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TCVN 7336:2003

VIETNAM STANDARDS

TCVN 7336:2003

Fire Protection – Automatic Sprinkler Systems – Design and Installation Requirements 1 Scope of application

This Standard specifies requirements for design and installation of automatic fire-fighting sprinkler systems with water and foam (hereinafter called as sprinkler system) in new or refurbished construction buildings. This Standard is also applied for sprinkler-control drencher systems, fire-detectors, automatic controls or manual controls. This Standard is not applied for fire-fighting systems for: Buildings with special functions and engineering equipment outside such buildings. Underground chambers of mine-ores industry Warehouses with commodities piled up on shelves higher than 5.5m. Fuel tanks

2. Extracted standards TCVN 4756-89 TCVN 5738:2001 Norms of electric equipment grounding and airing. Automatic fire-alarming system – Technical requirements

TCVN 6305-1:1997 (ISO 6182-1:1993) Fire fighting and protection – Automatic sprinkler system – Section 1: Requirements and testing methods for sprinklers TCVN 6305-2:1997 (ISO 6182-2:1993) Fire fighting and protection – Automatic sprinkler systems – Section 2: Requirements and testing methods for wet-typed alarm valves, stoppage chamber and water-type alarm mechanisms. TCVN 6305-3:1997 (ISO 6182-3:1993) Fire fighting and protection – Automatic sprinkler system – Section 3: Requirements and testing methods for dry pipe valves. TCVN 7336 : 2003 – This Standard TCVN 6305-4:1997 (ISO 6182-4:1993) Fire fighting and protection – Automatic sprinkler system – Section 3: Requirements and testing methods for quick open valve mechanism. TCVN 6305-5:1997 (ISO 6182-5:1993) Fire fighting and protection – Automatic sprinkler system – Section 3: Requirements and testing methods for overflow valves.

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TCVN 7336:2003

3 Terminology and definitions This Standard applies the terminology and definitions in TCVN 6305:1997 4 General regulations

4.1 The fire-fighting systems designed according to this Standard shall have manual control. 4.2 The sprinkler system shall be so designed that they can perform both fire-fighting function and automatic fire-alarming function. 4.3 The sprinkler systems shall be designed on the technical basis of the production line which requires protection and economic-technical norms. 5 Classification of sprinkler system and design data

5.1 System classification The sprinkler system is classified on the basis of fire-incur risk rate at the building facility and called accordingly (see 5.2) as follows: System for low fire-rate building System for average fire-rate building System for high fire-rate building

5.2 Building classification according to fire rates The building classification according to fire rates is stipulated in Appendix A. Appendix A is not a complete list. When designing a building protection sprinkler system which is not included in Appendix A, such building shall be converted to another listed item which during fire situations similar status is shown. However, this should be confirmed by an authority prior to designing sprinkler system. 5.2 Types of systems Types of sprinkler systems stipulated in this Standard are standard sprinkler systems and drencher systems. 5.3.1 Standard sprinkler system

The standard sprinkler systems comprise the following: 2

Wet pipework Alternately wet and dry pipework Either wet pipework or alternately wet & dry pipework, combined with the ending part of dry pipework system. Wet pipework combined with ending part of alternate wet & dry pipework system. Dry pipework.

TCVN 7336:2003

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Pre-activating system.

5.3.1.1 Wet pipework system Wet pipework system is a standard sprinkler system which is frequently filled with water, having pressure at both upper and lower sides of the wet pipework alarm valve. The wet pipework system shall be installed in buildings where there are no risks of water getting frozen in the pipes. If this condition is not ensured everywhere in the building, then at the locations where freeze may occur it is possible to combine the wet pipework with the ending part of the alternate wet & dry pipework, on the condition that the number of sprinklers therein shall not exceed the limits stated in 5.3.1.5, otherwise the whole system installation shall be proceeded as the alternate dry & wet pipework. The sprinkler in wet pipework can be installed either upwards or downwards. The wet pipework shall be designed in such a manner that the number of sprinklers controlled by a valve (including the taps at the extended ending part) shall not exceed following numbers: a) for low fire-rate buildings: 500 b) for average and high fire rate buildings (including any sprinklers of low fire rate system) 1000 When calculating the number of sprinklers in a mixed system including area with low fire rates, average fire rates and/or high fire rates, the actual number of sprinklers in low fire rate area shall be doubled. This quantity shall be added to the number of ejectors in average fire-rate area and/or high fire-rate area and total number of sprinklers shall not exceed 1000. For instance, in a system with 600 sprinklers for an average fire-rate area and 200 sprinklers for a low fire-rate area, i.e 800 sprinklers in total, then the number of sprinklers taken as above required shall be 1000, i.e. 600 + (200 x 2). Note: Number of sprinklers in confined areas, inside machinery or in similar areas can be ignored when calculating total number of sprinklers for wet pipework system. 5.3.1.1 Alternate dry & wet pipework An alternate wet & dry pipework is a standard sprinkler system, including a mixed alarming valve or a combination including wet pipework alarm valve and dry pipework alarm valve, of which: In winter months, in cold areas where water in pipework can be frozen, the pipework above the mixed alarm valve or dry pipework alarm valve shall be fed with compressed air, while the remaining part of the system below the valve is fed with water under pressure; and In other time periods of the year, the system shall work as a wet pipework system as describe in 5.3.1.1

