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Love from Saadi’s point of view

M. Charmegy omrani, Ph.D

Assistant Professor, Payamenor University


Love is one of the oldest, the most controversial, and the most
descriptive words carrying a great weight; and no complete definition of this
word has ever been presented. Since the emergence of this word, the
followers of different thinking schools such as scientists, philosophers, men
of words, astronomers, Gnostics, and poets have presented different
definitions of this word based on their personal feelings. While pointing to
the most important ideas about love, the present study introduces Saadi as
one of the greatest theoreticians of love school.

Key words: Love, love school, Farsi poetry, Saadi

Manifestations of spring as symbols in Molana’s speech

H.Zangoiy, A.S
Teacher.F Persian Language and Literature


The words and phrases used by speakers and writers are the means to
express their thoughts, to show the hidden relationship between words and
meanings, and to lead the reader to the fact. The concepts introduced
through nature and its reflection in literal and Gnostic works are worth
considering. This study aims at finding Molana’s ideas and words on
different manifestations of ‘spring’-a symbolic spring reflecting his Gnostic
thoughts- through looking at his poems.

Key words: symbolization, spring manifestations, Gnosticism, Farsi poetry,

Evaluating Foroogh Farrokhzad’s poems due to
her inner emotions

A. Samkhaniani, Ph. D
Assistant professor, Birjand uneversity
N. Zamiri. A.S


Literature, especially pure poems, is always linked with poet’s

sentiments, feelings, and inner emotions. Evaluating inner emotions is
closely associated with psychology. It is clear that the poet’s thoughts and
feelings can be more comprehensible if it is psychologically evaluated since
the words and expressions reflect his inner sensations. Foroogh has suffered
many mental crises in her life. She failed in her love and was separated from
her child. Analyzing poems in this way can help understand the poems
better and can reveal poet’s hidden mentality.

Key woerds: Evaluating emotional feelings, sentiment, imagination, Farsi

poetry, Foroogh Farokhzad
Dream allegory in Persian contemporary poetry

A.Shamian, Ph.D
Assistant professor, Birjand uneversity


While referring to the background of dream allegory, a kind of

imaginary literature in myths and literary works, its application in Persian
contemporary poetry is taken into account in the present research. This form
of allegory has often been representing a spiritual behavior in the form of an
imaginary trip. In recent centuries, however, some new concepts other than
the traditional ones have been expressed through this form. The nature of
these new concepts can be determined by considering this kind of allegory
in Persian contemporary poetry. Some prominent examples of dream
allegory in contemporary poetry can be found in Eshghi, Nima, Shahriar,
Sepehri, and Shafiee Kadkani’s poems.

Key words: dream allegory, myth, literature, contemporary poetry, Eshghi,

Nima, Shahriar, Sepehri, Shafiee Kadkani
A linguistic analysis on translation of ‘Bahram
Choobin and his fights’

J.Faroghi hendovalan, Ph.D.

Assistant Proffesor, Birjand university


A poem can be considered as a good one if no word can be changed, or

replace another one. This may be one of the oldest criteria to evaluate or
criticize a poem and should be taken into account in translating a poem. Is
the structure of a written text in prose so precise that changing a single word
can affect the whole meaning or beauty of the text? To find a plausible
answer to this question the translation of a written prose should be analysed
to consider its hidden delicacy. To do this, and to find criteria for a good
translation in Farsi old prose, the present research looks at part of a Farsi
translation on ‘Tarikh Tabari’ known as ‘Tarikh Balaami’.

Key words: linguistic criticism, Farsi prose, Tarikh Balaami, the story of
Bahram Choobin and his fights.
Pathology of contemporary lyric poems

A.modarreszadeh, Ph.D
Assistant professor, Islamic Azaduniversity


As the topic indicates, this study tries to find out some of the
shortcomings and inappropriate usages of contemporary lyric poems in the
last three decades, or to say, after the revolution in 1357. After detecting
detailed shortcomings, the researcher classifies them into linguistic, literary,
and intellectual ones. We have to look at the historical events to find the
answer how we have received the modern lyric poems and the difficulties it
has already faced. It should be noted that contemporary Farsi lyric poems
have faced as much problem as they were facing in the past but in some
other respects. The present study tries to tackle Farsi lyric poems from this
point of view. The poems of some but not all young poets suffer from these
shortcomings and appropriate criticism can hinder shortcomings in modern
poetry to help Farsi poetry save face.

Key words: lyric poems, identification of shortcomings, Farsi poetry, three

decades after the revolution.
Principles of recognition in Farsi Gnostic culture and

M.M.Naseh, Ph.D
Professor, Mashhad Ferdowsi’s university


Finding out the reality of the things in this world is one of the most
important issues in Gnostic anthropology. Recognition is based on
knowledge, and it is a spiritual and mental effort a person makes to know
everything in the world. The tool for this recognition is within us. To have a
good knowledge about the world, the person should first know himself. The
principles of recognition lie in having a good conception of righteousness;
having knowledge in every field; arriving at an illumination, strong will, and
good opinion. It also lies in acquiring knowledge after being ignorant; and
knowing whatever around partially or fully, with or without reason. To
perceive people’s circumstances and recognition is a significant issue
familiarizing one with a kind of recognition. The other way to get to such
recognition is to purify the heart. The present study takes Gnostic
recognition and its principles into consideration.

Key words: recognition, science, witnessing, getting to Gnostic

circumstances and recognition, self-consciousness, perceiving the realities
of the world, recognizing oneself and god