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Proposal for Course Outline of B.Sc. Chemical Technology

1st Semester
S. No. Course No. Subject MT-112 CHM-110 PHY-111 CHE-103 ENG-101 Total G. Total Applied Mathematics-I Weekly Contact Hrs Th. Pr. 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 0 Credit Hrs. Th. 3 3 3 3 2 Pr. 0 1 1 1 0 3

Applied Chemistry-I
Applied Physics-I Introduction to computers English-I

14 22

14 17

2nd Semester
S.No. Course No. Subject MA-102 ET-101 MT-101 MT-102 IS/101 Total G. Total Applied Mathematics-II Electrical Technology Technical Drawing Workshop Practice Islamic and Pakistan Studies-I Weekly Contact Hrs Th Pr. 3 0 3 2 0 3 11 23 3 3 6 0 12 Credit Hrs. Th. 3 3 2 0 3 11 15 Pr. 0 1

2 0 4

Annexure-A 3rd

Weekly Contact Hrs Th. Pr. 3 3 2 0 3 3 3 3 2 3 13 12 25 Credit Hrs. Th. 3 2 3 3 2 13 17

S. No. Course No. Subject

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ChT-201 ChT-202 ChT-203 CH-201 MT-201

Basic Thermodynamics Chemical Process Industries-I Chemical Process Calculation Organic Chemistry Mechanics of Materials

Total G. Total

Pr. 1 0 1 1 1 4

4th Semester
S. No. Course No. Subject Weekly Contact Hrs Th Pr. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 3 12 12 24 Credit Hrs. Th. 3 3 3 3 0 12 16 Pr. 1 1 1 0 1 4

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ChT-204 ChT-205

IS/201 HU-201

Fluid Flow Operations Heat Transfer Operations Chemical Process Industries-II Islamic and Pakistan Studies-II Communication Skills-II

Total G. Total


5th Semester
S. No. Course No. Subject Weekly Contact Hrs Th. Pr. 3 3 3 3 2 0 3 0 3 14 22 2 Credit Hrs. Th. 3 3 2 3 3 14 17 Pr. 1 1 0

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ChT-301 ChT-302 ChT-303 ChT-304 ChT-305

Mass Transfer Operations Particle Technology Industrial Materials

Industrial Power Generation Technology

Petroleum & Petrochemical Technology

1 3

Total G. Total

6th Semester
Weekly Contact Hrs S.No. Course No. Subject Th Pr. ChT-306 Chemical Reactor Technology 3 2 1. ChT-307 Process Instrumentation 3 3 2. ChT-308 Fertilizer Technology 2 0 3. ChT-309 Waste Water Treatment Technology 3 0 4. ChT-310 Process Plant Utilities 3 0 5. ChT-311 Safety, Health & Environment 2 3 6. Total 16 8 G. Total 24 Credit Hrs. Th. 3 3 2 3 3 2 16 19 Pr. 1 1 0 0 0 1 3


7th and 8th Semester



Course No. ChT-401

Subject Supervised Industrial Training / Projects

Credit Hrs. 32


Course Details of B.Sc. Chemical Technology

First Year
1st Semester
1. MA-101 Applied Mathematics- I Functions, Even and odd functions, Graphs of functions, Limits and continuity; Derivatives, Rules for differentiation; Derivatives of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, Exponential and logarithmic functions, Composite functions; Chain rule; Higher order derivatives; Integration and its fundamental formulas, Integration by substitution, by parts, and by partial fractions, Definite integrals and their simple properties, Area under a curve; Analytical geometry of straight lines, Circles, Parabolas; Polar coordinates and polar curves; Determinants and their simple properties; Matrices, Inverse of a matrix, Solutions of systems of linear equation; Complex numbers, Exponential and polar forms, De-Moivers theorem, Roots of complex numbers; Hyperbolic functions. 2. CH-101 Applied Chemistry Properties of solutions and liquids like surface tension, viscosity, osmosis, osmotic pressure; pHbuffer solution; Spectrophotometry; Basic concepts of colloidal chemistry, Classification, Purification (Dialysis); Chemical thermodynamics, Hesss law, Heat of reaction, Relationship between H and U, Measurement of heat of reaction, Bomb calorimeter; Laws of electrolysis, Corrosion; Sources of water, Impurities, Hardness, Water softening, Purification of water for portable and industrial purposes, Electro-dialysis; Introduction to environmental pollution, Main sources and effects of Pollution, Sewerage treatment. 3. PHY-101 Applied Physics Concept of conservative & non conservative forces, Potential energy of a system in conservative field, Kinetic energy, Work & power; Oscillations and SHM, Superposition of waves and interference of waves; Heat transfer mechanisms, Mean free path and distribution of molecular speeds; Carnot engine, Heat pumps and Refrigerator; Electric field, Coulombs law, Gausss law, Types of capacitor, Energy stored in a capacitor, Ohms law and its microscopic view, Dielectrics, Electrostatic shielding, Impotence of earthing, Introduction to lightening protection system. 4. CT-101 Computer Fundamentals Introduction, History of computers, Hardware/Software, Computer organization, Introduction to operating systems, Introduction to binary, hexadecimal, decimal and octal number systems; Binary arithmetic, Machine language, Assembly language, High-level languages; Structured programming, Object oriented programming; Introduction and basics of a typical C Program 5

