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SURAH BAQARAH

Ayaat No. 17-20

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17. Mathaluhum kamathali allathee istawqada naran falamma adaat ma hawlahu thahaba Allahu binoorihim watarakahum fee thulumatin la yubsiroona
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18. Summun bukmun AAumyun fahum la yarjiAAoona

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19. Aw kasayyibin mina alssamai feehi thulumatun waraAAdun wabarqun yajAAaloona asabiAAahum fee athanihim mina alssawaAAiqi hathara almawti waAllahu muheetun bialkafireena

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20. Yakadu albarqu yakhtafu absarahum kullama adaa lahum mashaw feehi waitha athlama AAalayhim qamoo walaw shaa Allahu lathahaba bisamAAihim waabsarihim inna Allaha AAala kulli shayin qadeerun

I. Quran Word Mathalahum Kamathali Al ladhee Istawqada Naaran Falamma Adaaat Ma Hawlahu Zahaba Allahu Binoorihim Zahaballahu binoorihim Wa Tarakahum Fee Zulumaatin La Yubsiroona Summun Bukmun Ummyun Fahum La Yarjiuna Aw Kasayyibin Min Assamaa Fihi Zulumaatun Waradun Wabarqun Yajaluna Asabiahum Fee Azanihim Min Assawaaiq Hazara

Word to Word Translation Translation Their example Like example Of who He lit A fire Then when It illuminated What Surrounded him He went Allahu With their light Allah took away their light And He left them In Darknesses Not They see Ones deaf Ones dumb Ones blind So they Not They will return Or Like a heavy rain From The sky In it Darknesses And thunder And lightning They put Their fingertips In Their ears From The thunderbolts/ lightning Due to cautious fear

Al mawt Wallahu Muheetun Bil kafireen Yakadu Al barqu Yakhtafu Absarahum Kullama Adaaa Lahum Mashaw Fihi Wa Iza Azlama Alayhim Qaamoo Walav Shaaa Allahu Lazahaba Bisamihim Lazahaba bisamihim Wa Absaarihim Inna Allaha Alaa Kulli Shayin Qadeerun

Of the death And allah One who always encompasses With the Disbelievers It is near The lightning It snatches/ it takes away Their sights Whenever It illuminated For them They walked In it And when It darkened Upon them They stood And if He willed Allah Surely he went With their hearing Surely he took away their hearing And Their sights Indeed Allah Upon Every Thing Always all able

II. Word Analysis The following verses present 2 examples of the Hypocrites. So far in the Quran, we have learnt about 3 groups of people 1st group is of those who are guided, those who believe, those who have Ilm and they also do Amal. 2nd group is of those who are not guided, those who have Ilm but they dont have Amal; The Disbelievers. And the 3rd group is of the Hypocrites. In the previous verses, we learnt about some characteristics of Hypocrites. Now Allah Swt presents 2 examples to illustrate or to explain the behaviour of the Hypocrites, to clearly tell us how they are! And remember, whenever an example is given, you are able to understand or relate to it better. So, the purpose of mentioning these examples, the purpose behind mentioning these characteristics is not so that we go on finding or looking for people who are Hypocrites. But rather, it is to analyse ourselves in the light

of these examples, in the light of these verses, in the light of the characteristics that are mentioned over here. That if I have any of these characteristics, then I should work on improving myself. So, the following verses explain the condition or behaviour of the Hypocrites. Now remember, there are 2 types of Nifaaq or Hypocrisy. 1. Hypocrisy in Aqeedah/ Belief. It refers to the hypocrites who actually disbelieves in the heart; but on the outward, he is only revealing/ showing Islam; so that he can enjoy the benefits of being a Muslim. But in his heart, he is actually a Disbeliever, he is not a Believer. Their example is the 1st example that is mentioned in these verses. 2. The 2nd example is of the 2nd type of Hypocrites. Those who have Nifaaq in their Amal/ actions/ deeds. At heart, a person is a Muslim; but he does some actions which are actually of Hypocrites. For e.g. we have learnt of a Hadeeth that there are signs of a Hypocrite When he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it. Does this mean that a person who lies just once, he becomes a Hypocrite? What it means is that he has a characteristic of Hypocrites. He is being Hypocritical in his actions; not in his Aqeedah. He is a Believer in his heart but just in his actions he has hypocrisy. 2nd example that is mentioned over here is about this type of Hypocrisy. So, lets go over these verses, these examples. As per the 1 st example that is mentioned, Abdullah Ibn Masood and other Companions has stated about this Ayah (Ayah no. 17); that when the Prophet Sws migrated to or came to Madinah, some people became Muslim; but soon they became Hypocrites. They turned away from Islam. So, their example is of a person who was in darkness, and then he kindled the fire through which the environment became illuminated; and things of benefits and loss became clear to him. When there is darkness you cannot see anything. When there is light, you are able to distinguish between things. So, similarly, he was in Darkness of Shirk, then Prophet Sws came, Guidance came, Knowledge came, Islam came and with that he was able to see what was good, what was bad; what was beneficial and what was not. Then what happened? Then the Light blew out and he fell into Darkness or that he lost his own sight and returned to the state of being in Darkness. This was the condition of the Hypocrites. First they were in Darkness of Shirk, Disbelief. The Prophet Sws came, brought Guidance, they were in Light but then the Light was extinguished and as a result they fell back into the Darkness. Lets look at these verses. Mathaluhum Kamathaliladhistawqada naara Mathaluhum Their example/ description/ state. Who does THEIR refer to? The Hypocrites, The Munaafiqun. The way they are in their Hypocrisy, their description is. Kamathali Like example. Notice the word MATHAL. Root Letters Meem/Thaa/Laam. Mathal is used for an example, a description, the state that something is in. The word MITHL means similar to, that which resembles the other. MITHL that which is similar to the other MATHAL example Now, whenever you give an example, it is always similar to the concept that you are explaining or elaborating on. What is a Mathal or an example? An example is used to explain something that is abstract through something that is concrete; something that is intangible (that cannot be seen, touch, felt) by citing something that is tangible (that can be seen, touch, felt), concrete. If you are trying to explain to a child what the colour Red is, what the colour White is. And you try to explain it through words; it is going to be very difficult. And if you just say, white is the like the colour of this paper, the explanation is going to be very easy. So, the purpose of a Mathal is to explain something that is abstract through that which is concrete; to explain an intangible concept through that which is tangible, that which can be seen. From the same root is the word TAMTHEEL, used for a Drama. Because in Drama, people act out. If somebody just tells you a story in words, its difficult to follow along sometimes. But if you see it being acted out, its easier to follow along, its more enjoyable. And the word TIMTHAAL is used for a statue.

