loading

Water Treatment

Test Separator

Oil Storage

Injection

Manifolds

Water injection

pump

Gas injection

compressor

Drilling

Mud and Cementing

Introduction to Production Technology

2.1. Facilities

Utility Systems (selected)

Power Generation

Instrument Air

Potable Water

Firefighting

Systems

HVAC

33

Oil and Gas Production

Oil and gas is produced in almost every part of the world. Production from 100 bbl/day to 4000 bbl/day per well. Depth of production from 20 m to 3000 m, and more. Current trend of petroleum production:

Explore reservoirs at ultra high water depth. Develop subsea production system.

ultra high water depth. Develop subsea production system. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1.

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Introduction to Production Technology

2.1.

Production System

34

Production System

Production System 1. Onshore well 2. Fixed, multi platform 3. Fixed, self-contained platform 4. Self-contained, concrete

1. Onshore well

2. Fixed, multi platform

3. Fixed, self-contained platform

4. Self-contained, concrete gravity platform

platform 4. Self-contained, concrete gravity platform G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 5. Floating,

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Introduction to Production Technology

5. Floating, single point mooring

6. Storage/shuttle tanker

7. Floating, tension leg platform

8. Subsea manifolds

2.1.

Production System

35

Onshore

Production from a few tens barrels a day upward.

Worldwide, there are several millions oil and gas production wells.

Production system:

millions oil and gas production wells. Production system: 2.1. Production System 36 sucker rod pump (donkey

2.1.

Production System

36

sucker rod pump

(donkey pump).

Production system: 2.1. Production System 36 sucker rod pump (donkey pump). G EOPET Introduction to Pr

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

G EOPET Onshore Heavy crude, tar sands and oil shales have become economically extractible. Heavy

GEOPET

Onshore

Heavy crude, tar sands and oil shales have become economically extractible.

Heavy crude may need heating and diluent.

Tar sands have lost their volatile compounds and are strip mined or could be extracted with steam.

These unconventional of reserves may contain more than double the hydrocarbons found in conventional reservoirs.

double the hydrocarbons found in conventional reservoirs. Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1. Production

Introduction to Production Technology

2.1.

Production System

37

Offshore

Facilities selected depending on:

Type of fluid: oil, gas or condensate. Production rate. Location of field and water depth.

Production rate. Location of field and water depth. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1.

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Introduction to Production Technology

2.1. Facilities

38

Offshore Production System

Offshore Production System G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 39

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Introduction to Production Technology

39

Type of Offshore Platform

Type of Offshore Platform G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1. Production System 40
Type of Offshore Platform G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1. Production System 40

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Introduction to Production Technology

2.1.

Production System

40

Type of Offshore Platform (cont.)

Type of Offshore Platform (cont.) G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 41

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Introduction to Production Technology

41

Type of Offshore Platform (cont.)

1353 ft

1754 ft

4674 ft

5610 ft

6300 ft

4429 ft

7570 ft

(1991)

(1998)

(2004)

(2004)

(2003)

(2005)

(2004)

(1991) (1998) (2004) (2004) (2003) (2005) (2004) G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 42

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Introduction to Production Technology

42

Shallow Water Complex

Water depth up to 100 m.

Several independent platforms with different parts of the process and utilities linked with gangway bridges.

Individual platforms will be described as:

gangway bridges. Individual platforms will be described as: G EOPET Wellhead Platform Riser Platform Processing

GEOPET

Wellhead Platform Riser Platform Processing Platform Accommodations Platform and Power Generation Platform

Accommodations Platform and Power Generation Platform Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1. Production

Introduction to Production Technology

2.1.

Production System

43

Integrated Steel Jacket Platform

Integrated Steel Jacket Platform G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 44

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Introduction to Production Technology

44

Gravity Base

Water depth: 100 – 500 m.

Concrete fixed structures placed on the bottom, typically with oil storage cells.

Large desk receive all parts of the process and utilities.

Large desk receive all parts of the process and utilities. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

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Introduction to Production Technology

receive all parts of the process and utilities. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1.

2.1.

Production System

45

Compliant Tower

Water depth 500 – 1000m.

Much like fixed platforms, consist of narrow tower attached to a foundation on the seafloor and extending up to the platform.

Compliant tower is quite flexible.

up to the platform. Compliant tower is quite flexible. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

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Introduction to Production Technology

2.1.

