Title An Investigation of the Research Relating To Management System Standards Published within 1980 to 2012 –The Integrated Management
System- Quality(Q), Environmental(E), Occupational Health and Safety(HS), and Energy(En)- Related Literatures Keywords Integrated Management System, Quality Management System, Environmental Management System, Occupational Health and Safety Management System and Energy Management System,.
Abstract This paper analyzes the literatures published between 1980 to 2012 on subjects and content relating to integrations of management system standards, namely Quality, Environmental, Occupational Health and Safety, and Energy Management System related articles. Focus, Scope and research methodologies applied in the articles published may differ according the field of application and type of MSs being adapted. The research direction has also been attained. Introduction Compliance, conformance and certification to Management Systems (MS) standards are the essential criterion to sustain as a competitive organization, internationally, regardless of the field of the industries. Thus, various management systems are being adapted as demanded by stakeholders. As of 31 December 2011, Quality Management System (QMS)- ISO9001:2008 have been issued with 5, 657 certificates, Environmental Management System (EMS)ISO14001:2004 have been issued with 933 certificates, and Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS)- OHSAS 18001:2007 have been issued with 532 certificates (MOSTI- Ministry of Science_Technology and Innovation; MSAC- Malaysian Standards and Accreditation Council 2011). Whereas, the Energy Management System (EnMS)ISO50001:2011 is newly launched. Thus, no certificate had been issued in 2011. However, the purpose of the latter standard is to enable organizations to establish the systems and processes necessary to improve energy performance, including energy efficiency, use and consumption. Implementation of this International Standard is intended to lead to reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and other related environmental impacts and energy cost through systematic management of energy(Project Committee ISO/PC 242 Energy Management 2011). MS standards relating to Q, E, OH&S, Corporate Social Reponsility, Social Accountabuility, Green house Challenge, Mineral Council’s Code and many others have been continuously studied by researchers and various papers on IMS have been published. The objectives of this study are to: Page 1 of 9
Leonardo Sarlo et al. (Paulo Sampaio. (Brandao. Olaf AM Fisscher. Pedro Saraiva. Erik Joost de Brujin. Emerald is selected as reference for this paper. This summarized data visualizes the fashion of IMS being practiced. (Paulo Sampaio. QEMS and IMS. and (Jan Jonker. Niaz Ahmad 2011). The graph below has been generated based on the data collected from Emerald. Erik J De Bruijn. b) Analyze the concerns identified through these articles to determine the trend of IMS and recommend future direction for research. the focus of the articles varies.
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.a) Investigate the state of IMS by examining and listing various factors identified based on survey studies conducted and published in a variety of journals between 1980 and 2012. Thus far. Olaf A M Fisscher 2008). (M Asif. 5 subsets of IMS which seems to be common in organizations are QH&SMS. (Rory Sullivan 2005). Ambika Zutshi. Scopus. (Merce Bernardo. Inaki Heras 2012). Trend Analysis and Literature Review The research was based on five (5) e-journal libraries. Emerald Management Xtra(Emerald). namely Springerlink.
Figure 1: Trend of IMS Literatures Reviewing IMS related literatures. Thus. EHSMS. Stanislav Karapetrovic 2004). Pedro Domingues 2012). Marti Casadesus. Stanislav Karapetrovic. Mark Pagell 2010). Ameli HR 2000). QEHSMS. (Manfred Rentzsch.Cory Searcy. it has been observed that MS and its integration related literatures are significant in Emerald. IEEE Xplore Digital Library and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses. The IMS Implementation Model have been discussed in various publications by (Muhammad Asif. Pedro Saraiva. Pedro Domingues 2012). (Muhammad Asif. 2001).
(sickness) absence and disability among their personnel. and corporate social responsibilities is a viable organizational approach to cost reduction. b) QEHSMS Wilkinson and Dale (1999) stated that most of the published work in IMS concentrates on the integration of three management systems which are Quality Management System (QMS). This trio has acquired an unpleasant name: The Good. (Dr Andrew Rankine 2007) and (Wilkinson G. Dale B G 1999). Some organization does include Social Accountability (SA). environment. China. Dale B G 1999). USA. occupational health and safety. MS Implementation Guides were discussed by (Jim Roughton 1993) and (Brandao. The IMS implementation models were developed according to the IMS sub-sets and the organizations’ need of implementation. health has become a (potential) business value of strategic importance. Some applies “case study” as a method of data collection. and in particular with the ever rising costs of disease. Germany. greater motivation of employees. risk management. efficient utilization of resources. Too often. The Bad and The Ugly! Among the direct setbacks due to this practice are resources Page 3 of 9
. due in particular to various economic incentives in national legislation (Gerard Zwetsloot. Therefore. Heras I 2011). Safety & Environmental (Q. 2001). Furthermore. management of Quality.Some other researchers also wrote about the IMS Audits (Levine Steven P. customers and consumers are increasingly interested in healthy products and services. The costs of not managing health are increasing rapidly. Erik J De Bruijn. Karapetrovic S. Pedro Domingues 2012) and (CasadesÃs M. Pakistan. Benefits of IMS Implementation are discussed by (Paulo Sampaio. Olaf A M Fisscher 2008). Greenhouse Challenge and Mineral Council’s Code as part of the integration subsets. Norway. QEHSMS is a triplet which many companies in Malaysia are adopting now. and better compliance to social obligations and stakeholders‘ requirements(M Asif. throughout the regions. Brazil. Pedro Saraiva. Osman et al. 2006). Leonardo Sarlo et al. This has become the interest of organization due to significant legal and national requirements.S& E) responsibilities treats them as independent functions within an organization. a) QHSMS QHSMS is usually an interest of organizations’ whose product may have direct or indirect impact on their employees. Portugal and MalaysiaIntegration of management systems such as for quality. Frank Pot 2004).in Spain. Dyjack David T 1997). while others applies “questionnaire-survey” method. Britain. Pedro Domingues 2012) and (Wilkinson G. Environmental Management System (EMS) and Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS)(Mohammad. Pedro Saraiva. The IMS Implementation Barriers and Challenges by (Paulo Sampaio. Organizations in Western Europe are increasingly being confronted with the financial impact of the effects of health on their business processes. Australia. These researches are being carried out and documented worldwide.