Allah Swt says Mathaluhum Kamathaliladhees Istawqada Naara Their example is like the example of the one who kindled a fire. Now you see, in Quran, many examples are mentioned, are given. Why? So that it is easier for us to understand, so that we can understand quickly, we can have a better understanding, we can see things, and we can relate them with our daily lives. So, the example of the Hypocrites is like that of Al Ladhee of the one who ISTAWQADA The root letters are Waw/Qaaf/Daal. The word WAQOOD is from the same root letters which means fuel. Fear the fire whose fuel is men and stones. So Waqood means Fuel. And Istawqada gives us 2 meanings To light or kindle a fire To ask someone to light fire for you So, Istiqaad/ Istawqada is to ask someone to light or kindle the fire. So, Al Ladhee Istawqada like the one who kindled What did he kindled or light? Or what did he ask to be lit? Naaran a fire. We ask people to turn the light or heating or air conditioning ON. Over here, what did this person do? He asked that a Naar/ a fire to be kindled. NAAR Root letters are Noon/Waw/Raa, which is used for Fire. And in Fire, there is light and there is also heat, there is also warmth, and sometimes fire also serves as Protection. Mathaluhum Kamathaliladhees Istawqada Naara - Their example is like that of the one who kindled a fire. Meaning of Al Ladhee Istawqada Naara First of all, this is understood as the Person who lit fire in darkness. Whats the darkness? The Darkness of Unbelief, Ignorance, Shirk, associating partners with Allah Swt, Oppression, Injustice, Doubt. So, there is darkness. And the first meaning of Istawqada is to light fire. So, a person came and he lit the fire. Who is this person? It refers to the Prophet Sws. And this Light that is produced by fire it refers to the Light of Guidance, Quran, and Islam. Lets look at this meaning first, lets read through the Ayaat, and then Inshallah, well move on to the 2 nd meaning which is to ask someone to light fire. Lets stick to this meaning first, study the Ayaat, then well move on to 2nd meaning. So, their example is like the one who kindled a fire. What happened after lighting the fire? Falamma Adaat Mahawlahu Dhahaballaahu Binoorihim Falamma Then when Adaat it illuminated The word FALAMMA gives the meaning Then when. It conveys the meaning of sequence of events. So, Falamma, Then when, that is when the Fire was lit. As a result, what happened? Adaat Mahawlahu His surrounding became illuminated. The word ADAAT is from the root letters Daad/Waw/Hamza. The word Dau/Diaa which means Light. And in particular it is said that Diaa is such light that also has heat with it. The word also applies to the burning rays of the sun. There is light and there is also heat along with it. Sometimes in winter, its extremely cold, and if you are inside and the sunlight is coming through the glass windows, can you still feel the heat of the sun? You can. This is what Diaa is! Extremely bright and it also has heat with it. But in particular, Diaa is used for such light that has a red tinge to it. Meaning its not white like these lights which you have, it has a reddish/ yellowish colour to it. So, Falamma Adaaat. Adaaat means it became bright or it became illuminated. So, when the fire illuminated, made bright. What? Mahawlahu what was around him. HAWL is from the root letters Haa/Waw/Laam, used for surrounding that which is around a person. Mahawlahu that which was around him. Who does HIM refer to? The one who lit the fire. The Prophet Sws. So, when the environment is illuminated, what does it mean by that? The Truth and Falsehood are clearly distinguished. People are able to see what right is, what wrong is; what correct is, what false is; what Allah Swt like and what He does not like; what He approves of and what he does not approve of! So, Falamma Adaaat Mahawlahu The environment is illuminated, Truth and Falsehood are clearly distinguished, differences between right and wrong are clearly known; what happens to the Hypocrites? Allah Swt says Dhahaballahu Allah took away. What?