Production System

46

Compliant Tower

Compliant Tower G EOPET 2.1. Moving a compliant tower to a field. Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Compliant Tower G EOPET 2.1. Moving a compliant tower to a field. Introduction to Pr oduction

2.1.

Moving a compliant tower to a field.

Introduction to Production Technology

Production System

47

Rig-up

Fixed platforms are built in onshore bases.

Then they are towed to the field by tugboats.

Platforms positioned and connected to seafloor.

tugboats. Platforms positioned and connected to seafloor. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1.

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Introduction to Production Technology

Platforms positioned and connected to seafloor. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1. Facilities 48

2.1. Facilities

48

Floating Production

All topside system are located on a floating structure. Floaters:

FPSO - Floating Production, Storage and Offloading, 200-2000 m. TLP – Tension Leg Platform, up to 2000 m. SPAR – single tall floating cylinder hull, 300 – 3000 m.

Turrets are positioned by:

POSMOR (position mooring): chain connections to anchors. DYNPOS (dynamic positioning): thrusters and propellers.

DYNPOS (dynamic positioning): thrusters and propellers. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1.

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Introduction to Production Technology

2.1.

Production System

49

G EOPET FPSO Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 50

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FPSO

Introduction to Production Technology

50

FPSO with Tanker

FPSO with Tanker G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 51

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Introduction to Production Technology

51

G EOPET TLP Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1. Production System 52

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TLP

G EOPET TLP Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1. Production System 52

Introduction to Production Technology

2.1.

Production System

52

TLP with subsea wells

TLP with subsea wells G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1. Production System 53

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TLP with subsea wells G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1. Production System 53

Introduction to Production Technology

2.1.

Production System

53

G EOPET SPAR Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 54

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SPAR

Introduction to Production Technology

54

G EOPET SPAR anatomy 1. Monocolumn Hull 2. Tendon Porches 3. Tendons 4. Foundation 5.

GEOPET

SPAR anatomy

1. Monocolumn Hull

2. Tendon Porches

3. Tendons

4. Foundation

5. Deck

6. Hull to Deck Transition

7. Riser Porch

8. Riser/Umbilical Pull Tubes

9. Moonpool

10.Production Risers

Introduction to Production Technology

55

Subsea Production System

Typically used at 7000 ft depth or more.

Drilling and completion are performed from a surface rig.

Wells located on the sea floor.

Petroleum is extracted at the seafloor, then “tied-back” to an existing production system by subsea pipeline and riser.

an existing production system by subsea pipeline and riser. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

GEOPET

production system by subsea pipeline and riser. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1. Production

Introduction to Production Technology

2.1.

Production System

56

Subsea FPSO Development

Subsea FPSO Development G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1. Production System 57
Subsea FPSO Development G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.1. Production System 57

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Introduction to Production Technology

2.1.

Production System

57

G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 58

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Introduction to Production Technology

58

Host Platform connected to several Subsea Fields

Host Platform connected to several Subsea Fields G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 59

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Introduction to Production Technology

59

Main Process Section

An oil and gas production system consist of the main following sections:

Wellhead Manifold/Gathering Separator Gas compressor Pipeline

Some optional facilities may be required

Heat exchanger Scrubber and Reboiler

may be required Heat exchanger Scrubber and Reboiler G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2.

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Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

60

Wellhead

Located on top of the well, also called “The X-mas tree”.

Allow a number of operations relating to production and workover. Workover refers to various technologies for maintaining the well and improving production.

Control the flow of the well with a choke.

Two main type of wellheads:

Dry completion: conventional wellheads. Subsea completion: subsea wellheads.

wellheads. Subsea completion: subsea wellheads. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2.

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Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

61

TUBING CASING HEAD HEAD X-MAS TREE
TUBING
CASING HEAD
HEAD
X-MAS TREE

GEOPET

Wellhead

TUBING CASING HEAD HEAD X-MAS TREE G EOPET Wellhead Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2. Production

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

62

Wellhead (cont.)

A wellhead consists of three component:

Casing head: where casing are bolted or welded to casing hanger.

Tubing head: used to position the tubing correctly in the well.

X-mas tree

to position the tubing correctly in the well. X-mas tree G EOPET Master gate valve: high

GEOPET

Master gate valve: high quality valve, not used to control flow. Pressure gauge: may also fitted together with temperature gauge. Wing valve: when shut in, tubing pressure can be read. Swab valve: access to the well for wireline operations, etc… Choke: made of high quality steel, used to control the flow.

made of high quality stee l, used to control the flow. Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

63

Subsea Wellhead

Placed in subsea structure.

