Business Quantitative Tools & Tetchiness

Submitted to: Date:

Mr. Abid Awan June 27, 2011

June 27, 2011

BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS

Authors Detail:

MBA (Fall 2010) SECTION (A)

Sr no: 1 2 3

Names

ID’s

1

June 27, 2011

BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

In the name of ALLAH ALLMIGHITY the lord of the world who has bestowed us with abilities and blessed with knowledge so that we can make best of opportunities provided to us first of all we are indebted towards ALLAH ALLMIGHITY who has created us and made us capable enough to with stand in the competitive world. If words could pay gratitude then we would like to pay our esteem gratitude to our most respected MR ABID AWAN Ali Khan for assigning us this project of BUSINESS STATISTICS throughout the course period he has been extremely cooperated with us and guided us at every single step he has been very encouraging and kind to us. Throughout it has been collaborated effort of all the group members who have contributed and helped each other to make this project a successful report.

2

June 27, 2011

BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS

Objective
The purpose of this project is to apply statistical tools for testing which Country is best among these three Countries in wheat EXPORT, PRODUCTION and DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION OF WHEAT.

Countries are:
   INDIA PAKISTAN MAXICO

By applying statistical tools on this data we’ll learn that who to apply these tools in our real life too to make our decisions easy.

3

.................................................................. 35 ANOVA of Regression Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 29 Correlation Analysis of Yuvraj .............................................................June 27.................................................................................... Runs (D............................................................................................................................................... 39 ANOVA of Regression Analysis ........................................................................................................................................ 47 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................................... 9 Brief description of variables ............V): ................................. Fisher LSD ........ 33 Regression Analysis of Afridi ........... 42 ANOVA of Regression Analysis ............................. 46 Recommendations .........................V): ................... 44 Comparison of Players ...................................................................................... 41 Regression Analysis of Gayle .............................................................. 22 Correlation Analysis of Afridi ................. Descriptive Analysis ...... 31 Correlation Analysis of Gayle: .......................................................................................... 38 Regression Analysis of Yuvraj ..................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined............... 13 Analysis of Variance ...................................................................................................................................................................... 48 4 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined........................................................... Description of all Statistical Tools ...........................................................................................V): ............................................................................................ 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Table of Contents History: ....................................................................................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined............................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.................. Error! Bookmark not defined.......................................................................................... Number of Boundaries (I.......................... 12 Number of Balls (I........................................................................................................................... 45 Crux of Study ..............................................................................................

June 27.1……………………………………………….2……………………………………………….34 Table: 10.40 Table: 11..41 Table: 12.40 Table: 12……………………………………………………….1……………………………………………….38 Table: 11.43 5 .37 Table: 11……………………………………………………….2………………………………………………. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS List of Tables Descriptive Analysis Tables Table: 1…………………………………………………………13 Table: 2…………………………………………………………14 Table: 3…………………………………………………………16 ANOVA Tables Table: 4…………………………………………………………20 Table: 5…………………………………………………………24 Table: 6…………………………………………………………27 Correlation Tables Table: 7…………………………………………………………28 Table: 8…………………………………………………………30 Table: 9…………………………………………………………32 Regression Analysis Tables Table: 10……………………………………………………….1………………………………………………..36 Table: 10..

According to 1991 Population Census nearly 74 percent of India's population live in rural areas for its livelihood. which is why the fertile plains of the Indo-Gangetic region are the most conducive for growing it. They account for nearly 70 per cent of total wheat produced in the country. The major States that are involved in the cultivation of wheat are those located in the plains like Uttar Pradesh. 6 .2 percent in 1991-92 at current prices. Agriculture has a key position in India's economy both in view of employment and contribution to the national income. Thus. After the Green Revolution in the 1970's and 1980's the production of wheat has shown a huge increase.June 27. Agriculture is the largest contributor in the country's Net Domestic Product accounting for as much as 34. India is one of the main wheat producing and consuming countries of the world. Punjab and Haryana. Punjab and Haryana yield the highest amount of wheat because of the availability of better irrigation facilities. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS History of Indian wheat Agriculture plays an important role in Indian Economy. The wheat crop needs cool winters and hot summers. It provides gainful employment to a significantly large section of Indian Society and provides raw material for a large number of industries in the country. Sowing of wheat takes place in October to December and harvesting is done during the months of February and May. Wheat is a Rabi crop that is grown in the winter season.

and vegetables.June 27. Pakistan exports rice. About 28% of Pakistan's total land area is under cultivation and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. Agriculture accounts for about 21% of GDP and employs about 42% of the labor force. fish. Despite intensive farming practices. fruits. wheat. Wheat is a Rabi crop that is grown in the winter season. The most important crops are cotton. Sowing of wheat takes place in October to December and harvesting is done during the months of February and May. 7 . and consumer foods. Pakistan remains a net food importer. rice. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS History of Pakistan’s wheat Agriculture plays an important role in Pakistan’s Economy. wheat. sugarcane. cotton (net importer). The wheat crop needs cool winters and hot summers. and vegetables and imports vegetable oil. which together account for more than 75% of the value of total crop output. which is why the fertile plains of the Indo-Gangetic region are the most conducive for growing it. fruits. pulses. It provides gainful employment to a significantly large section of Pakistan’s Society and provides raw material for a large number of industries in the country.

the crops produced in greatest number in Mexico were sugar cane (46.81 billion tons). 8 . and vegetables. coffee. Fruits and vegetables are the most economically significant agricultural products exported by Mexico. the most important crops for consumption purposes are wheat.June 27. beans. and beans (1. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS History of Mexico Wheat In 1999. corn (15. fruits. wheat (3 billion tons).72 billion tons). In 1999. accounting for fully 50 percent of agricultural output. corn. sorghum (5.59 billion tons). agriculture employed 23 percent of Mexico's labor force but accounted for only 5 percent of Mexico's GDP. Mexico continues to be one of the top producers of crops in the world. and sorghum.04 billion tons). Crop production was and continues to be the most important agricultural activity in Mexico. The most important crops for export purposes are sugar. Domestically.