Annexure-B development, Some simple C programming examples; Basics of structured programming, Pseudo-code development, if/else statements, Introduction to loops, Counter-controlled repetition, for/while and do-while loops; Introduction to MS Office. 5. HU-101 Communication Skills-I

Importance, Theories, Barriers and components of communication, The seven Cs of effective communication, Listening skills, Thinking and feeling, Notes taking, Giving feedback, Active reading techniques, Skimming, General and careful reading, Planning, Drafting and editing, Emphasis and connections in writing, Technical and business vocabulary, Constructing formal sentences

2nd Semester
1. MA-102 Applied Mathematics-II Applications of differentiation: Velocity, Acceleration, Tangents and Normals, Taylors & Maclaurins series, Maxima and minima, Applications of integration: Plane areas, Arc lengths, surface areas & volumes of solids of revolution, Moments & centroids of plane areas, Functions of two or more variables, Partial derivatives, Higher order derivatives, Chain rules, Maxima & minima of functions of two variables, Taylors and Maclaurins series for functions of multivariables, Basics concepts of ordinary differential equations (ODE), First-order ODEs, Secodorder ODEs with constant coefficients, Applications to relevant technology problems, Scalars & vectors, Vector algebra, Scalar & vector products, Triple products, Evaluation of double integrals & their application in finding the areas & volumes, Double integrals in polar coordinates. 2. ET-101 Electrical Technology Concepts of voltage, Current, Energy, Power; Introduction to ammeter and voltmeter, Difference between AC & DC Sources, Understanding of different types of current and voltage Sources (Dependent & Independent), Series-Parallel combination of resistors, Basic concepts of network topologies (Node, Branch & Loop), Explanation of Ohms law and Kirchhoffs voltage and current laws, Y-Delta transformations, Voltage and current division rules, Maximum power Transfer theorem, Introduction to various circuits elements (R, L & C), Response of R, L & C to DC Sources, Inductance and capacitance combinations, Sinusoidal functions, Phasors, Semiconductor concepts, Basics of PN-Junction Diodes, Rectifier circuits, Basics of digital electronics, Various number systems, Various logic gates, Faradays law of electromagnetic induction, Lenzs law, Basic Concepts of magnetic circuits. 3. MT-101 Technical Drawing

Introduction to the subject, Use of instruments, Projection of simple solids in simple positions, Oblique and auxiliary plans, Lettering, dimensioning, Principle of requirements of a working drawing, Isometric and pictorial projection of solid figures, Orthographic projections, Projection 6

Annexure-B of points, lines and planes, Development of surfaces, Section of solids, Tangent planes to surface in contact, Inter-section of surfaces and inter-penetration of solids, Screw-thread systems, Key and cotters, Couplings and simple bearings, Preparation of detailed and few assembly drawing. 4. MT-102 Workshop Practice

Practical which include the following: Machining & machine tools, Fitting and fabrication techniques, Basic processes in wood workshop, Basic electrical technology. 5. IS / 101 Islamic and Pakistan Studies-I