World deepest subsea production tree is 9000 ft of water.

Compact system, function similar to conventional wellhead.

Operated by ROV (remote operated vehicle).

wellhead. Operated by ROV (remote operated vehicle). Production Facilities 64 G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

Production Facilities

64

Operated by ROV (remote operated vehicle). Production Facilities 64 G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

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Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Subsea Wellhead (cont.)

Subsea Wellhead (cont.) G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 65

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Introduction to Production Technology

65

History of Subsea Technology

History of Subsea Technology G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 66

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Introduction to Production Technology

66

G EOPET ROV Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2. Production Facilities 67

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ROV

G EOPET ROV Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2. Production Facilities 67

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

67

Types of Choke

Principal surface system pressure loss occurred at choke.

Choke is designed to control the well flow rate and pressure before fluid exposed to surface equipment.

and pressure before fluid exposed to surface equipment. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2.

GEOPET

pressure before fluid exposed to surface equipment. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2. Production

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

68

Manifold/Gathering

Every individual well is brought in to the main production facilities over a network of gathering pipelines and manifold systems.

Manifolds allow to set up and control production of a “well set” and utilize reservoir.

Manifolds can be placed on surface, on platform or on seafloor, depending on the production system.

or on seafloor, depending on the production system. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2.

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Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

69

Manifolds

Manifolds

Manifolds Manifolds G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology Subsea manifolds 2.2. Production Facilities 70
Manifolds Manifolds G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology Subsea manifolds 2.2. Production Facilities 70

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Introduction to Production Technology

Subsea manifolds

Manifolds Manifolds G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology Subsea manifolds 2.2. Production Facilities 70

2.2.

Production Facilities

70

Separator

Production fluid of a well may consist of gas, oil, water,… and must be separated and processed.

Separator form the heart of the production process.

When fluid fed into a separators:

Pressure is controlled and reduced in several stages

After a retention time, gas bubble out, water settle at the bottom and oil stay in the middle.

There are 2 types of separator:

Gravity separators,

Centrifugal separators: in which the effect of gravity is enhanced by spinning the fluids at a high velocity.

is enhanced by spinning the fluids at a high velocity. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

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Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

by spinning the fluids at a high velocity. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2.

71

Gravity Separators

Working on the density difference between the phases be separated. Cylindrical vessel up to 5m in diameter and 20m long. Either 2-phase or 3-phase. Normally mounted in a series of 2, 3, or even 4 separators.

to 5m in diameter and 20m long. Either 2-phase or 3-phase. Normally mounted in a series
to 5m in diameter and 20m long. Either 2-phase or 3-phase. Normally mounted in a series
to 5m in diameter and 20m long. Either 2-phase or 3-phase. Normally mounted in a series
3-phase. Normally mounted in a series of 2, 3, or even 4 separators. G EOPET Introduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

72

3-phase Horizontal Gravity Separator

3-phase Horizontal Gravity Separator G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 73
3-phase Horizontal Gravity Separator G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 73

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

73

3-phase Vertical Gravity Separator

3-phase Vertical Gravity Separator 2.2. Production Facilities 74 Tend to be larger than a horizontal separator

2.2.

Production Facilities

74

Tend to be larger than a horizontal separator for the same separation capacity due to smaller interface areas.

for the same separation capacity due to smaller interface areas. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

Gas Compressor

Gas from a pure natural gas wellhead might have sufficient pressure to feed directly into a pipeline transport system.

Gas from separators has generally lost so much pressure that it must be recompressed to be transported.

Typical gas compressor is turbine compressor, which contains a type of fan that compresses and pumps the natural gas through the pipeline.

compresses and pumps the natural gas through the pipeline. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

75

Gas Compressor (cont.)

Compressor power is often delivered by gas turbines, diesel engines or electric motor, depending on location and power required.

Types of compressor:

Centrifugal compressor Positive displacement reciprocating compressor.

Both compressor types are susceptible to damage by liquid droplets, hence the presence of the liquid knockout vessels prior to each compressor.

of the liquid knockout vessels prior to each compressor. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

76

Simplified Processing Oil Facilities Scheme G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2. Production Facilities

Simplified Processing Oil Facilities Scheme

Simplified Processing Oil Facilities Scheme G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2. Production Facilities 77
Simplified Processing Oil Facilities Scheme G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2. Production Facilities 77

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

77

Pipeline

Pipeline exists everywhere in a production system.