Binoorihim their light. Allah took away their light. Who does THEIR in Noorihim refer to? They refer to the Hypocrites. The word DHAHABA is from the root letters Dhaal/Haa/Baa. The word DHAHAB means Gold. What happens to Gold? Does it stay always with the person? No. The person has to give Zakaat on it, a part of it goes away from him. Similarly, gold is a big investment, a big asset. People secure their money by buying Gold, and eventually, when they have to spend, what happens? The gold goes away from them. So, Dhahaba is to go away. When the Dhahaba is followed by the word Bi (Dhahaballahu Binoorihim), then Dhahaba-Bi means to take something away. Dhahaba on its own means He went/ he left. Dhahaba-Bi means He took away, he went with. So, Dhahaballahu Binoorihim Allah took away their light. Word NOOR has same root letters as the word NAAR Noon/Waw/Raa. Noor is used for bright light, light that shines. How is Noor different from Diaa? Noor has no heat in it. Diaa has heat in it. What is the meaning of Allah took away their light, the light of the Hypocrites? In order to see something, 2 lights are needed. First of all, you need light outside. You need light in the environment, in the surrounding area, so that you can see what is out there. The second light that is needed is the light of the vision, sight; so that a person is actually able to see, he is able to perceive. Now the thing is, there is light outside of them, but their light is extinguished. Which light is this? Their internal light. Their own light is extinguished, which is why they are unable to see anymore, which is why they have lost the ability to distinguish between right and wrong. When there is light, you can tell that this is good/ right, this is bad/ wrong. When a person does not have light, he loses that ability, that sense. So, Allah took away their light, Allah took away their ability. Watarakahum Fi Zulumaatin La Yubsirun Wa Tarakahum and He left them Word TARAKA is from the root letters Taa/Raa/Kaaf. Taraka literally means to leave/ abandon something. So, Allah abandoned them. Who does THEM refer to? The Hypocrites. Allah took away their lights and He abandoned them. Where? Fi Zulumaatin In darknesses. La Yubsirun They do not see Word ZULUMAAT is Plural of Zulmah. Root letters Zaa/Laam/Meem Zulm/Zulmah literally means darkness. Another word from the same root is Zaalim/Zulm, which means injustice, oppression. So, we see that Zulmah means Darkness and Zulm means Injustice. Whats the connection between the two? Zulma Zulumaat Yaumal Qiyaamah Oppression will be darkness for a person on the Day of Judgment. A person, who is oppressive in the Duniya, will be in the Darkness in the Hereafter on the Day of Judgment. So Zulumaatin Allah leaves them in darknesses. La Yubsirun They do not see. YUBSIRUN is from the root letters Baa/Saad/Raa. Basara means to see, Yubsirun they see La Yubsirun They do not see at all. So their light is taken away, they are left in the darknesses; and they are unable to see. Unable to see what? Truth, that which is good, beneficial. There was light around them, they could see. But what happened? Dhahaballaahu Binoorihim Allah took away their light. Watarakahum fi zulumaatin and he left them in Darknesses, as a result of which, La Yubsirun They are unable to see. Why did this happen? Why did Allah Swt take away their light? Allah Swt tells us in the Quran, Surat ul Munaafiqun, Ayaat no. 3, That is because they believed, then they disbelieved, their hearts were sealed over and they do not understand. What do we learn from this Ayaat? That when a person is offered the Guidance, when the light is lit for him, but then they themselves chose to close their eyes, they chose themselves to go against the Truth that they have found, as a result what happens? Allah takes away that ability from them. There was light around them, light was given to them, the Prophet Sws brought Light, the Commands came to them, they learnt about the way to please Allah Swt, did they do that? Did they follow that? No, they didnt. And when they didnt, Allah Swt took away the Light from them.

Another verse in the Quran also explains this. We learnt earlier as well in the Ayaats of Disbelievers. Surat us Saf, Ayaat No. 5 That when they deviated, Allah caused their hearts to deviate. So, its not that Allah Swt is oppressing them; He is depriving them of Guidance. No! Allah sent the Messenger to them, who brought Light to them. But they didnt benefit from that Light, they didnt use their mind, they didnt use their own comprehension. They didnt benefit from the Light that was brought to th em. And as a result, it was taken away. They were given the Light. Was there a problem with the Light? Was there a problem with the Commands of Allah Swt gave them? No, but they themselves didnt want to do them. And when they didnt, Allah Swt took away their Light and they were unable to see. So, as a punishment, Allah Swt took away their Light. Also, we learnt in the previous verses, that when they were told Aaminu Kama Aamanannaasu, what was their response? Anuminu Kama Aamanassufahaa Shall we be lieve like the foolish ones have believed? So, when they appear to be Believers and when they mocked at the Believers, when they called them Foolish; Allah Swt does not let them play around with His Religion, He doesnt let them belittle His Religion. He takes the ability away from them of comprehension. When they are appearing to be Believers, when they are showing themselves as Believers, but actually they are mocking, actually they are calling the Believers, foolish; actually they are bringing disgrace to Religion, and then what does Allah do? Allah takes away their Light from them. Allah Swts religion, People who believe in Him, they are not so cheap that they can be made fun of! Anyone who does that will suffer consequences. And many a times, it is very sad that people who claim to be Muslims, they have grown up in Muslim homes, they call themselves Muslims, what do they do? They make fun of the Deen and Allah. So, when a person does that, Allah Swt takes away the Light from them. Allah Swt takes away their ability to comprehend, their ability to distinguish between right and wrong, and as a result what happens; Allah Swt says Summun Bukmun Ummyun Fahum La Yarjiun Summun They are deaf Bukmun They are dumb Ummyun They are blind Fahum La Yarjiun So they will not return They become deaf, dumb and blind; and they will not return to Guidance. SUMMUN Root Letters Saad/Meem/Meem Summ = Plural of Asamm (Alif, Saad, Meem with Fatha on Alif and Tashdeed on Meem) Asamm is one who is deaf, someone who is unable to hear. From the same root is the word SIMAAN, which is used for a cork or a stopper. It seals the mouth of the bottle. What is inside is blocked inside. It also prevents any moisture or anything going inside the jar. Basically, when something is blocked. Asamm is a person whose hearing is blocked, a person who is unable to hear properly. So, Summun They are deaf. What is the meaning by the fact that they are deaf? It means or it refers to their state of being unable to hear the Truth, their being unable to listen to Truth. And remember, Listening is of 2 types one is to hear or listen to the sounds; and the second is when you listen and when you accept. So, over here, they are deaf, meaning they dont listen to the Truth, they dont like listening to the Truth, and if they do listen to the Truth, they dont accept it. Because you see, the Hypocrites, they would actually go in the gathering of Prophet Sws, they would go and listen to the Khutbah of Prophet Sws. Abdullah Ibn Ubayy, and he was the leader of the Hypocrites. He would go and sit in the front while the Prophet Sws would be delivering the Khutbah. He heard it, he heard Prophet Sws reciting the Quran. But did hearing benefit him? No. So, Summun They are deaf to listening to, to accepting, to agreeing with the Truth. Allah Swt tells us in the Quran in Surat ul Anfaal Ayaat No. 21 Do not be like those people who say we have heard but actually they have not heard. Because a person who has heard, he must show by his actions that he has heard. So, Summun They are deaf, they dont listen to the Truth, they dont accept the Truth, they dont benefit from the Truth. And they are also Bukmun Ones who are dumb