immediately killing at least 3. Furthermore. Examples of industrial disasters that relates closely with EHSMS are the “Chernobyl” tragedy and “Bhopal” tragedy. ISO 14000. duplication. more than 40 tons of methyl isocyanate gas leaked from a pesticide plant in Bhopal. Gebraeil Nasl Saraji. S & E integration is essential in order to compete effectively in the market place and minimize the likelihood of potential problems(Suarez-Garcia. Ali Kianfar. namely ISO14001 and OHSAS 18001.800 people and causing significant morbidity and premature death for many thousands more. Safety. Therefore. On one hand. Acceptance of EMS and OHSMS. Though ISO 50001 EnMS is new and less mentioned. and Occupational Health and Safety Advisory Services (OHSAS) 18000 have been developed. On December 3 1984.e quality in ISO 9001. the integration of these management systems is obligatory. allow companies to have systematic approach towards better implementation and adaptation of ISO 14001. health. as an adaptation framework. Nash wrote in his article Page 4 of 9
. and environmental factors have been emphasized in national and international regulation and litigation. but it also increases costs when each must be audited individually. are delicate subjects for customers. Shahram Mahmoudi 2013) c) EHSMS On EHSMS. EMS assists organizations in creation of structured mechanisms for continuous improvement in environmental performance and OHSAS 18001 OHSMS helps organizations in industrial operations that involve various occupational risks. but on the other hand multiplicity of systems can cause difficulty and confusion of organizations. With the aim of meet these needs. environmental protection in ISO14001 or safety and health in OHSAS 18001) (Iraj Mohammadfam.(Iraj Mohammadfam. Therefore. too. and environmental factors. Ali Kianfar. Vincenzo Balzani 2011). and as best practices among the companies. health. The company involved in what became the worst industrial accident in history immediately tried to dissociate itself from legal responsibility ((Edward Broughton 2005). Thus. James L. In addition to this.scarce and activities overlaps. Not only does the separation of quality. the role of such management systems in administrating activities due to organizations’ policies and strategies is unquestionable. Q. India. This is usually with the interest of saving the energy by reducing the consumption which will eventually result as cost saving (Leonardo Setti. organizations that choose to pay closer attention to these basics would experience even more success on the way to continuous improvement. safety. MS standards such as ISO 9000. policies and goals conflicts. resource waste. it is partially addressed through ISO14001.Humberto 2001). employees and other stakeholders. understanding and considering that energy management is a significant fraction of the environmental protection. which was disastrous to environment and human health and will remain in many minds who explore industrial disaster history. safety and environmental create conflicts. Gebraeil Nasl Saraji. Shahram Mahmoudi 2013). ISO14001 shares many common traits with OHSAS 18001 and this has paved the path for the idea of an integrated management system. Each system addresses single aspect of the subject matter that it is meant for i. lessons from accidents in industries have influenced the demand of environment and occupational health and safety practices.