Many types of pipe and flowline are used in transportation of oil and gas, diameters vary from 6” to 48” and more.

Due to oil and gas properties and harsh environment, production pipeline has special construction and design.

production pipeline has special construction and design. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2.

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

78

Layers of a Production Line

Layers of a Production Line G EOPET 1. Carcass 2. Inner liner 3. Pressure armour Introduction
Layers of a Production Line G EOPET 1. Carcass 2. Inner liner 3. Pressure armour Introduction

GEOPET

1. Carcass

2. Inner liner

3. Pressure armour

Introduction to Production Technology

3. Pressure armour Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 4. Tensile armour 5. Outer sheath 2.2. Production

4. Tensile armour

5. Outer sheath

2.2.

Production Facilities

79

Heat Exchanger

For a compressor operates in an efficient way, the temperature of the gas should be low.

Heat should be conserved, e.g. by using cooling flood from the gas train to reheat oil in the oil train.

using cooling flood from the gas train to reheat oil in the oil train. G EOPET

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

using cooling flood from the gas train to reheat oil in the oil train. G EOPET

80

Scrubber and Reboiler

Used to remove small fraction of liquid from the gas before it reaches the compressor. Liquid droplets can erode the rotating blades if they enter the compressor.

droplets can erode th e rotating blades if they enter the compressor. G EOPET Introduction to

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

81

Metering

Several metering devices are used in every petroleum production system to measure gas or oil properties as it flows through the pipeline.

Metering stations allow operators to monitor and manage the natural gas and oil flow without impeding its movement.

Typically, a metering installation consists of a number of meter runs and associated prover loops so that the meter accuracy can be tested and calibrated at regular intervals.

accuracy can be tested and calibrated at regular intervals. G EOPET Oil metering Introduction to Pr

GEOPET

can be tested and calibrated at regular intervals. G EOPET Oil metering Introduction to Pr oduction

Oil metering

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

regular intervals. G EOPET Oil metering Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2. Gas metering Production Facilities

Gas metering

Production Facilities

82

Storage

Gas is usually not allowed to storage on platform.

Oil is often stored before loading on a vessel.

Offshore production facilities without a direct pipeline connection rely on crude storage in the base or hull and allow a shuttle tanker to offload periodically.

or hull and allow a shuttle tanker to offload periodically. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

83

A Base at Night

A Base at Night G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 84

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

84

Export of Oil

The volume of oil being exported has to be measured to the highest accuracy.

Pipeline requires regular cleaning to ensure its efficient operation. A “pig” is usually used to remove settled sand, wax deposit, stagnant water,…

Offshore, loading on tankers involve loading systems, ranging from tanker jetties to sophisticated single point mooring and loading systems that allow the tanker to dock and load product even in bad weather.

the tanker to dock and load product even in bad weather. G EOPET Introduction to Pr
the tanker to dock and load product even in bad weather. G EOPET Introduction to Pr

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

85

Export - FPSO Offloading to a Tanker

Export - FPSO Offloading to a Tanker G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 86

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

86

Export of Gas

Gas has to pass several process and treatment before exporting to customers, including:

Separation Compression NGL stabilization Dehydration Acid gas treating

These processes may repeat to improve the purity of gas and control gas properties.

to improve the purity of gas and control gas properties. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction
to improve the purity of gas and control gas properties. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

87

Gas Field Facilities

Gas Field Facilities G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 88

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

88

Export - Gas Transportation

Export - Gas Transportation G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 89

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

89

Export - Gas Transportation (cont.)

Export - Gas Transportation (cont.) G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 90

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

90

Produced Water Treatment

Produced water, after separation and treatment, is normally disposed of by injection into disposal wells, reinjection into the reservoir or pumping to open pits where it is allowed to evaporate or drain.

