Impact Assessment

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What is the purpose of Environmental Impact Assessment
a PROCESS for decision-making, It is NOT a formula for preparing a document.

to promote efforts which will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man.... to enrich the understanding of the ecological systems and natural resources important to the Nation.What is the purpose of EIA ? To “…encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment.” .

etc) capable of being maintained at a steady level without exhausting natural resources or causing severe ecological damage: .” sustainable development (of economic development.What is the purpose of EIA ? “To implement a strategy of sustainable development. and promote coordinated development of the economy. society. prevent adverse impact on the environment after the implementation of plans and construction projects. energy sources. and environment.

Methods to enhance Sustainable  Development  • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) • Social Impact Assessment (SIA) • Health Impact Assessment (HIA) • Poverty and Social Impact Assessment  (PSIA) • Sustainability Assessment (SA) • Etc. .

• The focus will be on the trade‐offs between trade  (economic). . environment and poverty (social).Integrated Assessment • Compares the différent impacts and adresses the  trade‐offs between them.

.What is the purpose of EIA ? “To LOOK before you LEAP!” • EIA is now a required process in more than 100 nations.700 members from more than 80 countries. • The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) is a global network with 2.

WHAT CHANGES CAN EIA BRING? Before introduction of EIA: •Government planning and decision-making: “D-A-D” ---“Decide. citizens: “Critics” “Objectors” “Protestors” •Environmental conditions: Steadily deteriorating . Defend” •Role of NGOs. Announce.

Deliver” •Role of NGOs. some areas may improve .WHAT CHANGES CAN EIA BRING? After Implementing EIA: •Government planning and decision-making: “D-D-D” ---“Discuss. citizens: “Stakeholders” “Contributors” “Participants” •Environmental conditions: Deterioration slows. Decide.

Initial Environmental  Examination (IEE) Initial environmental examination  is intended as a low‐cost environmental  evaluation that makes use of information already available .

Purpose of IEE • Describes the proposed project or  activity and examines alternatives • Identifies and addresses community  concerns to extent possible • Identifies and assesses potential  environmental effects • Directs future action .

Objectives of IEE • Identify all potential environmental  concerns relating to a proposed  project or activity. Identify all significant environmental  issues (SEIs) Resolve simple SEIs Develop the focus for follow‐up studies  based on unresolved SEIs • • • .

  environmental impacts are known and  can be easily mitigated.  Full‐scale EIA required. proposal not  anticipated to have significant impact. 3.Possible IEE Outcomes 1. impacts  unknown or likely to be significant 13 . No requirement for further  environmental study. Limited environmental study needed. 2.

Identifies potential significant environmental issues associated with a project 2.IEE in the Overall EIA Process Project Screening Identifies projects that typically contain potential significant issues Initial Environmental Examination 1. Grades effects and identifies actual Significant Environmental Issues (SEIs) 3. Resolves simple SEIs 4. Recommends further action for resolving outstanding SEIs Full-Scale EIA or Other Additional Study Resolves any remaining significant environmental issues .

Effects Classification/ Identification of Significant Environmental Issues (SEIs) IEE is the final EIA Report. including: SEIs YES 5. Are all SEIs resolved? NO The IEE makes recommendations for further study: Full-Scale EIA . Obtain Information 3.IEE Flow Chart 1. Resolve SEIs Where Possible (Review Alternatives/Develop Environmental Management Plans and Protection Measures) 2. Identify Potential Significant Environmental Issues 4.

Environmental impact assessment (EIA): Not to harm the environment on a short term or long term Proposed project has the good intent & addresses an identified problem .

Bio‐Physico‐chemical • Nature & people • Land – – – – Erosion and Siltation Bank stability Drainage Soil characteristics „ Groundwater … Regional Hydrology … Water table … Water Pollution „ Atmosphere … Air • Surface water – Regional Hydrology – Water Pollution pollution … Dust Pollution … Noise Pollution .

accessibility Erosion. reliability.The baseline situation In characterizing the baseline situation. productivity. key species Special Key species ecosystems . crop productivity. fallow periods. salinity. nutrient concentrations Populations. many environmental components MAY be of interest The components of interest are those that are likely to be affected by your activity—or upon which your activity depends for its success Water Quantity. pathogens Flora Composition and density of natural vegetation. habitat Soils Fauna Env Health Disease vectors. quality.

. .: a road.g. rehabilitation etc. culvert road construction. A project or program may consist of many activities .What is an activity? We are discussing the impacts of activities. compaction. grading. What are activities? 9 a desired An activity is: accomplishment or output E. Factory. or river diversion to irrigate land Accomplishing an activity requires a set of actions ACTIVITY: ACTIONS: market access Survey.

Prediction and evaluation Natural environment of man consist of air. transportation etc. water. land. Predictive methods will define the quantity or special dimensions of impact on an environmental resources How much or where the impact may occur Methods of evaluation determine the groups that may directly affected by the project or action.Important steps in EIA Identification. noise. . flora and fauna. aesthetics. & man-made environment consists of socio-economic aspects.

™Mitigation: Are solutions to problems available. both the project activity and the area of the environment impacted must be well known and understood.Factors to be considered in making assessment decisions: ™Magnitude: Will the impact be irreversible. what will be the rate of recovery or adaptability of an impact area ™Risk: To accurately assess the risk. ™Importance: This is defined as the value that is attached to an environment component. Existing technology may provide a solution to a silting problem expected during constructions of access road ™The possible assessment decisions (1) No impact (2) Unknown and potential adverse impact (3) Significant impact. ™Duration: will the activity be long or short term. .

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