Islamic Studies: Quran and Sunnah; Al-Quran Al-Karim; Significance of Holy Quran, Compilation of the Holy Quran, Textual study of Surah Al-Hujrat (Complete) (Translation and explanation), Manners with the meeting of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), Brotherhood, Equality, Backbiting, Blame and Foolery; Textual study of Surah Al-Maidah (verses 1-11) (Translation and explanation), Commands of Halal and Haraam, Importance of cleanliness in Islam, Relations between Muslims and Ahl-e-Kitab, Attitude of Ahl-e-kitab towards Muslims, Al-Maidah (verses 12-26); Textual study of Surah Al-Furqaan (verses 63-77) (Translation and explanation), Characteristics of Ibad-ur-Rehman. Al Hadith Al Sharif; The need and importance of Hadith, Textual study of Hadith (Arbaeen-eNavavi, 1-21, Translation and explanation) Deen-e-Islam; Study of basic articles of Faith, Tawheed, Fundamentals and types of Tawheed, Prophethood and finality of Prophethood, The day of judgement. Seera-tun-Nabi; Life of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) from Prophethood to Hijrah. Islam and modern science; The Holy Quraan as the guide for the modern scientific developments, Surah Al-Baqra (verse 164), Surah Al-e-Imraan (verses 190, 191), Importance of science education in modern age, Introduction of Muslim scientists, Contributions of Muslim scholars towards science. Ethics; Definition, Importance and significane of ethics, Concept of ethics in the light of Holy Quran, Al-Barqa (verses 83,169), Al-Anaam (verses 151-153), Al-Tauba (verse 7), Younas (verse 36), Hood (verse 18), Al-Nahl (verse 112), Al-Mutaffefeen (verse 1-3); Moral values in the light of Hadith, Bulugh-ul-Maram, Kitab-ul-Jamae, Babul Tarheeb Min Masavi-al-Akhlaq (Ahadith no. 3,4,7,14,17), Ethics and character building in the light of Seerah, Ethical behavior of the Holy Prophet, Significance of moral values, Truth, Honesty, Taqwah, Brotherhood, Patience; Comparative religious morals of Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Philosophy of ethics in revealed and non-revealed religions (and analysis). Pakistan Studies: Ideology of Pakistan; Definition and explanation, Aims and objective of formation of Pakistan, Ideology of Pakistan in the light of sayings and speeches of Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam 7

Annexure-B A brief history of Muslim society in subcontinent; The arrival of Mohammad bin Qasim, The Afghan invasions from north, The domination of Islam in subcontinent, The downfall of Muslim rules and renaissance of Muslim rule in subcontinent. Historical back ground of the Ideology of Pakistan national & reformative movements; Hazrat Sheikh Mujaddad Alf-I-Sani; Biography, Social and religious services, Jihad against non-Islamic fundamentals, Difficulties of imprisonment, Effects of the movement, Shah wali Ullah; Biography, Jihad against non-Islamic fundamental, Reforms, Social and religious services, Jamaatt-e-Mujahideen, Syed Ahmad Shaheed; Biography, Jihad against Sikhs, Opposition from Afghans tribes, Martyrdom in Balakot. Educational efforts; Aligarh, Deoband, Nadwa, Anjuman-e-Himayat-e-Islam, Sindh Madrassatul-Islam, Islamia college Peshawar and other educational institutions, Political struggles, Constitutional reforms and Mulims separate elections. Pakistan movement; Muslim nationalism, Evolution of two nation theory, Independence of India and Muslims, Presidential address of Allama Iqbal and Allah Abad in 1930, 1937 elections, Congress behavior, Pakistan resolution, 1946 elections and transfer of power, How to safeguard the ideological state in present era.