BUKMUN Plural of Abkam (Alif/Baa/Kaaf/Meem) Used for a person who is unable to speak. It is also said that Abkam is used for a person who has never spoken, also said that Abkam is used for a person who is neither able to speak nor comprehend. Because many a times, a person has disability and is unable to speak, they can comprehend. Many a times, a person who is unable to speak is also deaf; but they have sign language with which they can communicate. Over hear, Abkam is used for a person who can neither speak nor can he understand. He doesnt have ei ther of these abilities. So, they are Summun and they are also Bukmun. What does it mean by Bukmun in the context? Does it mean that they are unable to speak physically? Their tongues do not function properly? Thats not what the meaning is. But what it means is that they are unable to speak out the Truth, that which is good. They do not speak good, Truth. Then what do they speak? What do they say? Falsehood, bad things. Bima Kanoo Yakdhibun because they used to lie. So, Summun Bukmun. Moreover Allah says they are also Ummyun Ones who are blind. UMMYUN Plural of Aama(Alif/Ain/Meem with Yaa at the end). Aama is used for a person who is blind, physically blind, who is unable to see. But otherwise, the word Aama/Ummyun is used for blindness, thats not just physical but also spiritual. So, Ummyun. What does it mean by this? That they are blind to the path of Guidance, to the Truth, so that they do not perceive the Truth. There were clear signs; the Prophet Sws spoke to them, lived amongst them. Did they not see Him? Did they not see the events that took place? Of course, they did! But they were blind to all those clear signs. The Truth was right in front of them, but they wouldnt see it. Dhahaballaahu Binoorihim. Summun, Bukmun, Ummyun They are deaf, dumb and blind. As a result, whats going to happen? Fahum la Yarjiun They are not going to return. YARJIUN Root Letters Raa/Jeem/Ain from the word Rujuu Rujuu is to return, to go back to where a person came from. So, they will not return. Where? To the Light. They were in Light; Allah took away their Light, because of their own sins/ wrong doings. And then they became deaf, dumb and blind. Will they ever return to the Light? No. Just imagine a person who is unable to hear, speak and see. If he is going somewhere and he loses his way, will he ever get to his destination? No. Fahum La Yarjiun They will not return to the path of Guidance. Why will they not return? Also because, they think that whatever they are doing is right, correct. You see one is that a person realizes the mistake that he is making; a person realizes the faults that are within him. And what does he do then? He tries to get away those faults, he tries to leave them, he tries to get rid of them. But if a person thinks that what he is doing is right, will he ever change his ways? No. They are deaf, dumb and blind and they think whatever they are doing is perfectly fine and correct. So, obviously, they are not looking for anything else. They are not looking for Guidance/ improvement. So Fahum la Yarjiun They are not going to return. Earlier we read about them Wama Kanoo Muhtadeen They are not rightly guided at all. They are not on the right way at all. So, we see that with this group of Hypocrites, door after door is closed. Every door to Guidance is closed for them. And this is the first group of Hypocrites those who are hypocrites in their heart. This was the 1st meaning of the Ayaat. Lets look over another meaning of the same Ayaat. Mathaluhum Kamathalilladhees Istawqada Naara Their example is like that of one who kindled a fire. Here Istawqada gives meaning of He asked for a fire to be lit, he asked someone else to light the fire. And if we take this meaning, then the word Al Ladhee gives the sense of Al Ladheena Those who. Remember that in Arabic Language, words like Man who, Al Ladhee who; they are used for singular.

But they can also be used for Plural. So, when we read Al Ladhee Istawqada Naara it seems to be singular, but it actually is Plural. Because if you continue to read the Ayaat, what happens? Dhahaballaahu Binoorihim wa Tarakahum Fi Zulumaatin La Yubsirun It turns into They. So, this proves that Al Ladhee Istawqada Naara means Those who. Those who asked for a fire to be lit. What does it show? That it is a group of them. Its not just a person here or there. It is a group and they ask so meone to light the fire for them. And this fire is also for why? So that they have protection, they have Light, they can see. So, in other words, they express their desire to learn, to practise the Deen, to know about the Deen; but it is a group of Hypocrites! Because they are asking someone to light the fire. So Al Ladhee Istawqada Naara Falamma Adaaat Mahawlahu Then when the fire illuminated what was around; what happened? Dhahaballaahu Binoorihim Allah took away their Light. Their Light refers to the Light that they kindled/ lit. What was their Light? Their desire to learn about the Deen, so Allah took away their Light and He left them in Darknesses and they were unable to see. As a result, they were Summun, Bukmun, Ummyun, Fahum La Yarjiun, meaning they are deaf, dumb and blind and they will not return. Istawqada Naara He kindled the fire or he requested that fire should be lit. Then Allah says Falamma Adaaat Mahawlahu Dhahaballaahu Binoorihim. Allah took away their Light, not the Fire. What does that show? That their ability was taken away, the Light of Islam is still there. Its not that the Islam was extinguished. Its their Light which was taken away, their ability which was taken away. And notice also, watarakahum and He Left them. What does that show? Allah left them, Allah abandoned them. Allah Swt will not guide them. He has abandoned them. Allah doesnt care for them. You leave something, you abandon it, and you dont care for it. Tarakahum He left them. It also shows that the Hypocrite does not have help of Allah. He does not have the support of Allah. He is abandoned by Allah. Wa Tarakahum Fi Zulumaat He leaves them in Darknesses. Why is it Darknesses, and not just Darkness? Why is it multiple Darknesses? Why is it many Darknesses? Why is it He left them in many Darknesses? It shows the intensity of Darkness. If you are in dark, eventually you get used to the dark and you can still see just a little bit. But if the Light is turned ON, and the Light is turned OFF, what happens? Right after the Light is turned OFF, you are unable to see. Its completely dark for you. So Tarakahum Fi Zulumaatin Why? They were in dark, then there was Light and then the Light was taken away. As a result, they were in complete darkness. So, it shows the intensity of the darkness that they were in. Also Zulumaat, darknesses implies that there werent just one thing that was wrong but they are indulged in many wrong things thereafter. So Tarakahum Fi Zulumaatin La Yubsirun They do not see at all. But remember, this example is of those Hypocrites who in their Hearts are not Believers at all. They know that they are not Believers. They are pretending to be Believers only. People who outwardly display Iman but in their hearts, they are not Believers. The 2 nd example is of those people who are Believers but they have Hypocrisy in their ways, in their actions. The first is that we do not have the authority to say this person is a Hypocrite or not, this person is this type of Hypocrite or that type of Hypocrite. Allah Swt knows the actual reality of people. We are only to deal with them outwardly. If a person, you tell them, they dont listen; you tell them again, they dont listen. Should you say O my God, they are this Hypocrite, thats it. I am not going to talk to them again? They are deaf, dumb, and blind. La Yubsirun. They are not listening, they are not comprehending. No! We ar e not going to do that. You see the Prophet Sws, there were so many Hypocrites that lived in Madinah. Abdullah Ibn Ubayy. So many times, Umar Radhiallaahu anhu asked Give me the permission to kill this person. Prophet Sws said No! Dont kill him. And Prophet Sws and the other Believers they kept on advising him. His own son would advise him. So, our job is to continue to remind, continue to advice if we ever come across such characteristics in people. Our job is to continue to remind, not to judge. Our job is also to pray for them. And remember, whenever you are studying these verses, always think about yourself. These examples are given for us to analyse ourselves. Do I do anything like this? When Allah Swt sends, when He shows me the Light, when He shows me what right is, what wrong is; what is my behaviour? What is my attitude? Do I close my eyes to it? Do I pretend as if it doesnt exist? If I do, it is something very dangerous. So, from everything that you study in Quran, take questions for yourself, analyse yourself. So to summarize the first example of the Hypocrites that we studied, it is about the 1st group of Hypocrites who are Disbelievers in