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The sprinklers shall be installed upwards on the straight line of the pipes in the alternate dry & wet pipework. This regulation allows exceptions when installing dry pipework sprinklers downwards with oriented jets or when installing downward standards sprinklers accompanied with approved anti-freezing component. The pipework shall be installed with suitable gradient to drain water (see 8.13). The alternate dry & wet pipework shall be so designed that the maximum number of sprinklers controlled by a valve, including the sprinklers at the extension ending part (see 5.3.1.4) conform to rules in Table 1. Table 1 – Number of sprinklers for alternate dry & wet pipework Condition System with low fire-rate * 250 125 System with average and/or high fire-rate** 500 250

With speeder or suction fan Without speeder or suction fan

* For example, in a system with 300 sprinklers for an average fire-rate area and 100 for a low fire-rate area, the number of sprinklers, according to this standard, instead of being 400, must be 500, i.e. 300 + (100 x 2). ** When calculating the number of sprinklers in a mixed system, the actual number of sprinklers in a low fire-rate area shall be doubled.. This quantity shall be added to the number of sprinklers in average and/or high fire-rate areas and the total number of sprinklers shall not exceed the number in Column 3.

5.3.1.3 Dry pipework system A dry pipework system is a standard sprinkler system in which the pipework is frequently filled with compressed air above the dry pipework alarm valve and filled with water under pressure below this valve. Normally, the dry pipework system is only allowed to be installed in the buildings where temperature condition is maintained as or lower than the freezing temperature of water as in freezers, animal fur warehouse or at the locations where temperature is maintained over 70oC as in ovens. When installing dry pipework in other special circumstances, particular license is required. The number of sprinklers controlled by one valve in dry pipework shall not exceed the quantity sated in Table 1 for alternate dry & wet pipework. The sprinklers shall be installed upwards above the pipes of dry pipework system, except when the downward sprinklers with oriented jets (see 6.7) are designated for installation or when the standard downward sprinklers are installed with approved anti-freezing component. The pipework shall be installed with suitable gradient to drain water (see 8.13).
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TCVN 7336:2003

5.3.1.4 Ending section of an alternate dry & wet pipework or dry pipework These systems in general are similar to the systems described in 5.3.1.1, 5.3.1.2. and 5.3.1.3. except when they are in relatively small size and forming an extended section for a standard sprinkler system. These systems are allowed as follows: (a) as an extended section for wet pipework in: relatively small areas where freezing may occur in the buildings which are suitably heated. In such case the extended system shall be type of alternate dry & wet system; and drying rooms and ovens at high temperature. In such case the extended system shall be type of dry one.

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(b) as an extension for the alternate dry & wet pipework in those ovens or stoves at high temperature, when the extended pipework operates according to dry pipework principle. The sprinklers shall be installed upwards above the pipes in the extended system, except when the downward sprinklers with oriented jets (see 6.7) are designated for installation or when the standard downward sprinklers are installed with approved anti-freezing component. The number of sprinklers in a group of extended systems controlled by a wet-pipe valve or alternate dry & wet pipe valve shall not exceed 250 sprinklers, with a number of <100 for any extension systems. Each extension system shall be equipped with a water-drain valve typed 50mm and a drainage pipework with water-meter installed above the installation location of the extended valve. In order to assist the maintenance of the extended system under pressure, it is allowed to installed an auxiliary valve right below the extended valve. 5.3.1.5 Extension system filled with anti-freezing solution These systems are suitable to be installed in small cooling chamber, freezing cabinet and other areas such as loading ports and annexes in the areas under freezing impacts. These systems also undertake the assignments as described in 5.3.1.4. The pipes located in freezing areas shall be filled with an appropriate anti-freezing solution and installed in such a manner that no water can infiltrate into those areas. The anti-freezing solution shall have frozen point at least 10oC lower than the lowest possible temperature in the areas being under freezing impacts. Detailed proposals on freezing solution shall be submitted to the relevant authority for approval.
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TCVN 7336:2003

The number of sprinklers in any extension system with anti-freezing solution shall not exceed 20. The pipework shall be so arranged that the interface between the anti-freezing solution and water in wet pipework shall be lower than the connection point to the wet pipework. Auxiliary stoppage valve (see 5.3.1.4) can be installed in the pipework. Types of valve and installation requirements are stipulated as follows: a) Water drainage valve b) Above testing valve, not lower than 300mm under the water level of wet pipework system. c) Below testing valve, not lower than 1.5m under water level of wet pipework. d) Connection section. e) Non-return valve. Disk of such valve shall have a hole with diameter of 1mm to allow the solution to expand once temperature increases and thus prevent sprinkler from damage. All valves in the pipework shall be covered with metal. 5.3.1.6 Pre-activate system A pre-activate system is a combination between a standard sprinkler system and an independent smoke or heat alarming system which has been approved and installed in the same area as the sprinklers, and therefore a pre-activate valve shall open to supply water to sprinkler pipework before the first sprinkler starts to operate. Normally, a sprinkler pipework shall be filled with compressed air and so controlled that alarming signal will appear once air pressure reduces. A pre-activate alarm valve which controls water supply shall operate: completely by an approved detector to enable the sprinklers to be filled with water and thus turn to wet pipework, making the protected subject not get wet as water comes out from the pipework or from the ejector which is having a mechanical failure; or by an approved detector or independently by the operation of an ejector which discharges gas from pipework, the protected object will actuate the premature water sprinkling at the ejectors in dry pipework. The operation of sprinkler system will not be affected by any failure/problem from detectors.