If we want the “Median” of the ungrouped data then it will be the middle value of the arranged data. The variance of the population is denoted by “σ²” and variance of the sample is denoted by “s²”. It is one of the measures of central tendency which is used most frequently. The sample data mean is denoted by “ ̅ ” and the population mean is denoted by “μ”. It is obtained by dividing the sum of all values by the number of values in the interested data. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Description of all Statistical Tools Following is the brief description of the Statistical tools which we have used in our project to analyze the data. Median: The median is also an important measure of central tendency. If the values of the data are odd then the median will be the middle value of the arranged data and if the values of the data are even then the median will be calculated by the average of the two middle values of the data. The large value of standard deviation shows the more spread of the values from the mean and the smaller value of the standard deviation shows the less spread of the values from the mean. 9 . It also tells the per unit variance of the data.June 27. Co-Efficient of Variance: The coefficient of variation (CV) is defined as the ratio of the standard deviation “σ” to the mean μ: The answer of the (CV) < 1 shows the less variance and (CV) > 1 shows the high variance. It is calculated by arranging data first in increasing order and then the middle value is founded from that arranged data. The standard deviation tells about the deviation of the values of the data from its mean. It is measured by taking the square root of the variance. If the data has no variation in it then the variance and the standard deviation will be “0”.so the variance of population is denoted by “σ” and sample standard deviation is denoted by “s”. It is expressed in the same units as the data. It divides the arranged data into two equal parts. Mean: The mean is also called the “Arithmetic Mean”. Standard Deviation: It is a frequently used measure of dispersion. The value of the variance and standard deviation should not be negative. The single value of the “Mean” represents the whole data. It is actually the sum of deviation of each value of the data from the mean and the sum of the deviation will always equal to zero.

The samples are independent and random.June 27. Hypothesis Testing: It is a method of making decision using data whether from controlled experiment or from controlled experiment. The populations also have the same variance or (Standard Deviation) from which the samples are drawn. The negative skewed value indicates the tail on the left side. 10 . 2. Null Hypotheses normally is a claim about the population parameter that is considered to be true until it is proved false. Means we perform this test when we make the decision about the population parameter on the bases of the sample statistic. If the value of the skewness is zero means the valued are evenly distributed on the both sides of the mean. ANOVA: In analyses of the variance the “ANOVA” is used to check the Null Hypothesis whether or not the means of three or more populations are equal. variance between sample (MSB) and variance within sample (MSW). The populations are normally distributed from which the samples are drawn. The two terms are used in this test “Null Hypothesis” and “Alternative Hypothesis”. which means the data is clustered on the left side. (MSB) will be low and the means of the populations are not equal then the (MSB) will be higher. The positive value of the skewness tells that the tail on the right side is longer than the left side. The Hypothesis in the analyses of variance is normally stated like. negative or undecided. drawn from the different populations. H₀: all three population means are equal H₁: all three population means are not equal Assumptions of ANOVA: For using one-way ANOVA following assumptions must be fulfilled. Its value can be positive. If the means of the populations under consideration are all equal then the variation between the means of the samples taken from those populations well be less. 3. Alternative Hypothesis is used to check the claim whether or not the Null Hypothesis is true. In the ANOVA we calculate the two variance estimates. 1. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Skewness: Skewness is the measure of the symmetry of the probability distribution of the random variable. longer than the right side which means the data is clustered including median lying on the right side of the mean.

2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS MSW gives the value indicating the variance within the data of samples taken from the different populations. As long as the value of r² is close to the 1 it will represent the fitness of the model and gives the confidence about the regression model. The above model is often used for the future predictions of the important components/variables of the organizations. Its formula is. The value of the r² is always between “0 and 1”. It is similar to the concept of the pooled standard deviation. Ŷ= a+ b₁x₁ + b₂x₂ + …… Where: Ŷ = dependent variable (Estimated Value of Y) a = y-intercept (Constant) b₁ = (Slope) per unit change in Ŷ due to the change in one unit of first independent variable. r² = 11 . Multiple Regression Analyses: It is the study to confirm that how a dependent variable is depending on one or more independent variables. Coefficient of Determination: Coefficient of Determination is used to answer the question that how good is the regression model. It tells that how significantly a dependent variable is depending on the independent variables used in the regression model.June 27. It is denoted by “r²“. For this purpose we use the following model. b₂ = (Slope) per unit change in Ŷ due to the change in one unit of second independent variable.

Export is dependent variable which depends upon production and domestic consumption of wheat if the production increases then the export of wheat will also increase for each country and as well as if the domestic consumption of wheat decreases then the export of wheat will increases for each country.June 27. We collect last 30 values which are yearly base data of production of wheat of three countries INDIA. and MEXICO. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Brief description of variables For the purpose of this project we have selected following variables. ii. Exports: (Dependent) Exports are our 3rd variable in this project which is dependent variable for this variable we collect 30 values which are yearly base data and this data is for three countries INDIA PAKISTAN MEXICO. Our dependent variables have positive relation with production and have negative relation with domestic consumption of wheat. It is purely significant independent variable for each country because production of wheat depends upon the variables mostly. PAKISTAN. PAKISTAN and MEXICO if the domestic consumption of a country goes down then it is able to export it more but it will happen when production of wheat goes higher. If countries production goes up then it is able to export it more and also fulfill its domestic consumption very easily. Domestic consumption: (Independent Variable) In this project domestic consumption is 2nd variable. 12 . Production Domestic Consumption Export (Independent Variable) (Independent Variable) (Dependent Variable) Production: (Independent Variable) In this project production is our 1st variable. The data of domestic production vary year to year and it affects on exports only. It is purely significant variable for each country. We collect 30 values which are yearly base data of domestic consumption of wheat for three countries INDIA. The data of production vary year to year and it affects on the domestic consumption and export too. i. iii.

5 Median Standard 12830. in the data of Indian production of wheat for last 30 years.12 in that period.8 Mean 64342. In this period the average production of wheat is 63593.5333 150 1430.318.27 in this period.12 Deviation coefficient of 106. Domestic Consumption and EXPORT Respectively) The standard deviation of wheat production of India in this period is 133362.5333 Median The median is also use for the average value.24334 Skewness Export 60451.318 18. Standard Deviation: (Production.June 27. which means that there are 133362. Now this result show that in India the average domestic consumption of wheat on these 30 th years is.925 Variance -1.27 Mean 63598. 13 .5 Median 13362.139285 2. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Descriptive Analysis INDIA Table: 1 Production Mean Median Standard Deviation coefficient of Variance Kurtosis Skewness Domestic Consumption 60613. The standard deviation of wheat’s domestic consumption in India is 12830.5.31746 Skewness 832.26.26 Standard Deviation coefficient of 104. Now this result show that in India the average domestic consumption of wheat on these 30th years is 60451.327124 Explanation: MEAN (PRODUCTION. . And also this result show that the average Export of wheat in India in this 30th year period is 150. And also this result show that the average Export of wheat in India in this 30th year period is 832. DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION AND EXPORT) The mean is the average value of the wheat which produce in India is 60613.0173 5.436 Variance -0.26 deviations from the average.97222 Kurtosis -0.15216 Kurtosis -0. The standard deviation of export of wheat is 1430.8.