the Heart but they only show outward Iman; and they are such Hypocrites who are Hypocrites in their Aqeedah, in their Belief. So, their example is like those who were in darkness, they were in Unbelief, and then there was Light. In other words, they showed their desire to learn the Deen, to know about the Deen. But soon after, the Light was taken away, the Light was extinguished and as a result, they went back in the state of Darkness, they went back into the state of Unbelief. So, there was a Darkness of Shirk, there was Light of Islam, things became clear but soon after they relapsed into their disbelief, but continued to show themselves as Believers. Because if they wouldnt, if they dont, then they are not going to benefit as the other Muslims benefit. The next Ayaat they talk about, they give the example about the 2 nd group of Hypocrites who sometimes know the Truth and doubt it other times. It is about those people who are also Hypocrites. Allah Swt says Aw kasayyibin mina alssamai feehi thulumatun waraAAdun wabarqun yajAAaloona asabiAAahum fee athanihim mina alssawaAAiqi hathara almawti waAllahu muheetun bialkafireena Aw Kasayyibin Or it is like a rainstorm. What is like a rainstorm? Their example. Because the previous Ayaat began with Mathaluhum Kamathali Their example is like that of one who. These Ayaats begin with Aw Kasayyibin Or it is like a rainstorm. The word Aw it means Or. But it does not always convey the meaning of Or, sometimes it gives a meaning of And/ as well as and other times it shows Variety (Tanviya). So, over here, Aw Kasayyibin, Aw has been understood as And their example is such and such or it has been understood as Or another example or an example of another type of Hypocrites is such and such. Kasayyibin Like a downpour. We have done Ka earlier, it means like, just as, similar to. And the word Sayyib is from the Root Letters Saad/Waw/Baa. Sawb literally is when something reaches or hits the target. It reaches where it should reach. It hits where it should hit. Like for example, getting a dart in the Bulls eye. What it is? Sawb! To hit the target, to hit where one should hit. From the same root is the word Museebah a calamity, a problem, a disaster. Why is it called Museebah? Because it only hits you, it only hits or strikes where it should strike, where it was meant to strike. And the word Sayyib which you see over here is use d for Heavy rain. A heavy downpour. But in particular, it is such heavy rain that is accompanied with a lot of thunder and lightning. Its downpour, rain, heavy rain that is accompanied with a lot of Thunder and Lightning. So, just imagine a rainstorm, a storm. So Aw Kasayyibin Like a downpour, like a heavy rain. Minassamaai From the sky ASSAMAA Root Letters Seen/Meem/Waw. Sumu literally means Height. The word Samaa is used for Sky. But remember, the Arabic word Samaa not just refers to the blue Sky that we see above us. Samaa is anything that is above you and it also covers you. So, word Samaa is used for Sky, it is also used for the Clouds and it is used for a Ceiling or a roof. Samaa is used for anything above and anything that covers from above. So, Aw Kasayyibin Minassamaa Or a heavy rain/ rainstorm from the sky What does it mean from the sky? Means heavy rain pouring down from the clouds that are up there in the sky. In this heavy rain, Allah says Fihi In it; meaning in the downpour, in the heavy rain, there is what? There are Zulumaatun There are darknesses. We have done the word Zulumaat earlier. Plural of Zulmah. And Zulumaat is Plural so it shows Layers of Darkness. Now if you think of it, What is Darkness? How would you explain darkness? Absence of Light, when there is no Light. So Fihi Zulumaatun in the rainstorm, there are many Darknesses. What are these Darknesses referring to? These darknesses, just imagine a rainstorm, it is dark right? First of all, the Darkness is because of the Night. Second, the Darkness is because of the Clouds that cover up the sky and thirdly, the Darkness is also because of the Heavy Rain. Sometimes, during day time, if there is storm, what happens? The visibility is