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In each case, the detector system will also operate automatically as a fire-alarm system. The pre-activate system shall be so designed that the number of sprinklers to be controlled by pre-activate valve shall not exceed the following quantities: i) for low fire-rate systems 500

ii) for average or high fire-rate systems including the sprinklers in low fire-rate systems (see note in 5.3.1.1) 1000
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TCVN 7336:2003

The sprinkler system when installed in places with freezing risks shall be made upwards while pipework shall be arranged with appropriate gradient to drain water (see 8.13) All details proposed for the installation of pre-activate system shall be approved by relevant authority prior to carrying out installation. 5.3.1.7 Circulating pre-activate system A circulating pre-activate system is the pre-activate system described in 5.3.1.6 with heat detector, combined with a pre-activate valve which controls flow and is capable to repeat close/open cycle corresponding to the re-burning in protected areas. The impact of heat detector, which operates like an interlock, making the flow controlling pre-activate valve open and close. To ensure safety, the flow-control pre-activate valve shall be close again after some time delayed for confirmation (normally 5min.) with an automatic timer. However, if the fire activates the re-operation of the heat detector, then the flow control pre-activate valve shall immediately re-open and water will spray from the open sprinklers. The purpose of the circulating pre-activate system is: to avoid damages caused by water once the fire has been extinguished to avoid the necessity to close the main valve when executing changes in pipework or when replacing sprinkler, and to avoid damages caused by water when pipework or sprinkler has accidental mechanical failure.

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The maximum number of sprinklers to be controlled by flow-control pre-activate valve shall be 1000. The sprinklers shall be installed upwards except where the authority confirms that the system installed in the building is suitably heated. The pipework shall be arranged with appropriate gradient to drain water (see 8.13) All details proposed for the installation of circulating pre-activate system shall be approved by the relevant authority prior to carrying out installation. 5.3.1.8 Installation of fire-alarm sensor (fire detector?) The installation and interval arrangement of fire/heat detectors in pre-activate and circulating pre-activate systems shall conform to TCVN 5738:2001. 5.3.2 Flooding system (drencher)

A flooding system is a system consisting of uncovered sprinklers (drenchers) controlled by a quickly-open valve (flooding valve), to operate due to an approved detector system or the sprinklers which have been installed in the same area with uncovered sprinklers. These system are mainly designed for buildings with special fire-rate risks such as the high fire-rate buildings listed in A.3m where a fire may flare up and spread out quickly. In such circumstances water should be sprayed simultaneously in the whole area where
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TCVN 7336:2003

fire may occur by pumping water into the sprinkler or fog-creating ejectors having average or high velocity. All details proposed for the installation of drencher system shall be approved by the relevant authority prior to carrying out installation. 5.4 5.4.1 Design data Standard sprinkler system

Each standard sprinkler system shall be designed hydraulically based on the corresponding fire-risk rate in order to ensure suitable sprinkling flow on an assumed operative area, i.e. the number of sprinklers which may be put into operation in the most unfavorable zones in term of hydraulics of a protection-required building. 5.4.2 Drencher system

The piping system for fog-creating ejectors shall be calculated in terms of hydraulics as those systems for high fire-risk (see 5.3.2) in order to ensure that a suitable sprinkling density is produced by 4 sprinklers of fog-creating ejectors. These ejectors are located at the most disadvantageous positions in term of hydraulics such as the corners of the area protected by drencher system when all sprinklers or fog-creating ejectors in the system operate simultaneously. 6. Fire-fighting water and foam spraying sprinklers 6.1 Subject to room temperature, fire-fighting water and foam spraying sprinklers shall be designed suitably for rooms having the lowest annual temperature over 4oC. 6.2 The sprinklers shall be designed for one or several fire-fighting units. Each unit shall have separate control station. 6.3 Each fire-fighting unit shall only be arranged with 800 water or foam spraying sprinklers at maximum, and total capacity of the foam spraying sprinkler pipes shall not exceed 2000 liters. There is no capacity limitation for pipework in a water spraying system. 6.4 Water and foam-creating solution spraying intensity, protection area per 1 sprinkler or controlling area of a melting lock (?), distance between ejectors or between melting locks and operation time of water fire-fighting shall be taken according to Table 2.

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TCVN 7336:2003

Table 2
Spraying intensity (designed spraying density), l/m2.s (mm/min), no less than Foam Water creating solution 0.08 (4.8) 0.12 (7.2) 0.24 (14.4) 0.3 (18) ** **** 0.08 (4.8) 0.12 (7.2) 0.15 (9) *** ***** ****** Area protected by 1 sprinkler or 1 melting lock, m2 12 12 12 12 9 9 9 Area to calculate water flow, foam creating solution, m2 120 240 240 360 360 180 180 Max. distance between sprinklers or melting locks, m 4 4 4 4 3 3 3

Group of buildings and construction works

Fire fighting spraying time, min

Low fire rate Average fire rate Group I Group II Group III Group III (special) High fire-rate During production Anti-freezing maintenance