Pakistan Table: 2 Production Mean Median Standard Deviation coefficient of Variance Kurtosis Skewness Domestic Consumption 16868. Export of production skewness is 2. Domestic Consumption and EXPORT Respectively) The CV value of wheat production is showing that there is 104% per year variation of wheat production in India of that period.34223 Skewness 324. Domestic Consumption and EXPORT Respectively) Wheat production skewness is -0.2433 indicates that production in left skewed and most of the data is clustered on the right side. As long as the domestic consumption is concerned the CV value is explaining the 107% variation of domestic consumption.98076 Kurtosis -0.66667 Mean 16779 Median 3964.03 Mean 18640 Median Standard 3756.446105 2. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Co-Efficient of Variance: Production.June 27.5 577.253039 Standard Deviation coefficient of 23. Now the CV of export of wheat is illustrating the 18% variation per year export of India.6 30.8332 178.01% 5. Boundary’s skewness is -.198571805 Skewness Export 17862.03175 illustrating that domestic consumption is also left skewed and most of the data is clustered on the right side.152 Deviation coefficient of 21.02% Variance -0.5% Variance -0.3271 indicates that export of wheat are right skewed and most of the data is clustered on the left side. Skewness: Production.998029335 Kurtosis 0.377759 14 .

5 which means that the average export of Pakistan is 30. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Explanation: MEAN (production.666 and mean of domestic consumption is 17862. it shows the per year variation in export of wheat by Pakistan. domestic consumption and export) The mean of production of wheat by PAKISTAN IS 16868. Domestic Consumption and EXPORT Respectively) The median of this data is 16779 which shows the average production of wheat by Pakistan in last 30 years and the average domestic consumption of wheat in Pakistan is 18640 in last 30 years .03 and the mean of export of wheat by Pakistan is 324. Domestic Consumption and EXPORT Respectively) The standard deviation in Pakistan’s wheat production is 3964.02% per year variation in domestic consumption of wheat by Pakistan. The value Co-Efficient of Variance of domestic consumption of wheat is 21.8332 and this value show the deviation from the average in data of export of Pakistan wheat in last 30 years. Standard Deviation: Production.253039 and this value show the deviation from the average in data of production of Pakistan wheat in last 30 years. 15 .01%. The standard deviation in Pakistan’s wheat domestic consumption is 3756.5% per year variation in production of wheat by Pakistan. Domestic Consumption and EXPORT Respectively) The value Co-Efficient of Variance of production of wheat is showing that there is 23.6 in last 30 years. As well as export concerned in export data the value of Co-Efficient of Variance is 178.June 27. Median: Production. Co-Efficient of Variance: Production.5 in last 30 years.152 and this value show the deviation from the average in data of domestic consumption of Pakistan wheat in last 30 years.the median of export is 30. The standard deviation in Pakistan’s wheat export is 577.

963786 1.9 Mean 3587.1333 271 386. These results also show that the average domestic consumption of wheat on these 30th years is 5146.5 Median 524.3137404 Deviation coefficient of 14. 16 . Skewness value of wheat of domestic consumption is -0. Skewness value of export of wheat is 2.161069 Explanation: Mean The mean is the average value of the wheat which produce in Mexico is 3578.198 which means that it is right skewed and most of the data is clustered on the left side.34223 which means that it is left skewed and most of the data is clustered on the right side.June 27.9 in this period. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Skewness: Production.377759 which means that It is right skewed an dmostly data is clustered on the left side.063532895 Skewness 362. MEXICO: Table: 3 Production Mean Median Standard Deviation coefficient of Variance Kurtosis Skewness Domestic Consumption 3578.09289545 Skewness Export 5146.233333.6% Variance -1.644972214 Kurtosis -0.0117 106% 0. And also this result show that the average Export of wheat in Mexico in this 30th year period is 362.233333 Mean 5223 Median Standard 749.1380017 Standard Deviation coefficient of 15% Variance -0.388933856 Kurtosis -0. Domestic Consumption and EXPORT Respectively) Skewness value of wheat production is 0.1333.

In this period the average production of wheat is 3587. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Median: Production.0117. This result is also show that the average domestic consumption of wheat on these 30 th years is5223.1380017 which mean that there are 524. Export of production skewness is 1.5.161069 indicates that export of wheat are right skewed and most of the data is clustered on the left side.644972214 indicates that production in left skewed and most of the data is clustered on the right side. As long as the domestic consumption is concerned the CV value is explaining the 14. Skewness: (Production. Now the CV of export of wheat is illustrating the 106% variation per year export of Mexico.1380017 deviations from the average. Domestic Consumption and EXPORT Respectively) The median is also use for the average value. Boundary’s skewness is -0. Domestic Consumption and EXPORT Respectively) The CV value of wheat production is showing that there is 14% per year variation of wheat production in Mexico of that period.063532895 illustrating that domestic consumption is also left skewed and most of the data is clustered on the right side. And also this result show that the average Export of wheat in this 30th year period is 271. Domestic Consumption and EXPORT Respectively) The standard deviation of wheat production of Mexico in this period is 524. Domestic Consumption and EXPORT Respectively) Wheat production skewness is-0. The standard deviation of wheat’s domestic consumption in Mexico is 749.6% variation of domestic consumption. Comparison of Averages 17 . in the data of Indian production of wheat for last 30 years.3137404 in that period. The standard deviation of export of wheat is 386. Co-Efficient of Variance: (Production.June 27. Standard Deviation: Production.

It is used to find the deviation in data.03 and the average of MEXICO is 5146.66 and the average production of MEXICO is 3578. Comparison of Standard Deviation: As we have already stated above that Standard deviation is the most commonly used tool of dispersion.23.27 and average production of PAKISTAN is 16868. We have also calculated the Mean.8 average of PAKISTAN is 17862. All these countries consume wheat domestically in these 30 years very differently. Still it is the most accurate measure of dispersion.June 27. The average production of India is 60613.9 in last 30 years.1333. These averages shows that the average EXPORT of INDIA is higher than other two countries and MEXICO is on second number where as PAKISTAN export of wheat is lower than two other countries. EXPORT: This data of three countries about EXPORT for last 30 years shows the average of export of INDIA is 832. The less the standard deviation the more consistent the data will be.D of all three countries comparison is as bellow.these result shows that averages of domestic consumption of wheat in these countries are varying from each others and INDIA consumes domestically very high from two countries and PAKISTAN is on second number as well as MEXICO consumes very low domestically. Production: Now we can compare the averages of production from our above data.5333 and the export of PAKISTAN is 324.6 where as the export of MEXICO is 362. Domestic Consumption: As comparing the averages of domestic consumption of wheat in these countries we found that the average of INDIA is 60451. We are going to compare the S. From these averages we can say that India is best producer of wheat in last 30 years and PAKISTAN is second best producer of wheat in this period and as far MEXICO is consider it is the lower producer of wheat from other two countries in this period. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Our data has outliers so that we have calculated the Median. 18 .