not that great because of the heavy rain, because of the clouds. Now just imagine, there is also night time. So, Zulumaat Darkness, layer upon layer. Physically or literally what is it? Zulumaat refers to the Darkness of the night, the clouds as well as the rainstorm. So, there is Zulumaat. What else is there in the storm? Allah says Wa Raadun and Thunder. RAAD- Root Letters Raa/Ain/Daal and Raad is the sound of Thunder that follows a flash of Lightning and the word Raad literally means Movement. When you hear Thunder, what happens? Your heart moves/ shakes. It terrifies people. So, there is Zulumaat, there is also Thunder; and there is also, Allah says Wa Barq and Lightning. BARQ Root Letters Baa/Raa/Qaaf Barq is the flash of light, it is the Lightning that is produced in a storm and that is visible in the sky, in the clouds up in the Horizon. So, can you picture this Heavy rain, a storm, a heavy rain that is falling from the sky and with this heavy rain/ storm, what else is there? Darkness, thunder and Lightning. What do these things refer to? What does 1. Sayyib 2. Samaa 3. Zulumaat 4. Raad 5. Barq refer to? 1. Sayyib is the Heavy rain and the Heavy rain refers to, the indication is towards the Revelation, the Wahi that is being sent. The commands of Allah Swt that are being revealed. The Prophet Sws came to Madinah, brought the Light and soon after what happened? The Commands of Islam, the Laws of Islam were revealed. So, its heavy rain one after the other. In Hadeeth as well as many places in Quran, Revelation is explained as Rain coming from the sky because just as rain brings benefits to us, it is a source of life for us. When rain comes plants grow, there is water, we can eat, and we can drink. If there is no rain, there will be draught. Peoples lives, they are dependent on rain. Similarly, spiritually, we rely in what? We rely on Revelation that Allah Swt sends. If there was no Revelation, we would be dead spiritually. So, Rain over here, Sayyib, refers to the Commands that Allah Swt is revealing. Minassamaai from the sky. Fihi Zulumaatin In it are Darknesses. What this means? 2. This Darkness refers to the mention of Unbelief, the explanation of Unbelief. What is Disbelief? What is this Disbelieving in Allah? How do we learn that? Where do we learn that from? From the Revelation, from the Quran. You start reading the Quran, five verses down, what do you read? Innal Ladheena Kafaru. You learn about Kufr. So, Fihi Zulumaatin meaning this Revelation clarifies what disbelief is, what wrong is! 3. Wa Radun and Thunder. What is this Thunder referring to? Thunder refers to the Threat of Punishment, because just as Thunder strikes, Thunder scares the person, similarly, the Threat of Punishment, also scares people. So, in it there is Darkness, there is Thunder and 4. There is also Barq, there is also Lightning. What does the Lightning refer to? You see, even if there is a storm in the middle of the night, and if there is Lightning, there is a flash of lightning, What happens? You can see, even if its just for few seconds, for few moments, the entire Horizon, the earth around you, everything becomes clear. It becomes visible. So, the Barq, the Lightning refers to the clear Arguments, the clear evidences, the Guidance as it illuminates the earth, as it illuminates the surroundings. What happens then? Yajaluna They put. YAJALUNA is from Jaala. Jaala is literally to put something, it also means to make. Over here, it means They put, they insert. Who does THEY refer to? Those people who are in the storm. Whose example is being given? The Hypocrites. So Yajaluna, They meaning those people who are in the storm, who are the Hypocrites. They put. Asabiahum Their fingers. Where do they put their fingers? Fi Athaanihim into their ears. Word ASABIA is the Plural of Isbaa or Usbuu. Asabia has many, as many as 10 differ ent Singular forms. Isbaa is Finger (Alif, Saad, Baa, Ain Kasra under Alif) So, they put their fingers Fi Athaanihim ATHAAN is Plural of Uzun. Root Letters Hamzah/Daal/Noon or Alif/Daal/Noon Uzun is Ear. So, they put their fingers into their ears.

Doesnt mean that they put all 10 fingers into their ears. Why Fingers? Because its Yajaluna, it is They. It is a group of the Hypocrites; all of them put their fingers in their ears. Fi Athaanihim into their ears. Why do they put their fingers into their ears? Because they dont want to hear. What is it that they dont want to hear? The Thunder; Threat of Punishment. So, when they hear the Threat of Punishment, they put their fingers into the ears; so that they do not listen to the Revelation/ Quran. If you just put your fingers into your ears in a storm, is it going to save you from the rain? Instead of taking an umbrella, if you say, Ill just put my fingers in my ears, is it going to save you from the rain? No! Is it going to save you from the Lightning if it was to strike a person? Putting the finger in the ears is it gonna protect a person from Lightning? No! They put their fingers in their ears. Why? Minassawaaiq From the Thunderbolts. MIN over here, gives the sense of Because of/ Against. To save themselves from the Sawaaiq SAWAAIQ Plural of the word Sawiqa Root Letters Saad/Ain/Qaaf Sawiqa literally means to faint, to become unconscious. Many a times, people become unconscious when they hear something that is very loud, for e.g. a blast or something like that. And the word Sawiqa is a Thunderbolt. It refers to the Thunderbolt that falls on or strikes the surface of the earth and causes destruction and death, it burns. This is why the word SAWIQA in Quran is also used for Punishment; because if you think, the end is the same Death/ Destruction. Minassawaaiq From the Sawaaiq. They dont want to listen to the Rad, to the Thunder, to the Sawaaiq, to the Revelation, so they just put their fingers into their ears. Why? Hadharal Maut due to fear of Death. The word HADHARA is from the Root Letters Haa/Dhaal/Raa Hadhara/Hadhar is used for fear. But what kind of fear is it? It is a fear in which a person is trying to save himself from something. It is a fear in which a person is taking precaution. He is very cautious. Wiqaya is to take a shield, in Taqwa. And Hadhara is to fear and become cautious, become careful, to beware to avoid something. So, Hadhara Due to fear. Of what? Of Al Maut Of the Death. So, out of fear of Death, what do they do? They just put their fingers in their ears.. But is it going to save them from Death? No! Its not. Now the question is What do the Sawaaiq refer to? It is said that the thunderbolts in this example, it refers to the Commands that may seem very difficult. For e.g. at the time of Prophet Sws, participating in a Battle was of course, difficult; considering the Muslims were very few in number, they didnt have much armour. So , Sawaaiq was difficult command. Similarly, giving Zakaat, they felt as though it was the Thunderbolt that was going to destroy them/kill them/finish them. They felt as though if they were to obey that particular command, that was it; their life was going to be over. So, Yajaluna asabiahum fee athanihim minassawaaiqi hatharal mawt Due to fear of Death. And if you think about it, the Hypocrites put their fingers in their ears at the sound of Thunder. What was Thunder? The Threat of Punishment. Why is it they think that every threat of Punishment is against them? Because they know they are wrong, There is guilt in their heart. We learn in Quran, Allah Swt says They think that every shout/cry/scream is against them. A person who is guilty, a person who is doing something wrong. Lets say they are alone and they are doing something wrong; and you just happen to go by th em, all of a sudden whats going to happen? You werent looking for them; you werent going to catch them. What will their reaction going to be? Immediately they are going to be terrified, scared. Why? Its the guilt in the heart. Its the awareness in the heart that what Im doing is wrong. So, similarly, when they heard the Threat of Punishment, immediately what would happen? They would become terrified/ scared. Allah says Wallaahu Muheetun But Allah encompasses Bil Kafireen with the Disbelievers The word MUHEET is from the Root Letters Haa/Waw/Taa; Hawt Hawt is to encircle something and in particular, it is to encircle/ enclose something from all sides. The word

