# Chinese Physics C (HEP & NP

)

Vol. 32, No. 10, Oct., 2008

**Double folding model calculation applied to fusion reactions *
**

ZHANG Gao-Long( )1) LE Xiao-Yun( )

(Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Beijing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Beijing 100083, China)

Abstract The interaction potential between a spherical and a deformed nucleus is calculated within the double-folding model for deformed nuclei. We solve the double folding potential numerically by using the truncated multipole expansion method. The shape, separation and orientation dependence of the interaction potential, fusion cross section and barrier distribution of the system 16 O+154 Sm are investigated by considering the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations of 154 Sm. It is shown that the height and the position of the barrier depend strongly on the deformation and the orientation angles of the deformed nucleus. These are quite important quantities for heavy-ion fusion reactions, and hence produce great eﬀects on the fusion cross section and barrier distribution.

Key words heavy-ion fusion reaction, double folding model, deformation, barrier distribution PACS 25.70.Jj, 24.10.-i

1

Introduction

Heavy-ion fusion reactions involving deformed nuclei are an important topic of research in nuclear physics[1, 2] . Recently, particular interest has been paid to the eﬀects of nuclear deformation on the production and decay of superheavy nuclei. This is because reasonable predictions of production cross sections and α-decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei require the knowledge of the nuclear potentials. The nuclear potentials between deformed interacting nuclei are essentially important in describing these reactions and decay processes. Therefore, fusion reactions between heavy nuclei with static and dynamic deformations have re-attracted much attention up to date. It is also important to explore the situation where one of the interacting pair of nuclei is spherical and the other one deformed. The double folding model is commonly used to calculate the optical potential in elastic scattering[3] . If it is used for the calculation of the interaction potential in a fusion reaction, the barrier height and position can be obtained. Then the fusion cross section

and barrier distribution can easily be obtained. The basic input into the folding calculation is the nuclear density of both of the colliding nuclei. The folding of two spherically symmetric distributions can easily be calculated by using the double folding model. However, if one or both of the nuclei have a deformed density distribution, it is much more diﬃcult to simplify the six-dimensional integral and reduce it to fewer dimensions. In this case, one usually simpliﬁes the folding model by using the truncated multipole expansion method[4] . In this letter, we limit ourselves to the interaction potentials between a deformed target and a spherical projectile (see Fig. 1). The double folding potentials are calculated numerically by using the above mentioned method. We consider an axially symmetric shape for the multipole expansion of the target nuclear distribution. The system 16 O+154 Sm is chosen to study the deformation and orientation dependence of the interaction potentials, fusion cross sections and barrier distribution within the double folding model. Both quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations are included for the 154 Sm nucleus.

Received 17 December 2007 * Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (60572177) 1) E-mail: zgl@buaa.edu.cn