EXPORT: The S.D of “India” is.V of pakistan is 23. ”. According to our result the S.V of india is 104. which shows that it is more consistent in producing wheat than “india” but less consistent than “mexico” . it means its deviation from the mean is more. Comparison of C.152 and “mexico” is 749.) tells us the Variation per unit.3137404. According to our result the S.D of “india” is more than that of other two countries. There is more spread in his data.6% Our result shows that the per year variation of maxico is again less than that of other countries.V is106%. According to our result the S. the more it will be favorable and it also tells us the consistency. The deviation of “mexico” is less than that of other two countries which shows that it is more consistent in export.26 “Pakistan” is 3964.V of Pakistan is 178% and the Mexico C.V is 15% Our result shows that the per year variation of maxico is again less than that of other countries. Here the deviation of “mexico” is less than the “india”.V of india is106%.D of “india” is. There is more spread in his data. EXPORT: The C. means no consistency. Now the comparison of all three countries which is as under: Production: The C.0117 . The deviation of “pakistan” is less than the other two countries which shows that it is more consistent in consumption of wheat than both of other two.V of pakistan is 21% and the mexico C.12 “pakistan” is3756. 13362. “pakistan” is 577. means no consistency.017%.1380017. So the less the value of C.D of “india” is again more than that of other counyries.V is14. There is more spread in his data.D of “India” is again more than that of other two countries. Here the deviation of pakistan is less than the “india” but greater than the “mexico”. Domestic Consumption: The C. 19 . 12830.253039 and “Mexico” is 524.V.5% and the mexico C.the C. it means its deviation from the mean is more.D of india” is 1430.8332 and “mexico” is 386.318 .V.46%.June 27.V: As we know that the Co-efficient of Variance (C.the C. The deviation of “pakistan” is less than the “india” but greater than “mexico”. Here the deviation of mexico from the mean is less than the other two countries Domestic Consumption: The S. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Production: The S. the C. it means its deviation from the mean is more. means no consistency.V of India is18.

4 1.582 1.7858 3.202 3.4 2.6169 5.569 5.935 6.721 5.June 27.068 20 Pakistan Mexico 3.151 1.857 8.2 1.2097 6.2414 4.107 1.02 2.9024 3.2 1.2675 4 1.0882 4.6369 6.3295 4 2.4033 .968 7.0959 4.1079 3.4429 4.8227 2.2 1.4565 3.935 7.05 India 3.1703 4.9183 2.635 7.6907 3.639 1.7 1.2 1.215 6.7452 4.3922 3.581 7.7002 3. Use = 0.5134 5. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Scenario # 1 Production We check that the mean of wheat production of the three countries production.4069 4.547 6.6651 3.985 5.864 6.621 1.078 7.411 4.6157 4. For this job the following data is taken from SBP (State Bank of Pakistan) record.181 6.7 1.95 3.4323 4. (India Pakistan and Mexico) are same in year.5684 3.5212 3.061 1.05 1.1612 3.984 6.2794 4.593 2.8694 3.1304 3.235 1.5476 4. Use these data to test whether the populations mean of production of these countries are different.93 1.468 1.5 1.05 1.6313 3.27 1.1277 3.7052 4.1473 4.42 1.24 2.3 2.51 7.4419 3.23 1.

Critical Region f tab = ƒ v1 . 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS 8.4885517 df MS F P-value F crit 2.05 =3. because we have more than one population or to run the hypothesis testing. .68577 21 .v2 . F tab=2.11E33 3.071 2. 84.105.9 Null Hypothesis H 0 : 1  2  3 Alternative Hypothesis H1 : 1  2  3 Distribution We use F-Distribution.39 3. so we reject H0 ANOVA Table TABLE: 4 ANOVA Source of Variation Between Groups Within Groups Total SS 287.9419 209.8983 84 86 0.105157 2 143.60466839 345.8838833 57.June 27.105 If f >3.

It is also supporting our conclusion.31 So in the light of the above discussion we can see in the above table that the value of MSB is very high and our results are also indicating towards rejecting the Ho which means that all population means are not equal. For this purpose we will calculate the “Fisher LSD” which will tell us about which mean is not equal. which means at least one mean should not be equal. if “p” value is less than the “α” then reject Ho otherwise do not reject. 22 . The critical value is 3.June 27. Here the variation within sample is 696. As we have rejected the Ho. so now we want to know that which population mean is not equal to the other population means. As we know that the oneway ANOVA test is always right tail and the f calculated value is lying in the rejection region which is the main reason to reject Ho.475 is greater than the tabulated value which is 3.023 which is less than the “α” (0. If the means of all populations under concern are not equal then variation between sample means will be high and the value of MSB will also be high.101 and our f calculated value is 3’929 which is greater than the critical value which illustrates that reject Ho.05) and the rule is . 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Calculated f value > Tabulated f value f = 208.105 As well As P value < α So we reject Ho Explanation: We know that if the means of all the population are equal then the production sample means taken from three different countries production will still be not equal because the variation between them will be very large and as a result the value of MSB will be less. As long as the MSW is concerned. If we compare the “p” value. the p value is 0. the MSW value tells the variation within the different samples data taken from the different populations.

4 4.5567 5.272 1.05.8793 6.4978 6.1 6.58 5.378 5.3719 4.6064 6.5316 1. INDIA Pakistan Mexico 3.2 4.01 2.6206 1.64 1.1215 3.9 6 6.3201 4.398 5. PAKISTAN and MEXICO) are same in One year.June 27.6907 1. Use following data to test whether the populations mean of domestic consumption of these countries is different.5125 7.38 4.622 4.152 4.181 5. Use = 0.8201 8.1 1.6423 7.9 5.2754 4.3707 6.2029 4.0452 2.2312 4.103 1.95 2.05 1.265 4.4294 6.5 6 6.0258 2.2435 23 1.25 .24 2.7405 1.0924 7.98 1.8137 1.6821 6.4886 5.28 2.2 5.7515 5.815 5.6313 4 1.7595 5.818 5.8009 5.707 4.833 6.7838 4.89 1.3076 4. For this job the following data is taken from SBP (State Bank of Pakistan) record.1521 4.3377 5.32 5.8904 2.454 4.9246 6.8929 4. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Domestic Consumption Scenario # 2 We check that the mean of wheat domestic consumption of three different countries (INDIA.093 1.0124 2.838 1.6492 4.2838 6.35 1.8258 7.409 5.1284 2.79 1.998 7.888 5.2 6.112 1.17 2.32 2.3477 7.