In offshore operations, there are other sources of water that require treatment before disposal:

Water used for washing / cleaning of equipment, Sea spray and rain water, Utility water previously used for heating and cooling duty, Displacement water from crude oil storage systems and shuttle tankers.

previously used for heating and cooling duty, Displacement water from crude oil storage systems and shuttle
previously used for heating and cooling duty, Displacement water from crude oil storage systems and shuttle
previously used for heating and cooling duty, Displacement water from crude oil storage systems and shuttle

water from crude oil storage systems and shuttle tankers. G EOPET At some offshore locations if

GEOPET

At some offshore locations if the environmental regulations permit it, oil- free water may simply be pumped into the ocean.

it, oil- free water may simply be pumped into the ocean. Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

91

Produced Water Treatment (cont.)

Primary separation may be enhanced by:

1. Heating of the crude oil: to reduce viscosity.

2. Addition of demulsification chemicals: to alter the interfacial tension between the oil droplets and the water.

3. Electrostatic separation: to further reduce the water content of relatively dry oil. The water droplets suspended in the oil carry a small electrical charge and by imposing the appropriate electrical field across (part) of the settling region inside the separator, the settling rate of water will increase. This method is not widely used but is occasionally employed in conjunction with the more difficult to separate, typically denser, crude oils.

After above methods, oil content in water is still about 500 – 2000 ppm.

oil content in water is still about 500 – 2000 ppm. G EOPET Introduction to Pr

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

92

Produced Water Treatment (cont.)

Further treatments are applied to reduce oil content down to 40 ppm average, which is required by legistration in many countries.

Many schemes have been developed to reduce this oil content:

schemes have been developed to reduce this oil content: G EOPET 1. (Corrugated) Plate Interceptors 2.

GEOPET

1. (Corrugated) Plate Interceptors

2. Flocculation / Coagulation

3. Flotation

4. Hydrocyclones

5. Coalescer Units

6. Centrifuges

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

93

(Corrugated) Plate Interceptors

Reducing the distance required for a droplet to migrate before it comes into contact with other oil droplets and coalesces.

comes into contact with other oil droplets and coalesces. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

GEOPET

into contact with other oil droplets and coalesces. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2.

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

94

Flocculation / Coagulation

Uses a chemical (such as Ferrous Sulphate) which forms a voluminous precipitate in contact with water, artificially increasing suspended liquid size and their ability to coalesce.

suspended liquid size and their ability to coalesce. Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2. Production

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

liquid size and their ability to coalesce. Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2. Production Facilities G

GEOPET

95

Dispered Gas Flotation

Gas injected into the water and dispersed by a rapidly rotating impeller, rising gas bubbles attaching themselves to the oil droplets.

gas bubbles attaching them selves to the oil droplets. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

GEOPET

bubbles attaching them selves to the oil droplets. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2.

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

96

Dissolved Gas Flotation

Gas dissolved in the water under high pressure. When pressure is rapidly reduced - by passage of the water through a throttling valve - gas comes

out of solution in the form of many small bubbles (champagne bottle effect).

the fo rm of many small bubbles (champagne bottle effect). G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

97

G EOPET Hydrocyclones Standard device for cleaning oily water, developed in the early 1990s. Using

GEOPET

Hydrocyclones

Standard device for cleaning oily water, developed in the early 1990s.

Using centrifugal force to increase the effect of gravity separation.

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

98

Coalescer Units

Provide a (usually oleophilic) surface on which the small droplets of oil can collect, grow and eventually break free and be removed for subsequent separation.

Can produce the lowest oil concentrations (5 ppm oil in water has been achieved in ideal circumstances).

ppm oil in water has been achieved in ideal circumstances). G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

99

Centrifuges

The principle of enhanced gravitational force employed by Hydrocyclones can be further extended by use of centrifuges where an external electric motor is used to spin the fluid at high velocity together with a suitably designed internals to promote oil/water separation.

designed internals to promote oil/water separation. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.2.

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.2.

Production Facilities

100

Modern Scheme for Clean Produced Water

Modern Scheme for Clean Produced Water G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 101

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

101

Utility Systems

Utility systems are systems that does not handle the hydrocarbon process flow, but provides some utility to the main process safety or residents.