30 60 60 60 60 60 -

* List of buildings and construction works is stated in Annex A ** Spraying intensity (designed spraying density), l/m2.s (mm/min.) when height of materials piled on shelf: under 1m: 0.08 (4.8) from 1 to 2m 0.16 (9.6) from 2 to 3m 0.24 (14.4) from 3 to 4m 0.32 (19.2) *** Spraying intensity (designed spraying density), l/m2.s (mm/min.) when height of materials piled on shelf: under 1m: 0.04 (2.4) from 1 to 2m 0.08 (4.8) from 2 to 3m 0.12 (7.2) from 3 to 4m 0.16 (9.6) from 4 to 5.5m 0.4 (24) **** Spraying intensity (designed spraying density), l/m2.s (mm/min.) when height of materials piled on shelf: under 1m: 0.16 (9.6) from 1 to 2m 0.32 (19.2) from 2 to 3m 0.4 (24) ***** Gas spraying intensity (designed spraying density), l/m2.s (mm/min.) when height of materials piled on shelf: under 1m: 0.08 (4.8) from 1 to 2m 0.2 (12) from 2 to 3m 0.24 (14.4) from 3 to 4m 0.32 (19.2) from 4 to 5.5m 0.4 (24)
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****** Gas spraying intensity (designed spraying density), l/m2.s (mm/min.) when height of
materials piled on shelf: under 1m: from 1 to 2m from 2 to 3m from 3 to 4m from 4 to 5.5m Note: 0.1 (6) 0.2 (12) 0.3 (18) 0.4(24) 0.4 (24)

1. When equipping drencher ejector for the rooms (except for those listed in Group 3 (special) which belong to average and high fire-rate buildings), room area to calculate water output, foam creating solution and quantity of simultaneously operating fire-fighting units shall be defined subject to the engineering parameters. When such engineering parameters are not available, total room area to be used for water output calculation shall be taken according to Column 5 of Table 3. 2. Minimum distance between sprinklers of water fire-fighting sprinkler system to be installed in smooth ceilings shall be 1.5m. 3. The figures in Columns 2,3 and 5 of Table 3 shall be applied for rooms with height ups to under 10m and equipped with sprinklers. 6.5 In buildings where there are ceiling (roof) beams made of either flammable or nonflammable materials having protruding parts of over 2m high and the ceiling (roof) made of non-flammable materials having protrusion of over 0.32m high, sprinklers shall be arranged between the beams, trusses and other building structures. 6.6 The distance between fire-fighting ejectors and ceiling (roof) planes shall not be over 0.4m and under 0.08m. The distance between the lower side of foam ejector of a foam fire-fighting system to the ceiling (roof) planes shall not exceed 0.5m. 6.7 The sprinklers of a water fire-fighting sprinkler system are allowed to be installed either upwards or downwards, while the sprinklers of foam fire-fighting system shall be installed downwards. The sprinkler ejector of a water fire-fighting sprinkler system shall be installed in right angle with the ceiling (roof) plane, while the sprinklers of foam fire-fighting system shall be installed in right angle with floor plane. 6.8 In the rooms where sprinklers are to be installed but there are working platform and ventilation boxes with square or round section having diameters or side dimensions exceeding 0.75m, it is required to installed more sprinklers below these floors and ventilation boxes. 6.9 The distance between sprinklers and non-flammable walls, ceilings shall not exceed half of the distance between sprinklers stated in Column 7 of Table 3. 6.10 In buildings having one or two sloping roofs, with gradient exceeding 1/3, the horizontal distance from sprinkler to wall and from sprinkler to roof edge shall not
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TCVN 7336:2003

exceed 0.8m for flammable and hardly flammable roofs and not exceeding 1.5m for non-flammable roofs. 6.11 Where sprinklers may be damaged due to mechanical impacts, proper protection measures shall be taken. 6.12 Sprinkler-impact temperature of water fire-fighting sprinkler system is stipulated as follows: when installed in rooms having max. air temperature up to 55oC: 68oC or 72oC when installed in rooms having max. air temperature from 56oC to 70oC: 93oC when installed in rooms having max. air temperature from 71oC to 100oC:141oC when installed in rooms having max. air temperature from 101oC to 140oC: 180oC

6.13 Within a protection required room, it is required to install sprinklers with outlets having the same diameter. 6.14 It is allowed to use water fire-fighting sprinkler system for rooms with height not over 20m (see Table 4) 6.15 Foam fire-fighting based on volume shall only be designed for rooms in which foam-occupied volume shall not exceed 3000m3. 7. Drencher system

7.1 The drencher system is designed for one or more fire-fighting units. Each unit shall have its own control valves. It is allowed to locate a control valve to be used for some water screens. 7.2. In rooms to be installed with drencher system where there are working platform and ventilation boxes having round or square sections with width or diameter over 0.75m, it is required to add more drencher heads below the working platform or ventilation box. 7.3. The distance between drencher ejectors of water screen shall be determined on the basis of sprinkling intensity of 1l/s for 1 length of water screen. 7.4. The automatic start-up of drencher shall be made, when in control valves there are group operating valves and quickly operating valves, by activating pipeline equipped with sprinklers or melting stoppers or fire-alarming signals; when in control valves there are electric stopping valve and driving valve, by fire-alarm signals. 7.5. The water-containing activating pipeline shall be installed at a height not exceeding ¼ pressure column in the pipeline located in front of control unit with either group operating valve or quickly operating valve. 7.6. The drencher system shall have automatic control, manual control or remote control.
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7.7. The drencher heads and melting locks shall be installed at a distance no less than 0.4m away from the ceiling. 8. Sprinkler system pipework