26766 359.105 If f >3.717472 86 24 .4177 df 2 MS 149.475 P-value F crit 2. 84. .05 =3.105157 84 0.575 F 208. so we reject H0 ANOVA Table TABLE: 5 ANOVA Source of Variation Between Groups Within Groups Total SS 299.68E33 3. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Null Hypothesis H 0 : 1  2  3 Alternative Hypothesis H1 : 1  2  3 Distribution We use F-Distribution. Critical Region f tab = ƒ v1 .1501 60.v2 . because we have more than one population or to run the hypothesis testing. F tab=2.105.June 27.

105 As well As P value < α So we reject Ho Explanation: As the “f” calculated value is 208.475 is greater than the tabulated value which is 3.717472 is showing the variation within the sample data taken from the different Countries We have selected the competitive Countries so that the number of domestic consumption are not close to each other because on every production compite the domestic consumption is difficult and sometimes impossible. Our “P” value is also showing the different results because it is less than the alpha so we reject “Ho”.June 27. Greater than the “f” critical value.475. The findings of the ANOVA about the boundaries demonstrate the average boundaries hit by all the three players on the population base are same because the players we have selected have more strike rate. As in above table the value of MSB is very large than the comparison of production. means 208. so therefore on average these three countries’ number of domestic consumption are not same. This happens only because of hitting more boundaries so all three players have the same average on population bases regarding the boundaries. Comparison: We have calculated the ANOVA of three players regarding boundaries hit by them so if we compare the findings of the ANOVA with the raw data. It happens when the population means are equal.475 > 3. 25 . the value of MSB is showing the less variation between the means of the samples data which gives the indication about the equality in the population means regarding the boundaries. The value of MSW 0.101296 so we do not reject “Ho” which means average domestic consumption by all three countries are equal. it is showing the large variation in the sample means taken from the different three countries. so the comparison between critical value and f calculated value has justified that the population means are equal. means they have made more runs on less balls played. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Calculated f value > Tabulated f value f = 208.

69 705 2.2 200 0 2 7 0 6.93 21. For this job the following data is taken from SBP (State Bank of Pakistan) record.06 15 472 0.49 1261 22 0.5 597 11.87 548 4.05.01 0 374 0. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Scenario # 3 Export We check that the mean of wheat export by three different Countries (INDIA.5 451 1.94 548 7 0.85 56.12 0 311 0 2 404 0 15.35 2 2.78 0.1 0.5 0.49 4 6 0 5 3 0 5 52 0 0.53 30. Use these data to test whether the populations mean of Wheat export by the three different Countries.23 1406 21 1 839 3 2 1000 7 26 .01 533 6 0.28 12 0 1 135 0. Use alpha= 0. PAKISTAN and MEXICO) are same in One year.01 20 227 0.05 1 5 0.95 48.5 8 0.8 8 0.2 504 6 8.June 27.2 231 0 0. India Pakistan Mexico 0 5 0 1 10 0.

v2 . F tab=2.June 27. .105157 84 49952. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Null Hypothesis H 0 : 1  2  3 Alternative Hypothesis H1 : 1  2  3 Distribution We use F-Distribution.105 If f >3. so we reject H0 ANOVA Table TABLE: 6 ANOVA Source of Variation Between Groups Within Groups Total SS 2625191 4196022 6821213 df 2 MS 1312596 F 26.105. Critical Region f tab = ƒ v1 .37E09 3.05 =3.2768 P-value F crit 1.64 86 27 . because we have more than one population or to run the hypothesis testing. 84.

It is all because of high MSB value than boundaries but less than balls MSB value. as we have found the MSB value of balls very high and on this base we have rejected “Ho”.2768 greater than the “ƒ” critical value means 26. The value of MSB is high but some time less or greater than the value of the production.105 so we reject the “Ho” which means all means are not equal. Comparison Here the value of MSB is high but still less than the (balls’ value of MSB). So as a result we have concluded that on average they made almost same runs in their every match. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Calculated f value > Tabulated f value f =26.2768 > 3.June 27. 28 . According to the results the average export by these three countries on production bases are not equal.105 As well As P value < α So we reject Ho Explanation: As the “ƒ” calculated value is 26. “P” value is also less than the alpha so we reject “Ho”.2768 is greater than the tabulated value which is 3. According to our ANOVA calculations our “P” and “F” value are in the favor of “Ho” so because of these calculations we also have concluded that the population means (of Runs) are equal and there is less (but not that much less variation as compared to the boundaries) in sample means.

32% which is indicating that our dependent variable “Runs” is depending strongly on the “Balls”. Now the value 97. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Correlation Analysis of INDIA Following is the “Correlation Analysis” of our collected data. TABLE: 7 Correlation Table Production Production Domestic Consumption Exports 1 0. Now we are going to check that whether or not the relations discussed above exist on the population bases. It happens in real life as well because without playing balls the player can’t make the runs so that’s why there is strong positive correlation between “Runs” and “Balls”. it is showing that there is strong positive correlation between our both independent variables.272128 1 0.76%. This value is greater than the value of “Balls” relationship because boundary can increase the runs in high proportion and we have selected those players whose boundaries are more than the other bats men.133% is also showing the strong positive correlation between the “Boundaries and “Runs”.322684164 1 Domestic Consumption Exports Explanation: In the above table we can see that the relation between X1 and X2 is 82.9232 so now we want to check that whether this relation exists actually on population bases or not. Now the relationship between X1 and Y is 92.June 27.95653 0. For this purpose we will apply the hypothesis. SCENARIO 1: We have gotten the = 0. Ho: ρ ≥ 0 29 . Therefore the relation ship between “Boundaries and the “Runs” is more.

Ho: ρ ≥ 0 H1: ρ < 0 =1. SCENARIO 2: We have gotten the = 0. which.588905. so it is > 1.701 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject.97133 so now we want to check that whether this relation exists actually on population bases or not. which.701 If t calculated value is < 1. √ Conclusion: Value = 32. It means that there is strong positive correlation between “Balls” and “Runs”.701.8655. This result is showing that the relation on the base of sample data exists in the population as well.701 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject. means we do not reject Ho. This result is showing that the relation on the base of sample data exists in the population as well.701 If t calculated value is < 1. 30 .701. so it is > 1. Conclusion Value = 34. It means that there is strong positive correlation between “Number of Boundaries” and “Runs”.June 27. means we do not reject Ho. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS H1: ρ < 0 Test Statistic: =1.