Second Year
3rd Semester
1. ChT-201 Basic Thermodynamics Fundamental quantities, First law of thermodynamics, The ideal gas, PVT relation of pure fluids, Heat effects, Effect of temperature on heat of reaction, Second law, Concept of entropy, Third law, Thermodynamic properties of fluids, Refrigeration and air conditioning, Thermal power plants. 2. ChT-202 Chemical Process Industries-I

Acid and alkali industries, Glass and ceramic industries, Paint and varnishes industries, Oil and fats industries, Cosmetic industry, Industrial detergents, Insecticides and pesticides industries, Explosives industry. 3. ChT-203 Chemical Process Calculation Units and dimensions, Conversion of units, Dimensional analysis, Stoichiometric and composition relationships, Behavior of ideal gases; Vapor pressure, Saturation and humidity; Material balance calculations, Recycling and purging of streams, Energy balance calculations. 4. CH-201 Organic Chemistry

Chemical bonding and molecular structure, Organic functional groups, olefins; Stereoisomerism and its classification, Enantiomers and diastereomers; Preparation and properties of principal 8

Annexure-B industrial groups of aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds; Chemical processes involve nitration, sulphonation, halogenations and polymerization, Natural and synthetic polymers, Soap and detergents, Biochemistry; Introduction and concepts, Proteins and enzymes, Carbohydrates and lipids, Emulsions. 5. MT-201 Mechanics of Materials

Axial Loads, Simple stress and strain, Hooks law, Transverse loads, Theory simple bonding, principal stress and principal planes, Mohrs circle of stress, Torsion of solid and hollow circular shafts, Stress in cylindrical shells and spherical shells, Flange coupling, Riveted joints, Statics of particles, Equilibrium of rigid bodies, in two and three dimensions.

4th Semester
1. ChT-204 Fluid Flow Operations Introduction, Properties of fluids, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, Compressible and incompressible fluids, Mechanism of fluid flow, Steady and unsteady fluid flows; Basic equations of fluid flow, Flow measuring devices, Types of fittings and valves; Characteristics, applications and selection criteria of Pumps, Fans, Blowers, Compressors, Turbines and Expanders, Manometers, Friction loses in fluid flow, Mixing and agitation, Piping & Distribution Systems. 2. ChT-205 Heat Transfer Operations Introduction to heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation, Heat transfer in fluids involving no phase change, Heat transfer accompanied with phase change, Boiling and condensation, Heat exchangers and their types, Evaporators and boilers. 3. ChT-206 Chemical Process Industries-II Paper & Pulp Industries, Polymer & Rubber Industries, Cement Industry, Leather Industry, Sugar Industry, Food & Dairy Industries 4. IS/201 Islamic and Pakistan Studies -II

Islamic Studies: Al-Quran Al-Karim; Miracles of the Holy Quran, Principle of interpretation (Tafseer), Textual study of Holy Quran; Surah Luqman (complete) (Translation and explanation); Lahw-o-lab, Azmat-e-Quraan, Tskheer of universe, Disobedience of parents is forbidden, To see the parents with love is as Hajj, Intense care of parents in old life, Treatment and behavior about parents, Amar-bin-Maroof and Nahi-anil- Munkar, Need and importance of preaching (Dawat-e-deen), Methods of preaching, characteristics of a preacher, Hudood-o-tazeerat; Zina, Adultery or fornication, Qadf (false accusation), Lian (accusation of a wife of Zina), Ifk (Slander), Privacy 9

