CHAPTER 3 ELECTRO-PNEUMATICS

3.1

Learning Outcome

At the end of this module, student will be able to: a) Identify and use the typical electro-pneumatics components. b) Design electro-pneumatic circuits using DCV single solenoid and DCV double solenoids for single and multiple cylinders with various outputs. c) Install and test-run the electro-pneumatic circuits based on the designed cicuit.

3.2 3.2.1

Theory Definition and Advantages

Electro-pneumatic term is defined from words of electro which mean electrical and pneumatic which mean air pressure. The electro-pneumatic equipments and system is an integration of electrical and mechanical components with compressed air source. The electrical controller work with 12 to 24V DC electrical source. Electro-pneumatic controllers have the following advantages over pneumatic control systems: • • • • Higher reliability (fewer moving parts subject to wear). Lower planning and commissioning effort, particularly for complex controls. Lower installation effort, particularly when modern components such as valve terminals are used. Simpler exchange of information between several controllers.

Electro-pneumatic controllers have asserted themselves in modern industrial practise and the application of purely pneumatic control systems is a limited to a few special applications.

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3.2.2

Components

Both pneumatic and electro-pneumatic controllers have a pneumatic power section. In an electro-pneumatic control, the signal control section is made up of electrical components, for example with electrical input buttons, proximity switches, relays, or a programmable logic controller. The directional control valves form the interface between the signal control section and the pneumatic power section in the controller (refer figure 3.1).

Command execution

Power components - Cylinder - Swivel cylinder - Pneumatic motors - Optical displays Final Control Elements - Electropneumatically operated directional control valves Processing Elements - Relays - Contactors - Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) Input Elements - Pushbuttons - Control switches - Limit switches - Reed switches - Ind. proximity sensors - Cap. proximity switches - Light barriers - Pressure-actuated switches Electro-pneumatic Components

Pneumatic power section

Signal output

Signal processing

Signal input

Electrical signal control section

Signal flow

Figure 3.1: Signal flow and components of an electro-pneumatic control system Source : Prede, G. and Scholz, D. FESTO Electro-Pneumatic Basic Level TP201 Textbook

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3.2.2.1 Switch There are three (3) types of electrical switches used in the design of electro-pneumatic circuit. They are: i) ii) iii) Opened contact switch Closed contact switch Multiple contact switches.

Figure 3.2(a), 3.2(b) and 3.2(c) shows the three types of contact switches at the training box.

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13

23

33

43

4

14

24

34

44

Switch Position

Ordinary No. of switch

Figure 3.2(a): Opened contact switches

11 1

21

31

41

2 12 22 32 42

Switch Position

Ordinary No. of switch

Figure 3.2(b): Closed contact switches

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Single unit 2 4

Multiple units 12 14 22 24 32 34 42 44

1

11

21

31

41

Switch Position

Ordinary No. of switch

Figure 3.2(c): Changeover contact switches consist of opened and closed contact switches

3.2.2.2 Switching Method for Logic Operations Six basic switching methods in an electrical circuit consist of single or multiple switches as shown in the Figure 3.3(a), 3.3(b) and 3.3(c).

YES Gate (Identify)
24V 13

NOT Gate (Negation)
24V 11

14 H1

12 H1

0V

0V

Figure 3.3(a): YES gate and NOT gate are the simplest electrical circuits

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OR Gate (Disjunctive)
24V 13 23

AND Gate (Conjunctive)
24V 13

14

24

14 13

H1 0V 0V

14 H1

Figure 3.3(b): OR Gate and AND Gate uses parallel and serial circuits with opened contact switches.

NOR Gate
24V 11 12 11 12 H1 0V 0V 24V

NAND Gate
11 21

12

22

H1

Figure 3.3(c): NOR Gate and NAND Gate uses serial and parallel circuits with closed contact switches. 3.2.2.3 Relay Relay is an electrical device which contains a coil and a contactor switch. Relay also can consist of a coil and multiple contactors. Figure 3.4 shows a coil (K) with 4 contactor switches at a training box.

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Coil A1 12 14

Changeover Contact 22 24 32 34 42 44

K

A2

11

21

31

41

Switch Position

Ordinary No. of switch

Figure 3.4: Relay with a coil and multiple contactor switches

Coil A1 12 14

Same changeover contact 12 14 12 14

K

A2

11 ordinary condition (before energize)

11 energized

11 de-energized

Figure 3.5: The current flow in the coil will change the condition of contactor switch Figure 3.5 illustrates the changes of contactor switch. Once the current energizes the coil, the contactor will switch from closed contact to be an opened contact. Inversely, once the coil is de-energized, the contactor will return to it ordinary condition. Relay has a few functions as a safety device: 1) The high voltage output (i.e. 240V) can be switched ON through a contactor using relay with low voltage (i.e. 24V) supplied to a coil. 2) The high current output can be switched ON through a contactor using relay with low current supplied to a coil. 3) Switching more than one outputs simultaneously using relay with a coil with multiple contactors.

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Figure 3.6(a) and 3.6(b) shows the electrical circuits with a relay and single output (H1), and multiple outputs (H1, H2, H3, H4).