504225813 1 Domestic Consumption Exports Explanation: In the above table we can see that the relation between X1 and X2 is 84. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Correlation Analysis of PAKISTAN TABLE: 8 Correlation Table Production Production Domestic Consumption Exports 1 0. Ho: ρ ≥ 0 H1: ρ < 0 =1. it is showing that there is strong positive correlation between our both independent variables.937507914 0. Now the relationship between X1 and Y is 91. Therefore the relation ship between “Boundaries and the “Runs” is more. For this purpose we will apply the hypothesis.79% is also showing the strong positive correlation between the “Boundaries and “Runs”.36% which is indicating that our dependent variable “Runs” is depending strongly on the “Balls”. Now we are going to check that whether or not the relations discussed above exist on the population bases.91%.59856792 1 0.701 31 . It happens in real life as well because without playing balls the player can’t make the runs so that’s why there is strong positive correlation between “Runs” and “Balls”. SCENARIO 1: We have gotten the = 0. Now the value 97. This value is greater than the value of “Balls” relationship because boundary can increase the runs in high proportion and we have selected those players whose boundaries are more than the other bats men.9136 so now we want to check that whether tH1s relation exists actually on population bases or not.June 27.

Ho: ρ ≥ 0 H1: ρ < 0 =1.701 If t calculated value is < 1. This result is showing that the relation on the base of sample data exists in the population as well.701 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject.3425 Conclusion: Value = 35.739 32 .701. = √ t = 37.701 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject.3425. It means that there is strong positive correlation between “Balls” and “Runs”. which.June 27. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS If t calculated value is < 1. so it is > 1. = √ t = 35. means we do not reject Ho. SCENARIO 2: We have gotten the = so now we want to check that whether this relation exists actually on population bases or not.

means we do not reject Ho. This value is greater than the value of “Balls” relationship because boundary can increase the runs in high proportion and we have selected those players whose boundaries are more than the other bats men. Now we are going to check that whether or not the relations discussed above exist on the population bases. Now the relationship between X1 and Y is 86. It means that there is strong positive correlation between “Boundaries” and “Runs”.76% is also showing the strong positive correlation between the “Boundaries and “Runs”. It happens in real life as well because without playing balls the player can’t make the runs so that’s why there is strong positive correlation between “Runs” and “Balls”.701.739. so it is > 1. For this purpose we will apply the hypothesis.June 27.53% which is indicating that our dependent variable “Runs” is depending strongly on the “Balls”. which. it is showing that there is strong positive correlation between our both independent variables. This result is showing that the relation on the base of sample data exists in the population as well. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Conclusion: Value = 37. Correlation Analysis of MEXICO TABLE: 9 Correlation Table Production Production Domestic Consumption Exports 1 -0.821%.134459644 1 0. Now the value 93. 33 . Therefore the relation ship between “Boundaries and the “Runs” is more.243877355 -0.717375962 1 Domestic Consumption Exports Explanation: In the above table we can see that the relation between X1 and X2 is 71.

It means that there is strong positive correlation between “Balls” and “Runs”. = √ t = 21.701 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject. Ho: ρ ≥ 0 H1: ρ < 0 =1.701 If t calculated value is < 1. SCENARIO 2: We have gotten the = so now we want to check that whether tH1s relation exists actually on population bases or not.701 If t calculated value is < 1. so it is > 1.701 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject. which.63 Conclusion: Value = t = 21. 34 . Ho: ρ ≥ 0 H1: ρ < 0 = 1.63.701. This result is showing that the relation on the base of sample data exists in the population as well.June 27. means we do not reject Ho. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS SCENARIO 1: We have gotten the = so now we want to check that whether this relation exists actually on population bases or not.

June 27.06504 -0.18478 P-value 0.271851 0. it means that if every value other than “a” is equal to 0 then the runs of the Afridi will be -0.4177.246428801 Our multiple regression equation is: Ŷ= a + (b1*X1) + (b2*X2) Ŷ = -0. means we do not reject Ho.6097*X1 + 4.1337*X2 Explanation of the above Equation: Our intercept a = -0.701. 35 .04597 0. so it is > 1. which. Regression Analysis of INDIA Following is the Regression Analysis of our data: TABLE: 10 Regression Table Coefficients Intercept Production Domestic Consumption -1324. It means that there is strong positive correlation between “Boundaries” and “Runs”.066270106 0.4177 + 0.069018762 t Stat -1.44. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS = √ t = 23.69373 1.296288459 0.4177.493779102 0.44 Conclusion: Value = 23. It is showing the negative value of the intercept which indicates that the average Runs of the Afridi will go in minus if he could not score the runs in the match because as his matches will increase and if he could not play the bat or could not score the runs the over all average will be decreased. This result is showing that the relation on the base of sample data exists in the population as well.14 -0.081772 Standard Error 1243.

It means that we are in the favor of H₀ that indicates. But in reality without balls runs can’t be made. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Now the value of b1 = 0.701 If t calculated value is < 1.1337 change in the runs due to the change in one boundary. t = 4. Now to generalize the above slopes to the population we will have to calculate the hypothesis which will tell us that whether or not the above discussed changes exist on population base. it is showing this result because there is a possibility not to make the runs on every ball. The value of b2 = 4. SCENARIO 1: According to our calculation the value of b1 =0. it is showing the 0.798473 Conclusion: As t = 4.701 so we do not reject H₀. Its value is small so that it has not that much significant affect on the model but as the value is showing the less impact on the model. SCENARIO 2: According to our calculation the value of b₁ = 4.6097 change in the runs due to the change in one ball.6097. This value is showing the significant contribution in the model.June 27. the per unit b1 = 0. Ho: Hi: >0 <0 = 1.1337 which is showing the 4.798473 which is > 1. Now we want to check that whether this per unit change exists in the population or not. Now we want to check that whether this per unit change exists in the population or not. Ho: Hi: 36 >0 <0 .609794 change exists in the population.13377197.609794.701 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject.

the per unit b₁ = 4.701 so we don’t reject H₀. It means that the “Runs” which we have taken as dependent variable is strongly depending on the factors we have selected as independent variables like “Balls” and “Boundaries”. It is denoted by “r²”. As the more variables are added to the model the value of “ ” will be more.1 Regression Statistics Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Observations 0. There are only approximately 2% chances that the dependent variable will be affected by other factors i.701 If t calculated value is <1.5288 which is > 1. match pressure etc.June 27. = 32.119814 0. Now we want to check that how much our regression model is reliable or up to what extent we can control the errors.701 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject. It means that we are in the favor of H₀ that indicates.054615 30 Explanation: In the above table the value of r² = 0.346141 0. state of pitch. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS = 1.5288 Conclusion: As t = 32. We have proved the per unit changes on the bases of the samples on the population.13377 change exists in the population. 37 . For this purpose we will apply the “Coefficient of Determination”. TABLE: 10.9886 which is showing that we are controlling errors.e.