1. Control and Safety Systems

1. Process Control Systems

2. Emergency Shutdown and Process Shutdown

3. Control and Safety Configuration

4. Fire and Gas Detector System

5. Telemetry

6. Condition Monitoring and Maintenance Support

7. Production Information Management System (PIMS)

8. Training Simulator

Information Management System (PIMS) 8. Training Simulator G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.3. Utility

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.3. Utility Systems

102

Example of Process Control System

Example of Process Control System G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.3. Utility Systems 103

GEOPET

Example of Process Control System G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 2.3. Utility Systems 103

Introduction to Production Technology

2.3. Utility Systems

103

Utility Systems

2. Power Generation and Distribution

3. Flare and Atmospheric Ventilation

4. Instrument Air

5. HVAC (heat, ventilation, air conditioning system)

6. Water System

1. Portable water

2. Sea water

3. Ballast water

7. Chemical and Additives

8. Telecom

water 3. Ballast water 7. Chemical and Additives 8. Telecom G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

2.3. Utility Systems

104

Questions

1. Which is more expensive, production onshore or offshore? Why?

2. Why did the oil industry start drilling and production offshore?

3. What are the main differences between oil production and gas production?

main differences between oil production and gas production? G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology Chapter

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

Chapter 2 - Question

105

Chapter 3

Performance of Flowing Well

Chapter 3 Performance of Flowing Well G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 106

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

106

Content

3.1. Production Wells

3.2. Well Productivity

3.3. IPR and VLP

3.4. Skin Factor

3.5. Two Phase Flow in Tubing

IPR and VLP 3.4. Skin Factor 3.5. Two Phase Flow in Tubing G EOPET Introduction to

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

Chapter 3 - Content

107

Production Wells

Production well is a conduit between the petroleum reservoir and the surface.

a conduit between the petroleum reservoir and the surface. 3.1. Production Wells 108 G EOPET Introduction

3.1.

Production Wells

108

the petroleum reservoir and the surface. 3.1. Production Wells 108 G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

Types of Production Wells

There are 3 main types of production wells:

Oil well with associated gas

Natural gas wells: contain little or no oil

Condensate wells: contain natural gas and liquid condensate.

Condensate is a liquid hydrocarbon mixture that is often separated from the natural gas during the processing.

Lifting equipment and well treatment are not necessary in natural gas and condensate wells.

For oil wells, many types of artificial lifts may be installed, particularly when reservoir pressure declines during production.

when reservoir pressure declines during production. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 3.1.

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Introduction to Production Technology

3.1.

Production Wells

109

Well Productivity

The productivity of the system is dependent on the pressure loss which occurs in:

The reservoir The wellbore The tubing string The choke The flow line The separator

In natural flow conditions:

The flow line The separator In natural flow conditions: G EOPET P R = ∆ P

GEOPET

P R = P system + P sep.

Introduction to Production Technology

3.2.

Well Productivity

110

Well Productivity

For natural flow:

P R = P RES + P TBG + P TH

Where: P TH = tubing head pressure

The pressure drop across the reservoir, the tubing and choke are mostly rate dependant.

There could be limitations on the extent to which we can optimise the dissipation of this energy. These are the following:

the dissipation of this energy. These are the following: G EOPET Limited Reservoir Pressure Minimum Surface

GEOPET

Limited Reservoir Pressure Minimum Surface Pressure

Introduction to Production Technology

3.2.

Well Productivity

111

Limited Reservoir Pressure

If the reservoir pressure is limited, it may not be feasible to achieve economic production rate from the well.

In such cases it may be necessary to use gas or water injection for pressure maintenance or possibly system re- pressurisation.

Alternatively, the use of some artificial lift technique to offset some of the vertical lift pressure requirements, allowing greater drawdown.

lift pressure requirements, allowing greater drawdown. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 3.2. Well

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

3.2.

Well Productivity

112

Minimum Surface Pressure

On arrival at the surface, the fluids are fed to a pipeline through a choke and into a processing system.

In many cases the mixture will be “flashed” through a series of sequential separators.

It will be necessary to have a minimum surface pressure which will be based upon the required operating pressure.

Separator pressure will depend upon the physical difficulty in separating the phases and pressure requirement for fluid flow.

the phases and pressure requirement for fluid flow. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 3.2.

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3.2.

Well Productivity

113

IPR and VLP

Minimisation of energy loss between these various areas has a major bearing on the cost effectiveness of a well, recovery factor, and production costs.

The pressure drop which occurs across the reservoir, P res , is defined as the inflow performance relationship or IPR.

The pressure drop in lifting the fluids from the reservoir to the surface, P TBG , is known as the vertical lift performance or VLP, or the tubing performance relationship or TPR.

or VLP , or the tubing performance relationship or TPR. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

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Introduction to Production Technology

3.3.

IPR and VLP

114

IPR and VLP (cont.)

Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)

Single phase Two phase

Vertical Lift Performance

(IPR) Single phase Two phase Vertical Lift Performance G EOPET Single phase Two phase Introduction to

GEOPET

Single phase Two phase

Introduction to Production Technology

3.3.

IPR and VLP

Vertical Lift Performance G EOPET Single phase Two phase Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 3.3. IPR
Vertical Lift Performance G EOPET Single phase Two phase Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 3.3. IPR

115

IPR and VLP (cont.)

IPR and VLP (cont.) G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 3.3. IPR and VLP 116

GEOPET

IPR and VLP (cont.) G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 3.3. IPR and VLP 116

Introduction to Production Technology

3.3.

IPR and VLP

116

Production Performance

Production performance involves matching up the following three aspects:

Inflow performance of formation fluid flow from formation to the wellbore.

Vertical lift performance as the fluids flow up the tubing to surface.

Choke or bean performance as the fluids flow through the restriction at surface.

as the fl uids flow through the restriction at surface. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

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Introduction to Production Technology

3.3.

IPR and VLP

117

Tubing Performance

The pressure loss in the tubing can be a significant proportion of the total pressure loss. However its calculation is complicated by the number of phases which may be exist in the tubing.

It is possible to derive a mathematical expression which describes fluid flow in a pipe by applying the principle of conservation of energy.

The principle of the conservation of energy equates the energy of fluid entering in and exiting from a control volume.

of fluid entering in and exiting from a control volume. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

3.3.

IPR and VLP

118

Determining Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure

Determining Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure 3.3. IPR and VLP 119 Use correlation By metering or logging,

3.3.

IPR and VLP

119

Use correlation

By metering or logging, which is can not operate regularly.

correlation By metering or logging, which is can not operate regularly. G EOPET Introduction to Pr

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

Fluid Flow Through Porous Media

The nature of the fluid flow

Time taken for the pressure change in the reservoir

Fluid migrate from one location to another

For any pressure changes in the reservoir, it might take days, even years to manifest themselves in other parts of the reservoir.

Therefore flow regime would not be steady state.

Darcy’s law could not be applied.

Time dependent variables should be examined.

not be applied. Time dependent variables should be examined. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

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Introduction to Production Technology

3.3.

IPR and VLP

120

Idealised Flow Pattern

They are:

Linear, Radial, Hemi-spherical and Spherical.

The most important cases are linear and radial models, both used to describe the water encroachment from an aquifer.

Radial model is used to describe the flow around the wellbore.

model is used to describe the flow around the wellbore. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

3.3.

IPR and VLP

121

Characterisation and Modelling of Flow Patterns

The actual flow patterns are usually complex, due to:

1. The shape of oil formations and aquifers are quite irregular.

2. Permeability, porosity, saturation, etc are not homogeneous.

3. Irregular well pattern through the payzone.

4. Difference in production rate from well to well.

5. Many wells do not fully penetrate the pay zone, or not fully perforated.

not fully penetrate the pay zone, or not fully perforated. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

3.3.

IPR and VLP

122

G EOPET Darcy’s Law L P 1 P 2 Q A Darcy’s law Q K

GEOPET

Darcy’s Law

L P 1 P 2 Q A
L
P 1
P 2
Q
A

Darcy’s law

G EOPET Darcy’s Law L P 1 P 2 Q A Darcy’s law Q K =

Q K

=

P P A

1

2

L

µ

U =

Q

K P

1

P

2

K P

 

=

=−

A

µ

L

µ L

Introduction to Production Technology

3.3.

IPR and VLP

A µ L µ ∆ L Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 3.3. IPR and VLP Henry

Henry Darcy (1803 – 1858)

123

Darcy’s Law

Definition

One Darcy is defined as the permeability which will permit a fluid of one centipoise viscosity to flow at a linear velocity of one centimeter per second for a pressure gradient of one atmosphere per centimeter.

Assumptions for use of Darcy’s Law

Steady flow

Laminar flow

Rock 100% saturated with one fluid

Fluid does not react with the rock

Rock is homogeneous and isotropic

Fluid is incompressible

Rock is homogeneous and isotropic Fluid is incompressible G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 3.3.

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

3.3.

IPR and VLP

124

Radial Flow for Incompressible Fluids

Reservoir is horizontal and of constant thickness h.

Constant rock properties φ and K.

Single phase flow.

Reservoir is circular of radius r e .