WITHOUT Relay
24V S1 S3 24V S1

WITH Relay
S3 K1

S2

S2

H1 0V 0V

R1

H1

Figure 3.6(a): The electrical circuits WITHOUT and WITH relay (R1)

24V S1

13 14 K1 14 11 A1 K1 A2 H1 H2 H3 H4 K1 24 21 K1 34 31 K1 44 41

0V

Figure 3.6(b): Relay in an electrical circuit is used to switch 4 lamps H1, H2, H3 and H4

3.2.2.4 Solenoid Valve 7

Solenoid valve is an electro-mechanical device that built-in with a coil (solenoid) and a pneumatic/hydraulic directional control valve (DCV). There are three types of builtin solenoid directional control valve. They are: • • • 3/2 Way DCV single solenoid with spring return 5/2 Way DCV single solenoid with spring return 5/2 Way DCV double solenoid

The 3/2 way DCV single solenoid with spring return is used to control the actuation of single acting cylinder, while the 5/2 way DCV single solenoid or double solenoid respectively are used to control the actuation of double acting cylinder. The 5/2 way DCV single solenoid and double solenoid can be distinguished by a builtin spring instead of coil. DCV single solenoid or monostable valve consists of a builtin solenoid at the left hand side and a built-in spring at the right hand side of the valve. For the case of ‘normally closed DCV’, once the electrical current energizes the solenoid, the valve is pushed to an ‘Opened’ position. Inversely, when the solenoid is de-energized, the spring will push the valve back to the ‘Closed’ (original) position. DCV double solenoid consists of two solenoids at the both sides of the valve. Both solenoids are energized by electrical current to push the valve to an ‘Opened’ and ‘Closed’ positions. It is also called ‘bistable valve’ or ‘memory valve’.

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Pneumatic circuit
2 2

y1
1 (P) 3

y1
1 (P) 3

3/2 way DCV single solenoid with spring return Electrical circuit

24V S1 K1

R1 0V

y1

Figure 3.7: Electro-pneumatic circuit for actuating a single acting cylinder Figure 3.7 shows the pneumatic and electrical circuits (electro-pneumatic circuits) for actuating a single acting cylinder using 3/2 DCV single solenoid with spring return. Then, Figure 3.8(a) and 3.8(b) shows the pneumatic and electrical circuits for actuating a double cylinder using 5/2 DCV single solenoid and double solenoids respectively.

Pneumatic circuit
4 2 4 2

y1
5 1 (P) 3

y1
5 3

1 (P)

5/2 way DCV single solenoid with spring return Electrical circuit

24V S1 K1

R1 0V

y1

Figure 3.8(a): 5/2 DCV single solenoid is used for actuating a double acting cylinder

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Pneumatic circuit
4 2 4 2

y1

y2

y1

y2

5 1 (P)

3 24V

5 1 (P)

3

5/2 way DCV double solenoid

S1

K1

S2

Electrical circuit
R2 R1 0V y1

K2

y2

Figure 3.8(b): 5/2 DCV double solenoid is used for actuating a double acting cylinder 3.2.2.5 Proximity Sensor Proximity sensors are commonly used to monitor a process condition in a machine. For instance, sensor is used to ensure the raw part was placed on a fixture, height of raw material within control, etc. There are three types of proximity sensors (Figure 3.9), they are: • • • Inductive sensor – able to detect metal, especially mild steel. Capacitive sensor – able to detect most parts except low density product. Optical sensor – able to detect bright surface reflectively except black / rough surface.

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Inductive Sensor
24V

Capacitive Sensor
24V

R 0V 0V 24V 0V

R 0V

Optical Sensor
R 0V 0V

Figure 3.9: Three types of proximity sensors

Pneumatic circuit

PS 4 2

a1

y1 5 3 1 (P) 24V S1 a1 K1 K3 R2 R1 y1 y2 K2 PS

y2

Electrical circuit

R3

0V

Figure 3.10: Proximity sensor (PS) is placed at the beginning of the actuator movement 3.2.2.6 Electrical Timer The electrical timer can be classified to two types, they are: • • Time delay ON timer Time delay OFF timer

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Time delay ON timer delays the switching time upon an energizing. Let say a timer is set to 5 seconds. When the timer coil T1 is energized, the timer will start compute the time from zero second, thus the switches will change after 5 seconds. On the other hand, when the timer coil T1 is de-energized, all switches will instantly return to it original conditions. Time delay OFF timer delays the switching time upon de-energizing. Let say a timer is set to 10 seconds. When the timer coil T2 is energized, the timer will instantly change the switching. Inversely, when the timer coil T2 is de-energized, the timer will start compute the time until 10 seconds before the switches return to it original conditions. Figure 3.11 shows the symbols for both types of delay timers.

A1 T1 A2

17

27

35

45

18

28

36

46

Switch Position

Ordinary No. of switch

A1 T2 A2

17

27

35

45

18

28

36

46

Figure 3.11: Symbols of time delay ON and time delay OFF timers at a controller box Figure 3.12 shows the simple electrical circuit which consist of time delay OFF timer. Once the switch S1 is pressed, the timer T2 is energized and the contactor K2 will instantly changed to a closed contact condition. Then, if the switch S1 is released, the timer will start computer the time to 5 seconds before the contactor K1 return to an opened contact condition.