Ho: 38 = =0 .665 3554184 52220085. Now we will apply the hypothesis to test the overall affect of the changes in balls and boundaries.9878. ANOVA of Regression Analysis Overall Affect of “Balls” and “Boundaries” Now we want to check the overall affect of the “Balls (b₁) and Boundaries (b₂) on the “Runs”. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS The value of “ ” is also showing the fitness of our model.837663842 Significance F 0. Our sample is also showing that we can strongly control the dependent variable with our independent variable.47 F 1.June 27. This value is showing that still we can control the errors up to approximately 98% which is good indication for our model.8 1934077 59328453. the value of the MSR is greater than the MSE due to this the f calculated value will be greater and it will tell us about whether b₁ and b₂ that we have calculated. Actually the r² tells us the reliability of the model more than the original that’s why we use adjusted r² to know the approximately close answer to the reality. which we have taken.2 ANOVA Df Regression Residual Total 2 27 29 SS MS 7108367. So we will have to apply ANOVA to check this. The value of adjusted r² is always less than the value of the r² as given in the table. we are approximately 98% confident that our selected model is suitable to predict our dependent variable. Adjusted R² = 0. can be generalized on the populations or not.178549 Explanation: As we can see from the above table. TABLE: 10.

293.063218223 0.981 0. it is showing the 0.5087124 0.287851529 Our multiple regression equation is: Ŷ= a + (b1*X1) + (b2*X2) Ŷ= -0. it means that if every value other than “a” is equal to 0 then the runs of the Yuvraj will be -0.7083*X2 Explanation: Our intercept a = -0.293 + 0.3630 change in the runs due to the change in one ball.24or > 4. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS H1: ≠ ≠0 = 4. Now the value of b1 = 0.24 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject.3630.066720678 t Stat -2.293. But in reality without balls runs can’t be made.396576 -1. it is showing this result because there is a possibility not to make the runs on every ball. It is showing the negative value of the intercept which indicates that the average Runs of the Yuvraj will go in minus if he could not score the runs in the match because as his matches will increase and if he could not play the bat or could not score the runs the over all average will be decreased.0717 which means that the over all affect of “Balls” and “Boundaries” exist on population bases.03642519 0. Conclusion We do not reject Ho because our f calculated value is 1178.023740225 0.08423 P-value 0.20155 2. Its value is small so that it has not that much significant affect on the model but as the value is showing the less impact on the model.151507 -0.24 If calculated value is < -4.June 27.07234 Standard Error 426. 39 .3630*X1 + 4. Regression Analysis of PAKISTAN TABLE: 11 Regression Table Coefficients Intercept Production Domestic Consumption -938.

Now we want to check that whether this per unit change exists in the population or not. t = 17.048 If t calculated value is < -1. SCENARIO 2: According to our calculation the value of b₂ =4.701 or >1.7083.048then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject. Now we want to check that whether this per unit change exists in the population or not.June 27. Ho: H1: = 2.7083 which is showing the 4. This value is showing the significant contribution in the model. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS The value of b2 = 4.622 t= Conclusion: As t = 17.048or >2.048 If t calculated value is < -2. Ho: β₁ = 0 H1: β₁ ≠ 0 = 2.048 so we will reject H₀.622 which is > 2. Now to generalize the above slopes to the population we will have to calculate the hypothesis which will tell us that whether or not the above discussed changes exist on population base.7083 change in the runs due to the change in one boundary. the per unit b₁ = 0. It means that we are in the favor of H₁ that indicates.58 40 =0 ≠0 .36302. t = 36.701 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject. SCENARIO 1: According to our calculation the value of b₁ = 0.36302 change exists in the population.

1 Regression Statistics Multiple R R Square Adjusted R Square Observations 0.70831 change exists in the population. We have proved the per unit changes on the bases of the samples on the population.2 F 8.62053 0. Now we want to check that how much our regression model is reliable or up to what extent we can control the errors.385057 0.58 which is > 2.339506 30 The value of R square is telling that we can control approximately 98.00141 . It is denoted by “r²”.June 27.12% errors by using the above regression model.2 ANOVA df Regression Residual Total 41 2 27 29 SS MS 3728451.453268432 Significance F 0. It means that we are in the favor of H₁ that indicates.048 so we will reject H₀.017 220533. TABLE: 11.183 1864226 5954394. the per unit b₂ = 4. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Conclusion: As t = 36. For this purpose we will apply the “Coefficient of Determination”. The value of Adjusted R square tells the accurate value than the R square value. TABLE: 11. ANOVA of Regression Analysis Now we will apply the hypothesis to test the overall affect of the changes in balls and boundaries. The variables are very important to represent the dependent variable “Runs”.1 9682845.

It is showing the negative value of the intercept which indicates that the average Runs of the Yuvraj will go in minus if he could not score the runs in the match because as his matches will increase and if he could not play the bat or could not score the runs the over all average will be decreased.June 27.071092842 t Stat -2.007151896 0.4097*X1 + 4.274339 P-value 0.45836E-05 Our multiple regression equation is: Ŷ= a + (b1*X1) + (b2*X2) Ŷ= -0.3125.3125 + 0.01 0.24or > 4. Conclusion We do not reject Ho because our f calculated value is 706.6260941 0. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Ho: H1: = ≠ =0 ≠0 = 4.101635148 0.3125.24 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject.3161*X2 Explanation: Our intercept a = -0.374968 Standard Error 577.311969 5.91021 0.972039 lying in the rejection region which means that the over all affect of “Balls” and “Boundaries” exist on population bases.757460537 1. Regression Analysis of MEXICO TABLE: 12 Regression Table Coefficients Intercept Production Domestic Consumption -1681.24 If calculated value is < -4. it means that if every value other than “a” is equal to 0 then the runs of the Yuvraj will be -0. 42 .031707 0.