is also used for building a wall around something, a boundary/wall around something. So, Allah is Muheet, Allah encompasses, He is the One who encompasses/ encircles the Disbelievers. What does it mean by Muheet over here? Muheet is understood in 2 ways. First of all, Allah Swt will encompass them, their state, in His Knowledge. It means that all of their actions, everything they do, they say, that they think about, it is known to Allah Swt. Allah Swt encircles all of it, all of their actions with His Knowledge. He is aware. Secondly, it also means that He has encircled them completely. How? With his Power, with His ability. It means they cannot escape his plan, they cannot escape His decision. They cannot escape Him. So, how is it relevant in the context? They try to put fingers in their ears, they are scared inside. They are trying to not follow the Commands. So, their fear, their precaution is not going to help them at all. They are in His grasp and under His Power. Wallaahu Muheetun Bil Kaafireen. Notice over here, Kaafireen has been used. What does it refer to? Who is being spoken of in the context? The Hypocrites. Why are they called Kaafireen (Disbelievers)? You see, Kufr is of different types. There are several types of Kufr. One is Major Kufr, one is Minor Kufr. Major Kufr is like for e.g. one is that a person outwardly says he does not believe. He disbelieves outright. So, this is Kufr (Disbelief) of Denial (Rejection). Another type of Kufr is that of Arrogance. It means that a person knows what a Truth is but he is too arrogant to accept it, to submit to it. E.g. Iblis. He was in the company of Angels. Allah Swt instructed him to prostrate to Adam. He refused. And Allah said He was arrogant, He was of those who disbelieved. How was he a Disbeliever? That he did not accept the Truth. He knew the Truth but he just did not accept it, submit to it. Another type of Kufr is that of doubt and suspicion, in which a person doubts or lacks conviction about the 6 articles of Faith and he does not even care to find out. This is all Major. Another type of Kufr is that of turning away from the Truth knowingly. Another type of Kufr is that of Hypocrisy, which is what is mentioned over here. Because, a Hypocrite as well, he says he believes, but he demonstrates Kufr in his actions, he demonstrates denial through his actions. So, over here, when Allah Swt calls him Kaafireen. What does it mean by Kaafireen over here? Yes, they were Hypocrites, but they claim to believe. In their actions, there is denial, there is disbelief. So, what does this show to us? That Allah Swt does not look at your appearance, your wealth; but rather He looks at the hearts, actions. So, they are called Kaafireen because they did the actions of Kufr. So, Wallaahu Muheetun Bil Kaafireen Allah is encompassing those who disbelieve. Yakadu albarqu yakhtafu absarahum kullama adaa lahum mashaw feehi waitha athlama AAalayhim qamoo walaw shaa Allahu lathahaba bisamAAihim waabsarihim inna Allaha AAala kulli shayin qadeerun Yakaadu AlBarqu The Lightning is near, the Lightning almost. The word YAKAADU Root Letters Kaaf/Waw/Daal Kaada is when something almost happens. It is about to happen but it doesnt actually happen. It is at the verge of happening but it doesnt actually happen. So, Yakaadul Barqu The Lightning is about to , is almost, it is at the verge of. Doing what? Yakhtafu Absaarahum it snatches away their vision/ their sights. The word YAKHTAFU Root Letters Khaa/Taa/Faa Khatf is to snatch something away quickly, swiftly. So, Yakhtafu it is about to snatch away/ take away/ seize away. What? Absaarahum Their sights. Absar is Plural of Basar. What does this mean? What does the Lightning refer to? The Commands that are in the Quran, the Commands that Allah Swt sends. So, it is about to snatch away their sights. How? Why? When there is a storm, there is Lightning what are you told? Stay inside; and dont look at the Lightning. Similarly, if the sun is very bright, should you look at it directly? No! You shouldnt. Because it can affect your eyesight/ vision. And if a person already has a weak vision, if his are already weak, whats going to happen? They are going to become weaker. So, Yakaadul Barqu Yakhtafu Absaarahum means that the Lightning is going to take away their vision. Why? Because their vision is already weak and the Light is extremely bright. The Light of ISLAM is extremely bright but their vision is weak. Qullama Everytime, whenever. Qullama gives a meaning of each and every single time, without