Annexure-B and Hijaab (Womens veil), Al Baqra (verses 178-179), Al- Nisa (verse 92, 93), Al-Maidah (verse 8, 31-34, 38), Al-Noor (verse 2-6, 27-29, 31,60), Al-Ahzab (verse 32, 33, 53, 55, 59). Al-Hadith Al-Sharif; Compilation of Hadith, A brief introduction of Sihah Sittah and its compilors, Bulagh-ul-Maraam, Kitab-ul-Jamae, Babul-Adaab, Babulbir wa Silaah, Rights of women in Islam and relations with relatives. Den-I-Islam; Pillars of islam, Salaat (prayer), Imposition of prayer, Orders, Shariyahs point of view about significance; Saum (fasting), Meaning of fasting, Obligation of fasting, Significance, Disbursement, Physical and spiritual advantages, Zakat; The economic system of islam, Importance of zakat, Prohibition of Riba (interest), Comparison between capitalism and communism, Hajj; Imposition of Hajj, Commands and rights of Hajj, Financial, social and spiritual advantages of Hajj, Jihad; Importance and significance, Necessity of Jihad in modern age, Kinds of Jihad Serah tu Nabi; Life of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) at Madina, Madina pact, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as a perfect man, Mohammadan revolution Ethics; Ethics and religion, Ethical behavior of Prophets, Impacts of believes on ethics, Concept of worship and manner/social relations in religion and their impact on ethics, Ethics and character building, Significance of moral values, Charity, Tolerance, Simplicity, Respect of mankind, Social etiquettes of meeting, Eating and conversation, Right of people, Verses of Holy Quran about ethics, Al-Imran (verse 112), Al-Nisa (verse 43,90,91), Al-Aaraf (verse 35), AlRad (verse 30), Al-Nahl (verses 90,91), Bani-Israel (verses 29-37), Al-Fath (verse 26), Moral values in the light of Hadith, Bulagh-ul-Maraam, Babul-Zohd wal Wara (Ahadith 2,6), Babul Tarheeb Min Masavi-al-Akhlaq (Ahadith 169). Pakistan Studies: Formation of Pakistan; Role of scholars and mashaikh, students and women, journalist and adeeb in the formation of Pakistan, Initial difficulties after the formation of Pakistan, Anti-Muslim riots in India, Massacre in East Punjab, Canal water in distribution of assets, Animation of states Hyderabad, Junagarh and Kashmir, its background and danger for the peace of South Asia. The land of Pakistan; Geographical unity, Locality and importance, Rural and urban areas, Sources of agriculture, Industry, Manpower and education, Efforts for execution of Islamic system in Pakistan, Objectives resolution, Islamic clauses of the constitution of 1956, 1962, 1973, Implementation of Shariyah practical steps, Our destination establishment of complete Islamic society. Efforts for execution of Islamic system in Pakistan; Principles of Pakistan foreign policy, Importance of Pakistan in Islamic world, Formation of Islamic summit, Rabita-e-Alam-e-Islami, Formation of Muslim bank and block, Economical and defensive planning, Pakistan in the changing world.


Annexure-B 5. HU-201 Communications Skills-II

Preparation and Presentation of reports, analytical reports, informational reports, monthly / annual reports, Conference reports, Progress proposals reports, Formal reports, Project reports, Business letters: Its parts and requirements; Quotations; Comparative statements, Approval letter, Office memorandum: The letter of information / inquiry; Letters to newspapers, Writing scientific reports; Foreword, Table of content; Abstract / Synopsis; Introduction; Discussion; Conclusion; Bibliography.

3rd Year
5th Semester
1. ChT-301 Mass Transfer Operations

Introduction and application of mass transfer in a chemical process plant, Diffusion mechanism, Introduction to Ficks law, Dimensionless number in mass transfer, Transfer units in mass transfer, Distillation (Differential distillation, Batch distillation, Flash distillation, Rectification, Number of plates calculation methods, Operational problems & Troubleshooting), Absorption & stripping (Basic theory, Selection of absorbing/stripping agent, Operation of absorber & stripper, Troubleshooting), Leaching (Basic principle, Technique, Equipment), Liquid-liquid extraction (Basic principle, Technique, Equipment), Adsorption (Basic principle, Technique, Equipment). 2. ChT-302 Particle Technology

Characteristics of solid particles shape and size, Size Separation, Crushing and Grinding: Classification of crushing and grinding machinery, Coarse crusher (Jaw crusher, Gravity crushers), Intermediate crushers (Roll crusher, Hammer mill), Fine grinders (Ball mill and Tube mill), Theory of Crushing, Laws of crushing, Principle of screening, Differential and cumulative screen analysis, Types of screening equipments, effectiveness of a screen, Storage and transportation of bulk solids, Types and selection of conveyers, Crystallization. 3. ChT-303 Industrial Materials

Ferrous alloy systems and their properties, Non-Ferrous alloy systems and their properties, Polymeric materials and their properties, Polymeric matrix composites, Metal matrix composites, Ceramic matrix composites and properties, Timber, Glass, Stone, Chemical resistant bricks and tiles, Materials of construction, Corrosion and prevention of engineering materials 4. ChT-304 Industrial Power Generation Technology Introduction to Power generation, Types and sources of energy, basic components for a power plant (Compressors, Turbines, Cooling Towers ), Coal fired power plants, Gas turbines and combined cycle power generation, Piston engine based power plants, Fuel cells, Hydropower, 11

Annexure-B Tidal power, Storage technologies, Wind power, Geothermal power, Solar power, Biomass based power generation, Power from waste, Nuclear power. 5. ChT-305 Petroleum & Petrochemical Technology