4097. This value is showing the significant contribution in the model.048 or >2.048 so we will reject H₀. it is showing the 0. The value of b2 = 4.048 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject.048 If t calculated value is < -2.3161 change in the runs due to the change in one boundary. the per unit b₁ = 0. Ho: H1: 43 =0 ≠0 .285 Conclusion: As t = 5.4097 . 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Now the value of b1 = 0. Now we want to check that whether this per unit change exists in the population or not.3161.2. Now we will generalize the above findings to the populations. If t calculated value is <. Its value is small so that it has not that much significant affect on the model but as the value is showing the less impact on the model.4097 change in the runs due to the change in one ball. SCENARIO 1: According to our calculation the value of b₁ = 0. It means that we are in the favor of H₁ that Indicates. it is showing this result because there is a possibility not to make the runs on every ball.4097 change exists in the population.3161 which is showing the 4. SCENARIO 2: According to our calculation the value of b₂ = 4. t = 5.285which is > 2. Ho: β₁ = 0 H1: β₁ ≠ 0 = 2.048 or > then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject. Now we want to check that whether this per unit change exists in the population or not. But in reality without balls runs can’t be made.June 27.

467 MS 1115658 77401.817 4321145.3161change exists in the population. TABLE: 12.048 t = 3.24or > 4.51E-05 Ho: H1: = ≠ =0 ≠0 = 4.344which is > so we will reject H₀. the per unit b₂ = 4. Conclusion We do not reject Ho because our f calculated value is 287.07 F 14.65 2089828.24 If calculated value is < -4.344 Conclusion: As t = 3. It means that we are in the favor of H₁ that indicates.41399149 Significance F 5. 44 .24 then we will reject Ho otherwise don’t reject.1 ANOVA df Regression Residual Total 2 27 29 SS 2231316. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS = 2.June 27.928 lying in the rejection region which means that the over all affect of “Balls” and “Boundaries” exist on population bases. ANOVA of Regression Analysis Overall Affect of “Balls” and “Boundaries” Now we will apply the hypothesis to test the overall affect of the changes in balls and boundaries.

As they increase their runs or strike rate more their average will start going up. All three players have the value of R square more than 95% so the variables which we have selected are very useful for our three selected players. 45 . If we talk about the balls separately then the b₁ (Balls) has almost the same affect on the model of all three players. Because we have selected those players who have high strike rate so that they increase their runs by hitting more boundaries. It has less affect than boundaries on runs because we have already stated in the correlation topic that there are 50% chances of making runs on every ball and if they make the runs but not hit the boundary it will affect less than the boundaries. On the other hand the affect of the “Balls” and Boundaries is almost the same on all of the players. the value of the R square of all three players is also almost close to each other. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Comparison of COUNTRI So according to our findings the intercepts of all three players are showing the negative value which means that all of these three players should make the runs in their coming matches because if they don’t make the runs then their over all average will be reduced as the intercept point is showing. As boundaries increase the runs in high proportion so that b₂ boundaries are showing more affect on the model of the regression. If we talk about the R square of the all three players. The results of correlation table of all three players are showing almost more than 97% relation of the dependent variable (Runs) with dependent variables (Balls) and (Boundaries).June 27. If we compare the results of the “Correlation” of all three players then the results of these players again showing approximately the results very close to each other.

June 27. The reason of calculating Hypothesis is to check that the sample is generalized able to the population or not. We have calculated Median because there are too many out lair in this data. ANOVA shows the overall reliability or fitness of the model. In this data all the out lairs exist on the positive or right side.933 or approximately 21 balls. Stander Deviation.5 or 30 balls. Multiple Regressions. On the bases of our calculation the sample is generalize able to the population data. Hypothesis. ANOVA. After using these statistical tools we get some results like the average ball played by the Shahid Afridi are 29. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Crux of Study In this project we have applied following statistical tools Mean. it is another type of average. And if we talk about the Kurtosis it shows the out lairs in the data. and Correlation. And correlation shows the relation among Independent variable and dependent variable individually. 46 . Skewness. Just like that we have used Skewness which shows the symmetry of the data. Here in this project all the values of Skewness are positive which shows that the data is positively skewed or symmetry of the data exists at right side. If we talk about the Median. Median. Kurtosis. This calculation shows that the Indian player Yuvraj Singh has played maximum balls as compared with other two players. whereas the average ball played by Yuvraj Singh is 40 and the average balls played by Chris Gayle are 29.

As we have concluded that as compared to the other two players Afridi is not a consistent player and he got 0 runs in more matches than other two players shown in our raw data. He is a good and consistent player than Afridi. The Chris Gayle is very good player in these other two players. Now we have some recommendations for Yuvraj. According to our findings his intercept is also in minus which illustrates the decrease in the overall average if he could not make the runs in his matches. His intercept value is -0.June 27. If he could not do so his average will go down worst. His intercept value is -0.29324 which is still less than the both” Afridi and Gayle’s intercept value. His intercept is also in negative but is less than “Afridi”. So we recommend the Shahid Afridi that he should stay on the wicket. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Recommendations We have some recommendations for the players which we have selected in the light of our findings. As he is consistent player than Afridi so besides standing on the wicket he should hit some boundaries to boost up his average. as we have calculated his intercept is in minus which shows the decrease in the average runs of the Afridi as his matches increase. 47 .31253 so more strike rate is also needed by the Gayle to increase his average scores.

This analysis shows that he is not a good player among these 2 players. His strike rate is lower then the Shahid Afridi but the average runs are more then the Shahid Afridi. And also Yuvraj Singh is consistent player because he is a middle order batsman his batting style is calm and steady he gets the benefit for late coming the reason is that the rival players become little bit lazy and the ball become older and it is a good chance for making a score. He is not a fixed player in his batting order because he comes on 2nd number or in 7 number beside this all he is a good hitter of the ball he has a very good experience but one thing in himself is that after hitting a ball he become aggressive after the another ball he loose his wicket that’s the main draw back of him. There are many out lairs in his data. Actually he is an opening batsman the reason behind of his loosing wicket early and his low strike rate are when the match starts the Pitch condition is soo speedy and grassy we can say that bowling wicket. Thank You 48 . If we talk about the Yuvraj Singh he is better then other these two players because his strike rate is good and also the average runs of Yuvraj Singh is more then other two players. Chris Gayle is also not a good player. which means that he had played matches but he is unable to make any score in most of the matches as compared with other cricketers.June 27. Just like Shahid Afridi. 2011 BUSINESS QUANTITATIVE TOOLS & TETCHINESS Conclusion From this project we have concluded that the Pakistani Cricketer Shahid Afridi is not a consistent player. For first 10 to 15 over’s the Pitch is speedy so it is difficult for him to survive or stay on the wicket.

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