exception Adaaalahum it illuminated for them. What illuminated for them? We have done Adaaa before. The Lightning, the Barq, everytime there is a flash of Lightning and the surroundings are illuminated. What happens? Mashaw Fihi They walked in it. The word MASHAW Root Letters Meem/Sheen/Yaa Mashiya is to walk, and is used for normal walking, not too fast and not too slow but just walking normally. So, they walk in it. Whats the meaning by this? Every time there is a command, that is easy, that they agree with, they find that they really dont have to sacrifice anything, its not difficult, what do they do? They walk a little bit, they obey a little bit, and they follow those commands a little bit. Everytime there is Light, there is ease, every time they find it is easy, they accept it, they do it. Wa Iza Adhlama Alayhim But when it becomes dark upon them Whats the meaning by this? When there are Commands that they find very difficult, when there are Commands that they dont agree with, What do they do? Qaamoo They stood QAAMOO Root Letters Qaaf/Waw/Meem So, what does it show? That the Hypocrites only take the Deen, only follows the Deen, when it is easy and convenient. As soon as there is a little bit of difficulty even, what does he do? He stops. He leaves it. Why? Because he is not committed. The Deen is not his priority. Now, over here, all of us have to check ourselves as well. Which Commands do I follow? Which Commands do I not follow? Is it only those that I find easy and simple, convenient, so I do them; and if anything I find inconvenient. If I find inconvenient to pray, I dont pray. If Im too sleepy and its too difficult to get up, Id say Forget it, I wont pray. Atleast Id pray Zohar, Asr, Isha, Maghrib. 4 out of 5, thats a good number. No! This is a sign of Hypocrisy. This is Hypocritical behaviour. What does Allah say? Walav Shaaallaahu And if Allah willed. Lathaba Bisamihim wa absaarihim Surely he would take away their hearing and their sights. Allah Swt can take away their hearing and their sights but he hasnt. What does this show? That if a person continue to be in such a state, where his vision is weak, and you there is Lightning and he is exposed to such things, what happens? Eventually, his sight/ vision is going to finish; it is going to go away. So, if they continue to be the same in their faith, eventually they are going to lose their faith completely. So, what it shows? That when a person is not fully committed to his Deen, then he is vulnerable, he could lose his faith. Walav Shaaallaahu Lathaba Bisamihim wa absaarihim He could take away their hearing and their sights. Innallaaha Alaa Kulli Shayeen Qadeer Indeed, Allah is able over everything. The name of Allah Swt QADEER Root Letters Qaaf/Daal/Raa, from the word Qadra which means ability, power. So, he is Qadeer, meaning, He has the ability and He has the power over everything and anything that he wants to do. He is Qadeer, He is Powerful, He is able. The word Qadr is also from the same root, which means to plan for something. So, Qadeer is one who plans. First of all, one who has power and ability, secondly one who plans. Over here, whats the relevant meaning? He has the power and ability over everything, meaning He can take away these abilities from them as well if He wants, if they dont use them. In Ayaat No. 19 and 20, Allah Swt tells us Aw kasayyibin mina alssamai feehi thulumatun waraAAdun wabarqun Their example is like a rainstorm from the sky, within which there is darkness, thunder and lightning. So, in other words, with Religion/Deen, what comes Commands! What do they do? yajAAaloona asabiAAahum fee athanihim They put their fingers into the ears because they dont want to listen, to know or they are terrified, scared.Why do they put their fingers into their ears? Because of Minassawaaiqi from the Thunderbolts because of fear of Death. So Sawaaiq refers to the Commands in the Shariah which may be difficult/ challenging. What do the Hypocrites do? They put their fingers in their

ears. They dont even want to listen. And when you dont even want to listen to something, what does that show? That the person is not interested in it at all. When there is something difficult, there are 2 ways of dealing with it. One is that you hide from it, and other is you take up the Challenge. If you hide from it, what is going to happen? Is the difficulty going to go away? Its only going to increase. And if you take up the challenge, what is going to happen? You will improve. Whatever you do in life, there are going to be difficulties. When it comes to Deen, there are going to be some things that you will find difficult, challenging. We are human beings, we are weak. One is to close your eyes to it, put your fingers in your ears, dont want to listen/ hear I dont wanna accept it, dont even wanna know whats there! And the other is Lemme see what does it say. Maybe I can do it. Let me give it a try. They put their fingers into their ears so that they dont even have to hear/ listen. B ut, is it going to save them from Death/ harm? No, its not! waAllahu muheetun bialkafireena And Allah encompasses the Disbelievers. Then Allah continues with the example that Yakadu albarqu yakhtafu absarahum That the Lightning is about to snatch away their vision. Why? Because of the weakness of their vision and the strength of the Light. What does this refer to? The Deen requires sacrifice/ effort. We have to sacrifice; we have to put in some effort. And if a person does not strengthen himself, he is going to become weaker and weaker. kullama adaa lahum mashaw feehi When things are easy, they go. waitha athlama AAalayhim qamoo when it becomes dark, they just stand still. walaw shaa Allahu lathahaba bisamAAihim and if Allah wants, He could take away their Hearing waabsarihim and also their vision. inna Allaha AAala kulli shayin qadeerun Indeed, Allah is able to do everything. Imaam Fakhruddin Ar Razi that this example, mentioned, can be understood in number of ways. He has mentioned 3 ways. 1. The Hypocrites cannot see and understand the Truth, in the intensity of their confusion and lack of understanding. Just as a person in a rainstorm, is not able to see and make out the way. In a heavy rainstorm, in darkness, can you see the way? Can you make out the way? No, you cant! You can barely see the road signs. 2. The rain is useful, necessary and beneficial; but when it is accompanied by Darkness, Lightning, Thunder bolts and storm, it becomes harmful. It is not useful anymore. Trees lay on the ground. Similarly, the Hypocrites profession of Belief, their claiming to be Believers outwardly, may seem to be a good thing; but it is actually harmful to themselves. Why? Because they are insincere in their hearts. So, their professing Iman is not useful to them. 3. Just as pushing fingers in the ears cannot save a person from destruction, similarly, Hypocrites outward profession of Faith cannot save him from Allah Swts retribution. If theres a storm and you just put your fingers in your ears, is it going to save you? No! Similarly, if a person claims to be a Believer on the outward, is it going to save him? No! Similarly, if we just say Ill do this and that, and if we dont do it, is your saying going to make any difference? Is it going to help you? No! So, these were the examples that Allah Swt has given with regards to the Hypocrites!