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24V S1 K1

Setting time 5 secs T1 0V

Lamp

Figure 3.12: Electrical circuit with time delay OFF timer

3.2.2.7 Electrical Counter An electrical counter can count 1000 numbers from ‘0’ to ‘999’. The count number can be set when a counter is connected with a switch and a relay for reset. The counter will start counting upon receive an electrical pulse. The switch will change upon the counting is finished. The separated signal is needed as a reset to return the switch to it original condition and reset the counter to ‘0’.

Counter

Switch 4 2

Reset

A1 C1 A2 1

R1

R2

Manual reset

0 2

0 2 4 8

Current counting User setting

Set counter

Figure 3.13: Counter, switch and reset relay need to be connected in an electrical circuit design

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3.3 3.3.1

Practice Practice 1

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor Darul Ta’zim. http://www.uthm.edu.my

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan AMALAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL II (BDA 1811) Title : Electro-Pneumatic Practice I

Objectives : Upon completing this task, student be able to : d) Draw a basic electro-pneumatic circuit, install and test run it to move an actuator. e) Identify and operate a few types of electro-pneumatic components. f) Install the serial and parallel electrical circuits for OR/ AND functions. Task : Design the electro-pneumatic control circuit for the following operations : a) Press switch A to extends a cylinder piston and press switch C to retracts it. b) Press either switch A or B will extend a cylinder piston. Then, it will be automatically retracted when touching a limit switch. c) Press switch A will extends a cylinder piston. It will be retracted if a sensor detect it end while switch B is pressed. *Use a 5/2 way DCV double solenoids.

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Name and sketch the related electro-pneumatic symbols : a) b) c)

Sketch the related Pneumatic and Electrical Circuits : a)

b)

c)

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3.3.2

Practice 2

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor Darul Ta’zim. http://www.uthm.edu.my

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan AMALAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL II (BDA 1811)

Title :

Electro-Pneumatic Practice II

Objectives : Upon completing this task, student be able to : a) Draw, install and test run the memory circuits. b) Identify and operate a few types of electro-pneumatic components including relay and its contactors. Task : Design an electro-pneumatic control circuits for the following operations : a) Press switch A to extend a cylinder piston, while it will retract if switch A is released. b) Press switch A to extend a cylinder piston, and it will be retracted once a switch B is pressed. c) Press switches A and B to extend a cylinder piston. The piston will be retracted if switch C is pressed or limit switch detect the piston end. Once a piston move to extend, a green LED will be ON. Then, a red LED will be ON when the piston reach the maximum extend position. * Use 5/2 way DCV single solenoid with spring return.

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Name and sketch the related pneumatic and electrical component symbols : a) b) c)

Sketch the related Pneumatic and Electrical circuits : a)

b)

c)

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3.3.3

Practice 3

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor Darul Ta’zim. http://www.uthm.edu.my

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan AMALAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL II (BDA 1811) Title : Electro-Pneumatic Practice III Objectives : Upon completion this task, student be able to : a) Draw, install and test run an electro-pneumatic circuits for multiple cylinders with sequence motion. Task : Design an electro-pneumatic control circuits using two pistons for the following operation : Press switch A to initiate extend of piston A and switch on a green LED. Fully extend of piston A will initiate extend of piston B. Piston A will retract to an initial position if piston B was fully extended. Once piston A was fully retracted, a red LED will be switching ON while piston B start to retract. • • Use two 5/2 way DCV single solenoid with spring return Use two 5/2 way DCV double solenoid

Write the Sequen Motion :

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Draw the Step Displacement Diagram for this operation :

Name and sketch the related pneumatic and electrical sysmbols :

Sketch the Pneumatic & Electrical circuits :

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3.3.4

Practice Case 4

UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor Darul Ta’zim. http://www.uthm.edu.my

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan AMALAN KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL II (BDA 1811) Title : Objective : Electro-Pneumatic Practice IV Upon completing this task, student be able to : a) Draw, install and test run the electro-pneumatic operation using an electrical timer dan counter. Task : Install and test the following circuits : a) (i)
24V

13 S1 14 A1 5 seconds T1 A2 0V T1

17 18

H1

Electro-pneumatic circuit with a ‘Time Delay ON’ timer

(ii)

24V

15 S1 16 A1 5 seconds T1 A2 0V T1

17 18

H1

Electro-pneumatic circuit with a ‘Time Delay OFF’ timer

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b)

24V

17 S1 18 A1 5 seconds C1 A2 C1

17 18

S2

R1 H1 R2

0V

Electro-pneumatic circuit with an electrical counter

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3.4

References

Shuttle., (2007). Sistem Kawalan Pneumatik. Shark. Prede, G., and Scholz, D. (1998). Electro-Pneumatic Basic Level TP201 Textbook. Ed 12/1998. FESTO Didactic. Groover, M.P., (2001). Automation, Production System and Computer Integrated Manufacturing. 2nd edition. Prentice Hall.

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