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Reflection Being a teacher especially in English Language is not an easy task to do.

The challenges and difficulties of teaching the second language is profoundly requires continuous determination and hard work. As a teacher in rural area of Keningau, I have to face a lot of internal and external issues and barriers that sometimes prevent me to perform excellently. However, those negative assumption slowly demolished through this course as it educating me not only in planning but also the overall construction of my lesson. In this project, we have to accomplish three tasks which include, weekly scheme of work and lesson plan, macro teaching, peers observation and reporting as well as reflection. Those three tasks have given me a better insights of how to conduct English Language lesson effectively. For the purpose of this final task, I will reflect on the making of weekly scheme of work and lesson plan as well as the macro teaching. After receiving our project task, my first assumption was, it was quite easy. As an experienced teacher, the first task which is designing a lesson plan and weekly scheme of work is not a big deal. I have done it throughout my teaching profession. My assumption was, the differences between the lesson plan done in the school and taught in this course are the length and details. The length means the number of pages used and the details which includes the specific teaching and learning activities. In school, the length of our lesson plan usually does not exceed more than half of a page and the details of teaching is shorten and simplify. However, as I think deeper, observe and listen to our lecturer, Madam Vasanthi's explanation, my way of thinking slowly change. I believe that this course, even though it touches more on how we teach and conduct a lesson, it is actually guiding us to make a bridge from what we have learnt in teaching theories to our real situation practices in school. It gives us the knowledge of how to apply teaching methodology effectively in our teaching. There are two types of scheme of work as well as lesson plan. As our country educational system change from KBSR (Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah) to KSSR (Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah), the way of our scheme of work and lesson plan are also going through several changes. Several details which are not

included in KBSR syllabus are improved to help the teachers in their learning objectives planning. For example, in KBSR, the skills of listening and speaking are separated but in KSSR, the skills are integrated together. It means that, both skills are learnt in the same lesson for the purpose of enhancing the pupils' ability to listen and speak. Apart from that, each skill is focused in different lesson. For example, for Year 1 lesson, the listening and speaking is taught in the first day, followed by reading, writing and language arts. It is different from KBSR lesson plan where all the skills are taught in the same lesson. Having said that, the designation of our KSSR lesson plan and scheme of work are different from KBSR. As a teacher, I coincidentaly teaches both KSSR and KBSR classes. Even though for some, I have the advantages of teaching in both system, I still could not differentiate the accurate KSSR lesson plan until I read and listened to the lectures. Have I not attend this course, I will never know or have the ability to write the correct lesson plan and scheme of work. The planning of our weekly scheme of work and lesson plan in previous task are intertwined with the next task which is the macro teaching. Using our weekly scheme of work and lesson plan of the Year 1 classroom, we organized our lesson carefully which includes the teaching aids and the flow of our teaching. From this task, I realized that a good scheme of work and lesson plan will help us in conducting our lesson. We chose the Language Arts skill because the lesson is simply fun and enjoyable. Jazz chant is not merely a rhythmic read tog ether activity but it also infuses pronunciation and intonation. However, a well plan activity does not guarantee a perfect lesson. It happened when what we wanted the pupils to achieve did not meet the objectives of the lesson for the reasons like the activity was too hard or technical errors. Because of that, we need to carefully plan the objectives of our lesson so that the teacher will be able to evaluate the pupils. It involves carefully selection of content standards, learning standards and objectives. The content standards are generally the guidance of the focused skill that we plan to expose to the pupils while the learning standards are the specific details of the content standards. The objectives set for the lesson are also need to be SMART: Stated,

Measurable, Aligned, Rigorous, and Taught.

During the macro teaching, we had encountered several issues. There are issues about the teaching aids, moral value, spelling errors in our lesson plan, accurate practice and production activities as well as the design of our scheme of work. For the purpose of this