Petroleum processing: Fractionation, Blending of gasoline, Gasoline treatment, Kerosene Treatment, Treatment of lubes, Petroleum wax and purification, Thermal and catalytic processes: Hydrogen treating processes, Alkylation, Isomerization and reforming processes, Up-gradation of heavy crudes. Specialty products: Natural gas and industrial gases, Production of synthesis gas, Hydrogen, Acetylene, Ethylene, Propylene, Butylene, Methanol, Ethanol, Aromatics and naphthenes, Petrochemical derivatives: Application and usage.

6th Semester
1. ChT-306 Chemical Reactor Technology Fundamentals of chemical reactions, Rate of reaction and equation; Molecularity and order of reaction, Ideal reactors, For single reactions: Performance equations for homogenous batch and flow reactors; Holding time and space time for flow reactors; Multiple reactor system; Reactors used in series / Parallel; Recycle reactors, Temperature and energy effects for single reactions, Introduction to heterogeneous reactions system, Commonly used Industrial reactors for chemical processes; Performance criteria and troubleshooting for reactors. 2. ChT-307 Process Instrumentation Introduction to industrial instrumentation, Process & Instrumentation diagrams and standard symbols, Available technology of instrumentation for Temperature, Flow, Level, Pressure, and Composition etc; Transducers; Advanced measurement devices employing piezoelectric current, ultrasonic, laser, microwave etc; Introduction and significance of control, Elements and hardware of a control loop, Feedback and feed-forward control, Control loops, Control schemes for some typical process plant equipments. 3. ChT-308 Fertilizer Technology Major constituents of fertilizers, Different types of fertilizers: Nitrogen fertilizers (ammonia, urea): raw materials, manufacturing processes, design considerations, status of production, and comparative economics of different nitrogenous fertilizers. Phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP): raw materials, manufacturing processes, design considerations, comparative economics of different phosphate fertilizers, Manufacturing process of different potash fertilizers and their uses. Complex and compound fertilizers and their economics, Local utilization of fertilizers in Pakistan.


Annexure-B 4. ChT-309 Wastewater Treatment Technology

Wastewater treatment objectives, Sources of wastewater, Wastewater characteristics, Physical unit operations, Chemical unit processes, Biological unit processes, Industrial and municipal wastewater, Conventional wastewater treatment technologies, Aeration, Sedimentation, Flocculation, Coagulation, Filtration, The use of membranes in waste water treatment, Wastewater treatment plant design, Design of facilities for the treatment and disposal of sludge, Wastewater reclamation and reuse, Economics of wastewater treatment. 5. ChT-310 Process Plant Utilities Introduction to utilities, Importance and usage of utilities for a process plants, Typical utilities in a process plant, Utility diagrams Water as a utility (Raw water, Drinking water, Potable water, Cooling water, Deionized water, Softened water, Membrane purified water, Boiler feed water) Steam (Steam production, Boiler components and operation, Availability of steam at different pressure, Steam let down, Important steam consumers) Air as utility (Plant air, Instrument air, Hot & cool air, Quenching air) Electricity (Generation and distribution of electricity in a process plant, Important consumers, Voltage & frequency conversion) Fuel (Natural gas distribution and metering, Oil as fuel, Fuel consumers on a plant) Inert gases (Significance, Production and distribution, Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, Argon and mixtures) 6. ChT-311 Safety, Health & Environment Sources of industrial hazards, Hazard identification, Assessment, Management, Safety measures (maintenance, Scheduling of maintenance, Non-destructive testing techniques, Preventive & Predictive maintenance), Fire Triangle, Fire Extinguishers, personal protective equipment, OSHA (occupational safety and health administration) safety standards. Introduction to ecology of environment, Impact of technology on ecology of system, Introduction to pollution, Sources & Classification, The effects of industrial pollutants on human environments, Environmental impact assessment & sustainable development.



4th Year
7th & 8th Semester
1. ChT-401 Supervised Industrial Training / Projects. Through a supervised learning plan, student will work in industry, government organisation or private laboratories to gain practical experience of applying knowledge and skills acquired in chemical technology subjects for real time problems and exploring solutions.