8.1 The fire-fighting water supply pipework (internal and external pipework) is required to be designed in closed circuit style. The closed circuit fire-fighting water supply pipework shall only be designed for 3 or less control valves. 8.2 The closed circuit water supply pipework (internal and external pipework) shall be divided into sections by separating valves; each section shall not have more than 3 control valves. 8.3 Normally, fire-fighting water supply pipework (external) of a sprinkler system and water conduct pipework of other water fire-fighting systems can be shared. 8.4 The diameter of sprinkler-conduct pipes shall be selected on the basis of hydraulic calculations but shall not be smaller than 15mm. 8.5 It is not allowed to connect water supply system serving for production equipment and sanitary equipment to the water supply pipework of fire-fighting system. 8.6 It is allowed to install wall fire-fighting hydrant and manual foam ejection post (lăng phun b t c m tay) on water supply pipework having a diameter from 70mm upwards of water and foam fire-fighting sprinkler systems. 8.7 The unit of sprinklers with 12 fire-fighting hydrants or more and 12 foam ejection posts or more shall have two water supply pipelines. For sprinklers having from 2 units or above, it is allowed to connect the second water supply pipeline having locks to the next unit, but there must be a manual operated closing cock on the control valve. 8.8 It is allowed to install 6 sprinklers at maximum with spraying hole diameter of 12mm downwards or 4 sprinklers with spraying hole diameter of over 12mm on the distribution pipework of water or foam fire-fighting sprinkler system. 8.9 It is not allowed to install stoppage valve and to connect flanges on the main distribution pipework and branch distribution pipework. In special cases, it is permitted to install stoppage valve but valve opening/closing status must be controllable. 8.10 Fire-fighting main pipework, branch pipework and activating pipework with welding connections shall be designed from steel pipes conforming to current standards. It is allowed to use gas/water conduct steel pipes connected to each other by couplings in the rooms of the operational establishments producing explosive materials.
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External fire-fighting conduct pipes may be designed from non-metal pipes, as well as from centrifugal cast-iron pipes and semi-continuous cast conforming to current standards. 8.11 The distance between steel pipe support posts or suspension hooks shall conform to Table 3 Table 3
Steel pipe external diameter, mm Max. distance between support posts, m 18 25 32 40 45 57 76 89 114 140 152 219

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

6

6

6

7

8

9

The distance from building structures to the selected pipes shall be 20mm. 8.12 The fire-fighting water supply pipework and water distribution pipework for dry and alternate dry & wet systems shall be installed with following gradients: 0.01 for pipes with diameter up to 50mm 0.005 for pipes with diameter more than 50mm 9. Control valve for automatic fire-fighting with water and foam sprinkler system 9.1 The control valve for automatic fire-fighting with water and foam sprinkler system shall be located near the door, where the lowest annual air temperature is over 4oC. It is allowed to position such control valves in pump chamber or fire-fighting stations. 9.2 The partitions and ceiling of the room where control valves are located in protection required buildings shall be selected with fire-resistant limit of 0.75 h at the lowest. The covering structure of control valve located room placed outside the protectionrequired rooms shall be made in glass. 9.3 Normally, the control valves shall be located in ground floor. It is permitted to locate the control valves for “air” and “air-water” fire-fighting sprinkler equipment, control valves for sprinklers with water-containing activating pipeline on upper floors. 10. Hydraulic calculations of sprinkler systems 10.1 The design and installation of fire-fighting sprinklers for rooms at height over 10m, when calculating water expenses, intensity should be selected according to Table 4. 10.2 The sprinkler conduct pipe diameter shall be determined by hydraulic calculation; when calculating it is required to take water velocity and foam-making solution in the pipe not exceeding 10m/s.
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10.3 When selecting pipes to install sprinklers and drencher-style equipment, the hydraulic calculation shall be based on the assumption that the water supplied for this equipment is taken from the main water source. 10.4 When selecting pipes to install sprinklers having fire-alarming equipment with requirement to start-up the fire-fighting system under 10s since issuing fire-alarm signal, the hydraulic calculation shall be based on the assumption that the water supplied for this equipment is taken from main water source. Table 4
Room height, m Group 1: low firerate buildgs Water Spraying intensity (minimum), l/m2.s Area to calculate water expense, foam-making solution, m2 Group 1: rooms and buildings Group 2: rooms and buildings Group 3: rooms and buildings 264 288 312 336 360 Group 4: rooms and buildings 396 432 468 504 540

Group 2: average firerate buildgs Foammaking solution Water

Group 3: special buildings with average fire-rate Foammaking solution Water

Group 4: high fire-rate buildings Foammaking solution 0.17 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.23

From 10 to 12 From 12 to 14 From 14 to 16 From 16 to 18 From 18 to 20

0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13

0.13 0.14 0.16 0.17 0.18

0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13

0.26 0.29 0.31 0.34 0.36

0.13 0.14 0.16 0.17 0.18

0.33 0.36 0.39 0.42 0.45

Water

132 144 156 166 180

264 288 312 336 360

Note: It is required to select group of rooms and buildings on the basis of fire-rate 10.5 The calculated water expense or foam making solution expense Q, l/s going through sprinkler shall be calculated as following formula: Q=K√H of which K is water expense coefficient through sprinkler taken according to Table 5 H is free pressure before sprinkler, m: water column Table 5
Name of sprinkler, foam making equipment Sprinkler-typed sprayer and sprinklers having hole diameter of (mm) 10 12 17 22
14