though successful multinational companies is in the shift to a single safety management system.in-time (JIT) manufacturing can be traced to Henry Ford’s efforts to vertically integrate the automotive supply chain and organizational practices(Joseph Sarkis. (James L Nash 2005). companies. and if possible perform better on an economic basis (win-win situations)(Joseph Sarkis 2006). Qinghua Zhu. have started to address environmental issues as core management concerns. Close to the reactor direct radiation damage killed trees. The study reveals that EHSMS -ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001.certification can be used as an active tool for promoting comprehensive organizational changes leading to sustainability and “health and safety” development and value creation. while further away abnormal accelerated growth morphoses of pine needles and oak leaves were observed (Savchenko. While the example of Bhopal revealed the risks of safety failures. That’s one of the lessons learned after the 1984 disaster in Bhopal. G Shaw 2005). either through command and control pressures put forth by various regulatory agencies or for proactive strategic advantage reasons. Bo Enquist 2007). resulting from a fatal combination of design fault and operation of an illegal and unauthorized experiment. However. that applies to all their operations throughout the world.g. G Shaw 2005). The consequences of deposition in the near-field were catastrophic. More organizations are embarking on ISO 14001 as their initiatives towards green and sustainable organizations(Dr Mohd Azman Idris. one of the most important recent trends sweeping. Some of the initial best practices of modern supply chains. is located 100 km north-west of Kiev. 1995) (JNB Bell. since the early days of the industrial revolution. but for a variety of other reasons as well . The central goal of these organizations in adopting environmental programs is to help them improve their environmental performance. affected Union Carbide’s worldwide operations. which blew off the 1000 tonnes of cover plate and the roof of the building (JNB Bell. with some 23000 km 2 of land being heavily contaminated. It also opens-up a wealth of opportunities to improve performance. with subsequent large-scale restriction of agricultural activities and mass evacuation of both urban and rural areas. Nor Faridah Ab Aziz.. giving rise to the so-called ‘‘Red Forest’’. because of this global risk. meet regulatory compliance requirements. such as lean and just. representing a large radioactive nature reserve. There were two explosions in one of the reactors. Much of this area remains restricted as an ‘‘Exclusion Zone’’ to the present day. experts emphasize that taking a global approach to safety and health isn’t only about avoiding problem. Another massive industrial disaster that can be quoted as a good example is the Chernobyl nuclear power complex. Salliza Zailee 2012).that “Global companies face global safety risks. Kee-hung Lai 2010). The accident occurred at 01:23 on 26 April 1986. (Samuel Petros Sebhatu. India. Page 5 of 9
. In part. e. close to the border of Belarus. which is now closed down and being decommissioned. d) QEMS The QEMS study and management of industrial pollution has been a critical issue for society. health and safety professionals with international experience says.
depending on the organization needs and extent of integration performed. . .] blend together quality. health and safety standards are emphasizing on the identification of legal and other requirements pertaining to their activities.] interrelated processes set sharing human and financial resources. information. integration of MS is a fashion among current MS practitioners. Quality. Based on the reviewed literatures. .e) IMS Organizations are having various definitions on IMS. organization shall be mindful of the elements of environment. quality control. products and services such that they would be able to mitigate such potential industrial pollution and industrial disasters. Beside achieving excellent product quality that satisfies customers. . . though it varies in subsets. Pedro Domingues 2012).] measure of the alignment or harmony in an organization” 1996 “[. Also.] organizational structure. competitive advantage and sustainability is the aim through any management system that is being complied. it can be summarized that IMS definition depends on extent of practice of the integration of Management Systems in an organization. safety and environmental activities of an organization” Table 1: Main Reported Organizational Integration Definitions Source: Domingues et al. Environment and Health and Safety are typically three (3) components of MS that is being integrated. product and services. to be noted is that different combinations of subsets are practiced in different organizations depending on the nature of activities. Conclusion In total.
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. Pedro Saraiva.Based on articles and journals published in various libraries. environmental. Among those have been reported ar shown in Table 1. (2011d)(Table I quoted from (Paulo Sampaio. . . resources and procedures that support the planning. . products and services as well the evaluation of the compliance level to such requirements in order for the organization to gauge their compliance level and prepare for continual improvement. With these definitions. materials and infrastructures aiming several objectives focus on stakeholders satisfaction” Griffith 2000 “[. improved environmental performance and better health and safety management” Suditu 2007 “[. environmental and health and safety procedures in order to demonstrate externally the company commitment to deliver a product or service. Source Garvin MacGregor associates Karapetrovic and Wilborn Year Definition 1991 “[. health and safety in their activities. . Furthermore. . consumers and stakeholders expectations. monitoring.] a single top level management “core” standard with optional modular supporting standards covering specific requirements” 1998 “[.
these resources will not last forever and we also know that their use is causing severe damages to the Earth’s climate as well as forcing ambiguous and unfair international policies. the world’s growing thirst for energy amounts to almost 1. Guidelines for the implementation of individual management systems. The extent of integration of MS through documentation and operational adaptation also have role to play. and 222 tons of coal a second (BP 2009). when multiple MS are implemented. and OH&SMS do exist but there is no formalized standard.000 barrels of oil. in achieving the effectiveness of the implemented MS. Erik J de Brujin. QEEnHSMS is a subset -QMS.ISO9001. Olaf AM Fisscher. Thus. Harm-Jan Steenhuis 2008)
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. In addition to this. each MS is a singular standard. these are the concerns that need to be watched in present and future research activity.of IMS. Obviously.Currently. EMS-ISO14001.OHSAS 18001 and EnMS-ISO50001. but also an extraordinary opportunity since it offers a unique chance to become more concerned about the world in which we live and the society we have built up (Armaroli and Balzani 2010).ISO9001. EMSISO14001. Vincenzo Balzani 2011). Finding a solution to these interconnected problems is a challenge of utmost difficulty. EMS. OHSMS. such as QMS. such as one developed by International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO).OHSAS 18001 and EnMS-ISO50001. OHSMS. 96. for IMS. (Muhammad Asif. Cory Searcy.(Leonardo Setti.000 cubic meters of natural gas. Management commitments are also the major concern of the QMS. which has not been researched and explored.
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