# Chapter1 Problems 1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND

MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS
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13. REASONING The shortest distance between the two towns is along the line that joins them. This distance, h, is the hypotenuse of a right triangle whose other sides are ho = 35.0 km and ha = 72.0 km, as shown in the figure below. SOLUTION The angle θ is given by tan θ = ho / ha so that  35.0 km  θ = tan −1  = 25.9° S of W 72.0 km  We can then use the Pythagorean theorem to find h.
W

θ
h ho

θ
h a S

h = h + h = (35.0 km) + ( 72 .0 km) = 80.1 km
2 o 2 a 2 2

25. REASONING a. Since the two force vectors A and B have directions due west and due north, they are perpendicular. Therefore, the resultant vector F = A + B has a magnitude given by the Pythagorean theorem: F = A + B . Knowing the magnitudes of A and B, we can calculate the magnitude of F. The direction of the resultant can be obtained using trigonometry. b. For the vector F′ = A – B we note that the subtraction can be regarded as an addition in the following sense: F′ = A + (–B). The vector –B points due south, opposite the vector B, so the two vectors are once again perpendicular and the magnitude of F′ again is given by the Pythagorean theorem. The direction again can be obtained using trigonometry.
2 2 2

. Referring to the drawing and following the same procedure as in part a.2 INTRODUCTIONANDMATHEMATICALCONCEPTS SOLUTION a. REASONING AND SOLUTION The single force needed to produce the same effect is equal to the resultant of the forces provided by the two ropes. b. we find F ′ 2 = A2 + − B bg 2 or or F′ = A2 + − B tan θ = B A θ = tan −1 445 N g +b −325 N g= b g= b 325 N I F G J = 36. The figure below shows the force vectors drawn to scale and arranged tail to head. we have F 2 = A2 + B 2 F= F= A2 + B 2 445 N g +b 325 N g b 2 2 North F B A North θ F′ A θ –B (a) (b) = 551 N Using trigonometry. the magnitude of the resultant is 5600 N .1° south of west H 445 N K 2 2 2 551 N _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 31. From the figure. The drawing shows the two vectors and the resultant vector. According to the Pythagorean theorem. The magnitude and direction of the resultant can be found by direct measurement using the scale factor shown in the figure. we can see that the direction of the resultant is tan θ = B A or θ = tan −1 325 N I F G J= H 445 N K 36. The single rope should be directed along the dashed line in the text drawing. 2900 N 2900 N 1000 N Scale: Resultant a.1° north of west b.

Solving for B gives B = A tan θ = (6.00 u) tan 60.Chapter1 Problems 3 43.4 u b. The symbol u denotes the units of the vectors.0 u _____________________________________________________________________________ _ . The magnitude of C is C = A 2 + B 2 = ( 6. The angle that C makes with the x axis is then θ = tan −1 (B / A ) .4 u) 2 = 12 .0° = 10. REASONING AND SOLUTION We take due north to be the direction of the + y axis. Vectors A and B are the components of the resultant.00 u) 2 + ( 10. C. a.