Coefficient K

Minimum free pressure H min., m water column

Allowed maximum free pressure H max., m water column

0.3 0.448 0.92 1.454

4 5 8 10

100 100 100 100

TCVN 7336:2003

Head loss (pressure loss) on the pipe section being calculated, h - m water column, shall be determined by the formula: h= Q2

BT
of which: Q is water flow or foam making solution on the calculated pipe section, l/s; BT is pipe feature, m5/s2, shal be determined according to the formula:

BT =

KT

l of which: KT is selected value subject to pipe diameter in Table 6 l is length of the pipe being calculated, m The head-loss in valve controlling water and foam fire-fighting systems shall be determined according to Table 7 Table 6
Pipe thickness, mm Volume of 1m of pipe, liter 0.133 0.134 0.555 0.94 1.23 2.04 3.77 3.32 8 9 13.7 16.3 17.45 Calculate d diameter, mm External diameter, mm Internal diameter, mm Pipework Coefficie nt KT 0.0755 0.751 3.437 13.97 28.7 110 572 1429 4232 5757 17642 28060 33662

Electric welded steel pipe

18 25 32 40 45 57 76 89 108 114 140 152 159

2 2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.5 2.8 2.8 3 3 3.5 3.5 4.5

14 21 27.6 35.6 40.6 52 70.4 83.4 102 108 133 145 150

13 20 26.6 34.6 39.6 51 69.4 82.4 101 107 132 144 149

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Normal gas, water conduct steel pipework

21.5 26.8 33.5 42.3 48 60 75.5 88.5 114 140 165

2.8 2.8 3.2 3.2 3.5 3.5 4 4 4.5 4.5 4.5

15.7 21.2 27.1 35.9 41 53 67.5 80.5 105 131 156

14.7 20.2 26.1 34.9 40 52 55.5 79.5 104 130 155

0.17 0.32 0.535 0.956 1.26 2.12 3.47 4.95 8.5 13.25 18.84

0.145 0.79 3.1 14.7 30.2 122.6 455.6 1180.6 4946.9 16262.6 41552.1

High pressure cast iron pipework

113 144 169 222 274

8.3 8.7 9.5 10.1 11

101.4 126.6 151.6 202.6 252

100.4 125.6 150.6 201.6 251

7.9 12.4 17.9 31.3 70.5

4099.5 13534.3 35636.1 168829. 2 543354. 3

Note: - Coefficient KT is selected with roughness coefficient 0.0106 10.6 The foam making solution quantity N1m31 in fire fighting the volume shall be determined according to the formula: N= KpW K

Of which, Kp is broken foam coefficient, selected according to Table 8 K is expanding multiple; W is the room volume to be protected, m3 Table 7 Control valve of water fire fighting sprinkler of air-mixed foam fire fighting sprinkler of sprinkler equipment Valve diameter, mm 100 150 10 150 65 100 100 100 100 200 Pressure loss defined H = 0.00302Q2 H = 0.000368Q2 H = 0.00936Q2 H = 0.002269Q2 H = 0.048Q2 H = 0.00634Q2 H = 0.0014Q2 H = 0.0235Q2 H = 0.00077Q2 H = 0.000198Q2

of fire fighting system

Number of foam making equipment working simultaneously n is determined according to the formula:
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TCVN 7336:2003

N n = qt of which q is the capacity of a foam making equipment calculated according to foam making solution, m3/min. t is working time of equipment, selected according to Table 8 Table 8 Flammable materials during production process requiring protection Solid Liquid Broken foam coefficient Kp 3 4 Working time of equipment, t, min. 25 15

11

Water supply for water and foam fire-fighting systems

11.1 It is allowed to store a reserved water quantity for water fire-fighting sprinkler system in the reservoirs with different functions. For foam fire-fighting sprinkler system, the water quantity shall be stored in a reservoir which is not used for daily activities. Also, in these reservoirs, it is required to arrange some equipment which prevent the use of water reserved therein for other purposes. It is permitted to store a water quantity of foam making solution for reservation up to a volume of 1000 m3 in a reservoir. 11.2 Working time of foam fire-fighting sprinkler system with type of foam having low expansion is fixed as follows: 15 minutes – for rooms having flammable solid materials with flowing load more than 200 kg/m2 or having flammable liquid with fire-catching temperature up to 28oC. 10 min. - for rooms having flammable solid materials with flowing load less than 200 kg/m2 or having flammable liquid with fire-catching temperature over 28oC.

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11.3 For foam fire fighting sprinkler system (with type of foam having low or average expansion), the foam making chemicals shall be reserved double. 11.4 When determining reservoir volume for water fire fighting sprinkler system, the water volume which is automatically filled into the reservoir during fire fighting time shall also be calculated. 11.5 Water supplied for water and foam fire-fighting sprinkler systems, since the bell rings, shall be taken from the main water supply source.