812 — 815

This geometry is illustrated in Fig. 2.45 fm.
3
The system
16
O +154 Sm
The system 16 O+154 Sm is chosen to calculate the nuclear and Coulomb potentials.2.
VC (R) = 2πe2
0
j0 (kR)ˆ ρP (k )ˆ ρT (k )dk. This is so because there is a larger overlap at θ=0◦ and the nuclear potential for θ=0◦ is much more attractive than that for θ=90◦ . has the form ρ(r. θ) =
2 2l + 1 π 4π
(l) T
1/2
kmax
dkk 2 jl (kR) ×
0
(1) where v is the NN interaction between two nucleons. β4 =0. We see that the barrier height is much lower at θ = 0◦ than at θ=90◦ . θ) =
l=0. The barrier heights increase and the barrier positions decrease with increasing orientation angles.2. The coordinate system used in the double folding model. One can see that the barrier heights and positions change with the orientation angles and deformations of the target nucleus.
(5)
As NN interaction we used the well-known M3Y-Reid zero-range interaction[5] . Fig.
The densities of deformed nuclei have the form ρ0 ρ(r. θ) =
l=0. Simultaneously we evaluate the barrier heights and positions of the system without deformation and for hexadecapole deformations with β4 =0 and β4 =0. A 16 two-parameter Fermi shape is used for O with R0 =2. respectively. limiting the deformations to quadrupole and hexadecapole cases. β2 =0. VN (R. R0 =5.
(8)
where ρ ˜P (k ) and v ˜(k ) are the Fourier transforms of the density distribution of the spherical projectile and the M3Y-Reid zero-range NN interaction.
Fig. The multipole components of the intrinsic form factor are given by[6]
rmax l) ρ ˜( T (k ) = 0
drr2 ρl (r)jl (kr). 4 shows also the inﬂuence of diﬀerent values of the hexadecapole deformations on the behaviour of the barrier heights and positions. The density distributions obtained by using the multipole expansion method for l=0.
(6)
. 3. We use electron scattering data for 16 O and 154 Sm[10] . The results are shown in Fig. (3) 1 + exp[(r − R(θ))/a] where R(θ) is the half density radius R(θ) = R0 [1 + β2 Y20 (θ) + β4 Y40 (θ)].9387 fm and a=0. 10
ZHANG Gao-Long et al Double folding model calculation applied to fusion reactions
813
2
The interaction between a spherical and a deformed nucleus in the double folding model
The double folding potential is obtained by the summation over the diﬀerent multipole components[7] . ρP (r1 ) and ρT (r2 ) are the matter density distributions of the projectile (P) and target (T) nuclear ground states. 4. normalized as: ρi (ri )dri = Ai . 4 are shown in Fig. (10) 1 + exp((r − R0 )/a) For 154 Sm. 2.4
ρl (r)Yl0 (θ). 1.087 for the target nucleus 154 Sm at diﬀerent orientation angles.087.No. R denotes the vector between the center of mass of the two nuclei. θ is the relative orientation angle of the target nucleus symmetry axis measured with respect to the separation vector R.
(7)
In the double folding model the nuclear potential is calculated as VN (r) = ρP (r1 )v s = |R + r2 − r1 | ρT (r2 )dr1 dr2 . respectively. θ). (4)
The multipole expansion of the deformed nuclear density distribution for an axially symmetric shape. (2)
ρ ˜P (k )˜ ρ (k )˜ v (k )Pl (cos θ). θ) = . 1.5223 fm is used[11] . Using the above formula.6 fm and a=0. The Coulomb potential is calculated with[9]
∞
The vector s = R+r2 −r1 corresponds to the distance between two speciﬁed interacting points of the projectile and target.311.4 l VN (R. ρ0 ρP (r) = .
with[8]
l VN (R. the interaction potentials between 16 O and 154 Sm are shown for the orientation angles θ = 0◦ and θ = 90◦ in Fig.
(9)
where ρ ˆP (k ) and ρ ˆT (k ) are the Fourier transforms of the spherically symmetric charge densities of projectile and target. whose radius vectors are r1 and r2 .

087 and no deformation.
2π (Ec. The calculations have been done for spherical and deformed 154 Sm with β4 =0 and 0.m. 5 we compare our calculations for 154 Sm with the experimental data[1] .
Fig. σf (θ) =
2 ωRB (θ) ln 1 + exp 2Ec. respectively. The fusion cross sections around and below the Coulomb barrier are much smaller than the experimental data if the target nucleus 154 Sm is treated as undeformed. especially at energies around and below the Coulomb barrier.087.814
Chinese Physics C (HEP & NP)
Vol. 2. (11)
In Fig.087 and no deformation in comparison with experimental [1] data . we calculate the fusion cross section of the system 16 O+154 Sm. respectively. The interaction potentials of the system 16 O+154 Sm at the orientation angles θ=0◦ and θ=90◦ . It can be seen that a positive hexadecapole deformation increases the fusion cross section relative to that one where only quadrupole deformations have been taken into account.087 are larger than those for β4 =0. 3. 32
Fig. The fusion cross sections for β4 =0.
. β4 =0. 2.
Using Wong’s formula[12] .
Fig. The fusion cross section of the system 16 O+154 Sm for β4 =0.
The total fusion cross section is then given by σf = 1 σf (θ)2π sin(θ)dθ. which was the main interest in nuclear physics in the past decades. The barrier heights and positions of the interaction potentials of the system β4 =0. − VB (θ)) ω
.m. 4π (12)
Fig. indicating that the deformation of the target nucleus strongly aﬀects the fusion cross section. One can see that the integrated fusion cross sections are in rather good agreement with the experimental data. 4.
16
O+154 Sm for β4 =0. 5. The radial density distributions for 154 Sm at l=0. respectively. 4.