task, we used laptop as our teaching aids. We design a presentation slides that cover the topic of our lesson. However, during the presentation of our teaching aids, the slides was unable to be linked to the other slides. This technical problem was somehow distracting the flow of our lesson as we had to browse the correct slides repeatedly. This would not happen if we had tested the presentation slides. This situation gives us the lesson to always test or check the devices before the actual lesson takes place. Apart from that, the moral value in our lesson was not clearly stated. We realize that, in order to instill moral value, we have to either indirectly or directly state the value. For example, our topic is about parts of the body and the value that we wanted to emphasize was appreciation. Although, in our lesson plan, we managed to include the value, we failed to translate the value clearly. We should provoke them with questions of why we need to appreciate our body or show picture of people who have disabilities and their difficulties. By using this kind of educational method, the pupils would be able to be more appreciative. Other than that, there were several spelling errors in our lesson plan. The nouns should be written down with small letters. Other than that, the spelling of jazz chants is incorrectly spelt as it is suppose to be spelt without the 's'. This errors could be avoided if only we did our homework of the accurate spelling. There was also an issue regarding the appropriate activity in the practice and production session. We purposely assigned the group practices in the production session which is inaccurate. From our lecturer's feedback, the production session is merely the pupils's presentation session where we as teachers will see the product of our lesson from the beginning. The group practice should be included during the practice session. This comment is invaluable for us because it gives us a clear explanation of what is practice and what is production sessions. There was also an error in our weekly scheme of work. The content standards should be stated together with the learning standard so the teacher would have a valid reference of what should be taught. Rather than just stating the learning standards, it is more appropriate to state the content standards. This feedback gives us the input and information of redoing and improving our scheme of work in the future. The other

consideration that we need to do is the factors involving in designing a scheme of work which is the items that need to be covered. Too many skills in a lesson is unreasonable. The teacher has to estimate the suitable skills that need to be covered based on the pupils' level of knowledge. It is impossible for the pupils to obtain several learning standards at one lesson. There was also a suggestion which I find it interesting. Madam Vasanthi suggested that the jazz chant should be performed in variety of rhythm and tempo. We should allow the pupils to be creative and innovative so that the learning will be more fun and enjoyable. The cropped pictures used during the set induction were also interesting as the pupils have to guess and look closely at the picture. It was a good alternative activity for the pupils to recall what they have learnt. Overall, the feedbacks given by our peers and lecturer teach us indirectly to perform better in our teaching as well as in our written lesson plan and scheme of work. During this macro teaching task, we were also given the opportunity to observe our peers' macro teaching. From the observation, I learnt a few meaningful and useful teaching ideas. First and foremost, for listening and speaking, the activities should be more on listening and speaking and avoid the attempt of emphasizing other skills. There are three stages in listening and speaking lesson plan; pre listening, while listening and post listening. The pre listening activity should be a preparation stage for the pupils. They need to know what to expect next. For example, the teacher should show a book and literally ask them about the picture or cover of the book or the writer and title of the book. This will lead them forward to the while listening and speaking where the pupils will listen to a story. During this stage, it is better to record the story to ensure the consistency of the intonation and pronunciation so that the pupils could model it on the next focused skills lessons. Other than that, if a teacher intended to use big book, it is crucially important to make sure that the print and picture are legible and clear, if not, the pupils will not be giving full attention to the lesson. The next macro teaching presentation focused on the writing lesson for Year 2. In this writing lesson, the teachers taught about the topic of ambition. The beginning of the lesson was interesting as the teachers used jigsaw puzzle for set induction. However, during the presentation stage, the teachers used incorrect term. The word 'broken car' is

not suitable as it does not give appropriate collateral meaning. The teachers should be aware of the usage of words and their appropriate collateral meaning. The worksheets distributed were suitable only for the good pupils. The tasks were too hard. The teachers should begin the task from easy to difficult so that the pupils will be able to achieve the objectives. As teachers, we also need to take into consideration of the different types of pupils. Some of the pupils might be excellent than the others while maybe most of them are weak and have limited vocabulary knowledge especially during the independent writing task. Apart from those stated above, I am also well aware of the time management for each lesson. Each lesson should be carefully planned so that the activities can be done successfully. Time management is also very important in knowing how much time we should spend in every session. In set induction, the time spent should not exceed more than 10 minutes because it will jeopardize the other session of the lesson. The activities planned should be within the time bound and achievable. It is certainly illogical for the pupils to finish matching, fill in the phrases and rewriting in 15 minutes. The tendency of the objectives might no be obtainable will increase because of this improper time management.

Linking theory to practice basically is a way of identifying the problem areas in our teaching. It is a helping hand in providing a more definite way of teaching. However, not all theories are suitable. It might be working in some areas but not suitable in other areas. Whatever it is, a teacher has a big responsibility in teaching the young children It is definitely a teacher's job to equip the children with necessary knowledge to compete in this world and all of these starts with just a lesson plan.