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TCVN 7336:2003

11.6 To ensure the calculated pressure in water fire fighting sprinkler system before starting up the pumps, it is required to arrange in the conduct pipes and in the supply pipes of the sprinkler system a pulse-creating equipment (a metal basin of 0.5m3 containing water under pressure) or pipes with various functions with pressure equal to or higher than the calculated pressure. It is allowed to use air compressor or the air-compressed common station of the plant (provided that it operates continuously) to feed in compressed air to the air-water tank. 11.7 To supply water for a foam or water fire-fighting sprinkler system equipped with automatic starter operated on the signal of fire alarm system, with the requirement of starting up the fire-fighting system under 10 s since the signal is issued, it is required to take water from the main source automatically. 11.8 All foam and water fire-fighting sprinkler systems equipped with manuallyoperated pumps shall have an automatic water supply source to ensure the equipment can operate continuously in 10 min. 11.9 The automatic water supply source (air-water tank or pressure column tank) for sprinklers as stated in 11.8 shall ensure to supply a sufficient water quantity or foam-making solution as calculated during a period required to put the stand-by pump into stable operation status. 11.10 The automatic water supply source or pulse-creating equipment is required to stop its operation after the pump is started. 11.11 The number of pumps at the pump station shall be more than two (one working and one stand-by). Each shall have separate power supply source. If there is only one power supply source, it is permitted to arrange a pump equipped with automatic starter with approval from the fire protection authority. 11.12 When there is only one power supply source, it is required to arrange a pump operated by an internally-ignited motor, either automatically starting or manually starting. 11.13 Both pump and engine shall not use belts for driving. 11.14 The foam-making chemicals shall be put into the tank by a separate pump, manually started. 11.15 To put the foam making chemicals into a tank which contains a pre-fixed water quantity, it is required to use a perforated pipe placed around the tank and 0.1m under the tank water level. 11.16 For a foam fire-fighting sprinkler system with quantitative unit, it is required to arrange two quantitative pumps (one working, one stand-by). 11.17 Normally, the pump station of a sprinkler system is placed in-house either in the ground floor or basement, in separate rooms with walls and ceiling having fireresistant limit of 0.75h at the lowest, with exits out or to the staircase. The above
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TCVN 7336:2003

requirements shall also be applied when designing the pump stations located in the areas with special weather and nature conditions. 12 Pump station power control

12.1 The motors of working and stand-by pumps of sprinkler system and the motor of lock valves shall be classified into type of electric equipment with Class-1 reliability according to electrical equipment standards. 12.2 It is allowed to use circuit breaker to shut/open and protect for the stand-by pump. 12.3 To control power of pump station, it is required to ensure: automatically starting up the main pump automatically starting up the stand-by pump when the main pump cannot start up or after starting up it cannot achieve an operation status during a pre-fixed period. automatically turning on the electric driven stoppage valve automatically transferring control circuit from working power supply source into back-up power supply source (once the inlet voltage of the working circuit is lost) automatically starting up the main quantitative pump. automatically starting up the standby quantitative pump once the main pump cannot achieve operation status after some pre-fixed time. creating pulse of automatic control to stop the ventilation fan of M & E equipment. creating pulse of automatic control to stop power receiving equipment Class 2 and Class 3.

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12.4 The forming of control pulse to automatically start up quantitative pump shall be made by electric control mechanism. 12.5 Normally, the pressure sensors installed on sprinkler control valves should be used to act as activating mechanism, creating pulse to automatically starting up pumps. It is allowed to automatically start the pumps of sprinkler system when receiving pulse from fire-alarming system. 12.6 The electric control of pump station shall be equipped with manually starting mechanism located in pump chamber. It is allowed to start the pump by remote control at the fire-fighting stations and at wall fire-fighting boxes in the building. 12.7 The shut-down of pumps and quantitative pumps needs to be arranged at pump chamber. It is permitted to shut down pump from fire-fighting station. 12.8 The electric driving stoppage valves installed on activating pipes of sprinkler system control station shall be in Class-2 of equipment reliability, in which the electric-shock protection is mainly by insulation. The electric control is required to ensure such a continuous control that the control circuit of stoppage valve is always in good conditions.
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TCVN 7336:2003

12.9 The air compressor control of the fire-fighting system is made manually. 12.10 The turning on of electric driving stoppage valve installed on the pressure pipes of the pump shall be carried out simultaneously with pump starting up. 12.11 In the pump chamber, light signal shall be arranged to give signals of: voltage of main and stand-by inlets of power supply source and grounding phase. switching of pump and quantitative pump automatic start-up. water level in the reservoirs water level in drainage pits.

12.12 In fire-fighting stations or chambers or other rooms where there are permanent fire-fighting staff in charge, light and sound alarming system shall be installed to give signals of: the occurrence of a fire pump starting up sprinkler starting to operate, sprinkler showing water (or foam making solution) conduct direction. the circuit breaking of pump automatic start-up. the switching of fire-alarm sound signal. equipment problem (e.g. losing voltage at power source main inlet, reducing pressure in water-air tank or in pulse-making equipment. alarming water level in reservoirs and in drainage pits. failure of electric driving stoppage valve. failure of control circuit of stoppage valve installed on the activating pipes of sprinkler and quantitative pump control valves

12.13 The fire-alarming sound signals shall be different in term of timbre from those alarming failures. 12.14 The electric equipment grounding system shall satisfy the requirements stated in TCVN 4756-89

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Annex A (stipulated) Classification of buildings based on fire-occurring risk rate (fire-rate) A.1 Low fire-rate buildings Following are examples of low fire-rate buildings: Bathroom (Turkish bathroom and steambath) Guest house, clubhouse hotels Church Hospital, orphanage, sanatorium and insane asylum Library (except book storehouse) Room for rent Consulting room and dental office Museum and art gallery Government office Prison School, university Water treatment station and pump station

