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DETUNED FILTER

Harmonic
Whenwetalkedaboutelectricalsysteminbuildingsandfactories,capacitorbankisoneof electricalequipmentswhichisconcernedbecauseitincreasepowerfactorinelectricalsystem. Butatthepresent,youhaveheardaboutdetunedfilterinsteadofcapbankforincreasingP.F.Why??? Thereasonistechnologyofelectronicequipmentshelpyouworkingormanufacturing. Therearemanykindsofelectronicdevicesinvolvedineverywhere.Theelectronicdevicewillgenerate harmonicwhicheffectstosomeelectricalequipmentsconnectedtothesameelectricalsystem. Harmonicisacomponentfrequencyofthesignalthatisanintegermultipleofthefundamental frequencysuchas50HzinThailand.Ifthefundamentalfrequencyisf,theharmonicshavefrequencies f,2f,3f,4f,etc.Theharmonicvoltagesubsequentlydisruptoperationofothersensitiveequipment connectedtothesameline.Harmonicvoltagedistortioncanalsocausemotorsoperatingonthelineto overheat.CapacitorbankcanbedamagedbyharmoniccurrentandNeutrallinecanbeoverheatedby harmoniccurrentwhichisdividedby3withoutfraction.Thus,

Harmonicorder1st Harmonicorder3rd

Harmonicorder5th

Frequencyofharmonicorder1stis50Hz(1x50Hz) Frequencyofharmonicorder3rdis150Hz(3x50Hz) Frequencyofharmonicorder5this250Hz(5x50Hz) Frequencyofharmonicorder7this350Hz(7x50Hz) andgoon...

Infactallelectricalsystemaroundtheworldtherearemanyorderofharmonics. SomebodysaidWhatkindofelectricalequipmentcanitgenerateharmonic?Weanswersimplythat allelectricalequipments,whichhaveactodcinverter,actodcconverterorsomethinglikethis,can generateharmonicsinyourelectricalsystem.Somespecialequipmentsworkingwithfaultcurrent suchasweldingmachine,arcfurnace,hardener,etc.cangeneratemanyorderofharmonics. Youcanseeatelectricalequipmentsyouuse.Youwillfindalmostequipmentsconsisting ofthesaidcomponentgeneratingharmonic.Wewilldescribehowthegeneratedharmoniceffectto capacitorbankinthenextstep.

DETUNED FILTER

ImpactofHarmoniccurrentaffectingtoCapacitorbank
Exceptforharmonicorder1storfundamental50Hz(Thailand)electricalequipmentuse, otherharmonicordersarenotusedbuttheycandisruptoperationofsensitiveequipmentsand overheatsomeequipments.Capacitorbankwillbedamagedordeclinedbyharmoniccurrent. Morefrequency(f)ofelectricalcurrentpassingthrough,moreimpedanceofcapacitorunit (Xc)reduces.Referringtoelectricalformulaimpedanceofcapacitor(Xc)=1/2fC;itshowsiffrequency (f)ishigherasdividerinequation,valueofXcisless.Asofelectricalcircuittheory,mostelectrical currentwillgotowhereimpedanceislower.Thusotherharmonicorderssuchasharmonicorder5th, 7th,11tharehighfrequencyas250Hz,350Hz,550Hzrespectively,impedanceofcapacitor(Xc)willhighly decrease.Mostofthesaidharmoniccurrentswillgotocapacitorbankandcausingcapacitorunitdamaged byovercurrentorovervoltageoroverheat.Servicelifeofcapacitorisshorter. Asthementionedabove,detunedfilterwillbeusedinsteadofcapacitorbank.Thedetuned filterconsistsofcapacitorunitandseriesreactor.Thereactorwillblocksomeharmoniccurrentpassing throughcapacitorunitbecauseimpedanceofreactor(XL)willincreasewhenfrequency(f)ofelectrical currentishigherasformulaXL=2fL.Thus,impedanceofdetunedfilter,whichisimpedanceofcapacitor addingwithimpedanceofreactor,willbehigher. Detunedfilterwillbeindicatedtobe6%,7%or13%.Thepercentageisratiobetween impedanceofreactorandimpedanceofcapacitor.Ifthepercentageishigher,harmoniccurrentpass throughcapacitorunitless. Somebodymayaskifharmoniccurrentisnotpassingthroughcapacitorunit,wheredoesitgo? Theansweristheharmoniccurrentwillgotoelectricallineofelectricalutility.Harmoniccurrent passingthroughelectricalutilitywillbecompatiblewithElectricalutilitysregulation.