Well is located at the center of the reservoir and is of radius r w .

Fluid is of constant viscosity µ.

The well is vertical and completed open hole.

µ . The well is vertical and completed open hole. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

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IPR and VLP

125

Characteristics of the Flow Regimes

Steady-State: the pressure and the rate distribution in the reservoir remain constant with time.

Unsteady-State (Transient): the pressure and/or the rate vary with time.

Semi-Steady State (Pseudo Steady-State): is a special case of unsteady state which resembles steady-state flow.

It is always necessary to recognise whether a well or a reservoir is nearest to one of the above states, as the working equations are generally different.

states, as the working equations are generally different. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 3.3.

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Introduction to Production Technology

3.3.

IPR and VLP

126

Radial Flow for Incompressible Fluids

Two cases are of primary interest:

Steady state: the reservoir conditions does not change with time.

Flow at r = r e

Semi steady state or pseudo steady state: reservoir conditions change with time, but dP/dr is fairly constant and does not change with time.

No flow occurs across the outer boundary.

Fluid production of fluids must be compensated for by the expansion of residual fluids in the reservoir.

for by the expansion of residual fluids in the reservoir. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction

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Introduction to Production Technology

3.3.

IPR and VLP

127

Coping with Complexities

There are essentially two possibilities:

1. The drainage area of the well, reservoir or aquifer is modelled fairly closely by subdividing the formation into small blocks. This results in a complex series of equations which are solved by numerical or semi-numerical methods.

2. The drained area is represented by a single block in such a way that the global features are preserved. Inhomogeneities are averaged out or substituted by a simple pattern. Here the equations of flow can be solved analytically.

Here the equations of flow can be solved analytically. G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology

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Introduction to Production Technology

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IPR and VLP

128

G EOPET Skin Factor S = ∆ P SKIN q B s µ 2 kh

GEOPET

Skin Factor

S =

P

SKIN

q B

s

µ

2 kh

π

G EOPET Skin Factor S = ∆ P SKIN q B s µ 2 kh π

Introduction to Production Technology

3.4.

Skin factor

129

Skin Factor

The actual drawdown across the reservoir when a skin exists, P actual , can be related to the ideal drawdown predicted from radial flow theory P ideal and the skin pressure drop P SKIN by:

a l and the skin pressure drop ∆ P S K I N by: G EOPET

GEOPET

P

wf actual

=∆ P

wf ideal

+∆ P

SKIN

[

P

e

P

wf actual

][

=

P

e

P

SKIN

=

[

P

wf ideal

P

P

wf ideal

]

wf actual

]

+∆ P

SKIN

P

SKIN

P

SKIN

q B

s

µ

S

=

2 kh

π

.

q B

s

µ

= 141 .2

kh

. S

In field units

Introduction to Production Technology

3.4.

Skin factor

130

Skin Factor

We can simply add the P SKIN to the radial flow expression developed earlier e.g. for steady state flow of an incompressible fluid, by adding in the skin pressure drop:

q B µ ⎡ s P − P = 141 .2 ⎢ ⎛ r ⎞
q B
µ
s
P
P
= 141 .2
⎛ r ⎞
ln ⎜
e
⎟ + S
e
wf actual
kh
r
w
'
Q T
s
P
= 1422
. S
For compressible fluids
SKIN
kh
T s ∆ P = 1422 . S For compressible fluids SKIN kh G EOPET Introduction

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

3.4.

Skin factor

131

Flow Pattern

Flow in a tubing can be vertical, horizontal or inclined, depending on the direction of that tubing.

Flow in tubing can be:

Single phase: simple Multiphase: complicated, use experienced correlations.

Flow in tubing is affected by several factors:

correlations. Flow in tubing is affected by several factors: G EOPET Pressure Temperature Viscosity Roughness

GEOPET

Pressure Temperature Viscosity Roughness

Introduction to Production Technology

3.5.

Flow Pattern

132

Multiphase Flow Pattern

Multiphase Flow Pattern G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology Multiphase flow up the tubing 3.5.

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology

Multiphase flow up the tubing

3.5.

Flow Pattern

133

Multiphase Flow Pattern

Horizontal Multiphase flow

Multiphase Flow Pattern Horizontal Multiphase flow G EOPET Introduction to Pr oduction Technology 3.5. Flow Pattern

GEOPET

Introduction to Production Technology