C. and they also have a large inﬂuence on the barrier distribution. Rep. σ ) . where the deformation of the nuclei plays an important role. 2004. 6 we ﬁnd that for the case of no deformation of the target nucleus. 21: 1491 3 ZHANG Gao-Long et al. Rev. 2006. ) = 2 dEc . β4 =0.. Z.m. Morton C R.. Dasgupta M. especially for sub-barrier fusion processes. 10
ZHANG Gao-Long et al Double folding model calculation applied to fusion reactions
815
Once the fusion cross section has been calculated. Chin. REN Z Z. can be directly extracted from the fusion cross sections σf by a twofold diﬀerentiation of Ec.087 and the undeformed target nucleus at diﬀerent orientation angles. Rev. The barrier heights and positions have been obtained for cases with β4 =0.087 gives a better agreement with the experimental data than that for β4 =0.
References
1 Leigh J R et al. 0. The double folding potentials are obtained numerically by using the truncated multipole expansion method. It was shown that the barrier height and position depend strongly on the orientation angles and deformations. especially at low energies. 52: 3151 2 LIU Z H. 1973. Hinde D J.m. Seiwert M. Lett. It indicates that the deformation of the target
nucleus has a large eﬀect on the barrier distribution. Rev. Phys. HEP & NP. 1987. The experimental data are from Ref. A. It is well suited to allow us to reliably explore heavyion fusion reactions. where the target nucleus 154 Sm has been treated as spherical and deformed with a hexadecapole parameter β4 =0 and 0. Phys. In summary. also the barrier distribution can be obtained. 1983. The integrated fusion cross sections agree well with the experimental data and also the barrier distribution reproduces the experimental data quite well. Greiner W. we have applied the double folding model to a pair of nuclei. In particular it can be seen from Fig. The actual distribution of probabilities for ﬁnding a fusion barrier at a given center-of-mass energy Ec. Therefore they have also a large eﬀect on the fusion cross section. 31: 766 13 WEI J X et al. especially at energies around and below the Coulomb barrier. The interaction potentials of the system were calculated at the orientation angles θ=0◦ and θ=90◦ . 1995.. the barrier height increases very sharp and the shape of the distribution is very diﬀerent from the experimental data.m. Lett.. σ with respect to the energy: d2 (Ec. C. Rev.087 and no deformation in comparison with experimental [13] data . Nuclear Physics. Beijing: Atomic Energy Press. 67: 3368
. 6 that the barrier distribution for the case with β4 =0. 73: 034610 7 Rhoades-Brown M J. [13]. Phys. Phys. 55: 183 6 Gontchar I I. C. C. Rev. Rev. Lett. The results of the present work should be meaningful in studies of heavy-ion fusion reactions. 6. Oberacker V E. It is evident that the inclusion of the hexadecapole deformation can improve the barrier distribution as compared with the case of a pure quadrupole deformation. The system 16 O+154 Sm was chosen taking the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations of 154 Sm into account.
Fig. 13: 1083 12 WONG C Y. 1980. 6. The barrier distribution of the system 16 O+154 Sm is shown in Fig. 1991. including the deformation of the target nucleus improves the agreement with the experimental data. From Fig. Phys. 2004. Phys. 310: 287 8 XU C. (13) D(Ec. 1976. Rev. 2007. Phys. the other spherical. 31: 634 (in Chinese) 4 LU Xi-Ting.No. Phys. Phys.. 70: 014604 10 De Vries H et al. one deformed. Phys. C. 2006. 36: 504 11 Cooper T et al.m. The barrier distribution of the system 16 O+154 Sm for β4 =0. However. Love W G. BAO J D. 73: 041301 9 Chamon L C et al. 178 (in Chinese) 5 Satchler G R.m.087. We thank Professor Liu Zuhua for discussing the problem extensively and we also thank Professor Zhang XiZhen for helping with theoretical questions. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables. Newton
J O. 1979.