For pipework and spraying pressure of fire-fighting system for low fire-rate buildings, it is not required to design more than 6 simultaneously-operating sprinklers, but a proper density shall be ensured. Therefore, when a building has holds of more than 126m2 wide and not classified as low fire-rate buildings, it shall be listed into Group 1 of Average fire-rate buildings. A 2 Average fire-rate buildings The average fire-rate buildings are divided into 4 groups as follows; A.2.1 Group 1 of average fire-rate buildings** includes: Sand paper, grinding powder manufacturing installation Beverage manufacturing establishment (excluding beer) Artificial stone manufacturing plant Grinding machine Chiseling, carving installation Electroplating installation

*Holds mean the areas separated by high walls up to the ceiling and spandrels which can
reduce heat - spreading velocity until the ejector operates. ** Except for wood processing establishment, paint manufacturing and other places where fire can easily occur, which are classified in Group III of average fire-rate buildings. Asbestos fiber and sheet manufacturing Gold and silver analyzing Meat fumigating plant Gold and silver treatment (metallurgy) Grind stone manufacturing Hotels, guest houses for drivers (except resident areas where can be classified as low fire-rate.) Ice-manufacturing Ivory-treatment Jewelry store Schist and marble producing

Chain manufacturing (gold chain) Hair or cloth pin manufacturing Silica carbide manufacturing (Stone) Chiseling/carving
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TCVN 7336:2003

Cement factory Chrome-plating Club (except for resident areas where classified as low fir-rate places) Block brick manufacturing Copper plate carving/chiseling Cheese, butter manufacturing Restaurant, cafe Salt manufacturing

Mirror manufacturing Cement monument manufacturing Ore-grinding Precious stone processing Stone exploitation works Silver-wares manufacturing Color-glass plant Play yards, horse-race course Decoration materials manufacturing

A.2.2 Group II, average fire-risk rate, includes: Abattoir, hot water supply station Plane engine manufacturing plant Bread, biscuit bakery Flour mill Battery plant Beer plant (incl. bottling workshop-except for malt and carton workshops) Cake flour plant Rug cleaning/washing facility Plant producing fiber-core mortar, etc., moulds, Film production building Fish-smoking house Sand-paper plant Glucose sugar production plant Mechanical tool manufacturing plant Laundry Garage, incl. private and public car parks Automobile manufacturing/assembling factory Pen., pencil manufacturing establishment Film accessories making establishment Material storehouse

Pharmaceutical plant (produce or analyze), where not producing or using flammable materials either in solid, liquid or powder form and similar materials. Film exchanger and distributor Pottery workshop Coal stockpile Sauce, pickle and other canned food manufacture Milk powder plant Old ship-destroying workshop Confectionery Tee factory Dentistry materials manufacturing Cigarette factory workshop Bulb and Florescent Light production plant Umbrella workshop Paper/grinding materials plant Alcohol and beer business merchant (wholesale or retail sale) Construction works A.2.3 Group III, average fire-risk rate, includes: Aircraft plant (incl. hangar) Washing, dying, printing workshop Discotheque Houseboat Sports tool manufacturing Shoe-shining materials manufacturing Automatic entertainment salons Boot, shoe manufacturing Wine-cellar Wine bottle cellar of wine merchant Bag storehouse Brake, clutch manufacturing Mattress manufacturing (except rubber and Beer factory (malt and cask-making spongy resin mattress) workshops)
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TCVN 7336:2003

Fuel manufacturing Television and broadcasting station Brush, broom making Storehouse of cable and telephone companies Carbon paper manufacturing

Fat filtering, processing plant Malt manufacturing and beer cask making Plant butter manufacturing Market

Pepper, chili and mustard powder manufacturing Cocoa powder grinding Nitrate storehouse Airplane storehouse and transit commodity Canvas manufacturing storehouse Domestic animal food manufacturing Paper product manufacturing Fireworks manufacturing for Christmas Paper powder factory Cinema Plastic materials manufacturing (except spongy ones) Garment enterprise Poultry food manufacturing Cod-liver oil manufacturing Printing machine and relevant product merchant Cork manufacturing Rice husking plant Corn powder manufacturing Canvas tent, oiled paper manufacturing Bras manufacturing Rope, cord plaiting Cotton manufacturing (except for initial Rubber and rubber product plant (except processing stages) for spongy rubber) Egg powder manufacturing Bag/sack manufacturing Electric cable manufacturing Wood sawing plant Plastic covered electric wire plant Stage clothes, tools storehouse Electronic components manufacturing and Schist oil and seed oil processing assembling plant Essential oil manufacturing Ship-building plant Felt manufacturing Shirt-making enterprise etc. A.2.4 Group III, special average fire-risk rate, includes: e.g Exhibition area, etc. A.3 High fire-risk rate buildings A.3.1 High fire-risk rate buildings due to production e.g. airplane hangar A.3.2 High fire-risk rate buildings due to storing commodities in storehouse, divided into 4 categories: A.3.2.1 Class 1 e.g. rugs, clothes, etc. A.3.2.2 Class 2 e.g. Carton, paper rolls, etc.
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A.3.2.3 Class 3 e.g. Rubber products, oil paper, etc. A.3.2.4 Class IV e.g. Spongy plastic or rubber rolls, etc.

(Note: for more details, please see the original. The translator do not think it is necessary to list everything here..)

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