This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Diplomacy according to Sir Harold Nicholson 1969 is the term used to denote quite different things and is often used synonymous to foreign policy. Diplomacy in essence is the instrument employed to put into effect substance, aims and attitudes of state's relations between one group alien to themselves.
the method by which these relations are adjusted and managed by ambassadors and envoys. Diplomacy is concerned with dialogue and negotiation and in this sense is not merely an instrument of state.18. It is also an instrument of state system itself. . the business of art pf the diplomats.2 • • Simply diplomacy is management of international relations by negotiation.
Hence the saying by Fredrick the great ‘diplomacy without arms is like music without instrument’.3 • • • Since the emergence of the state system in Europe in the 15th century an organized and fairly coherent system of permanent relations has developed among the actors and even when these relations have been the principle means of communication. Although it is common to separate the diplomatic and military means at the state’s disposal.10. .
10. .4 • The main function of diplomacy is negotiation which broadly means discussion designed to identify common interest and areas of conflict between parties.
Diplomats were usually relatives of the ruling family or of very high rank in order to give them legitimacy when they sought to negotiate with the other state . For most of human history diplomats were sent only for specific negotiations. and diplomacy has been practiced since the first city-states were formed millennia ago.10.5 • • • The ability to practice diplomacy is one of the defining elements of a state. and would return immediately after their mission concluded.
Milan played a leading role. . especially under Francesco Sforza who established permanent embassies to the other city states of Northern Italy. such as the presentation of an ambassadors credentials to the head of state.6 • Modern diplomacy's origins are often traced to the states of Northern Italy in the early Renaissance. It was in Italy that many of the traditions of modern diplomacy began. with the first embassies being established in the thirteenth century.10.
10.7 • • • • • Changes have occurred both in the conduct of diplomacy and in personnel associated with it From bilateral and multilateral Decline in decision making of ambassadors Personnel diplomacy Use of experts and specialists .
10. The enhancement and enlargement of the scope of modern diplomacy and the widening of its agenda has resulted in a change of emphasis (more on economic issues than on traditional high politics0 rather than on major change in function.8 • • • • Increased number of treaties Growth of the importance of media The expansion of international community and non state actors. .
This requires negotiations to approach their tasks from the point of resorting issues of the common interest rather than gain advantage over the other side. .9 • • Diplomacy today involves great psychological skill and perception than in the past.10.
Though diplomatic agreements can sometimes be reached among liberal democratic nations by appealing to higher principles. .10. most real world diplomacy has traditionally been heavily influenced by hard power.7 • • Real world diplomatic negotiations are very different from intellectual debates in a university where an issue is decided on the merit of the arguments and negotiators make a deal by splitting the difference.
and management will be forced to agree to any demand the union makes. then the company will be walked all over by the labor union.10. The same concept applies to diplomatic negotiations. On the other hand. If a labor union is not willing to strike. if management is not willing to take a strike. . then the union is not going anywhere because management has absolutely no incentive to agree to union demands.8 • The interaction of strength and diplomacy can be illustrated by a comparison to labor negotiations.
The gain from winning one negotiation can be much less than the increased hostility from other parts. . Many situations in modern diplomacy are also rules based. When for instance two WTO countries have trade disputes.9 • • There are also incentives in diplomacy to act reasonably. especially if the support of other actors is needed.10. This is also called soft power. it is in the interest of both to limit the spill over damage to other areas by following some agreed-upon rules.
10 • • • Informal diplomacy (sometimes called Track II diplomacy) has been used for centuries to communicate between powers. Most diplomats work to recruit figures in other nations who might be able to give informal access to a country's leadership.10. This occurs in situations where governments wish to express intentions or to suggest methods of resolving a diplomatic situation. In some situations. such as between the United States and the People's Republic of China a large amount of diplomacy is done through semi-formal channels using interlocutors such as academic members of thinktanks. . but do not wish to express a formal position.
or may even act in defiance of governments. such exchanges are called Track III. or confidence-building.10. Sometimes the exchanges may have no connection at all with governments. . in which non-officials (academic scholars. public figures. retired civil and military officials. Sometimes governments may fund such Track II exchanges. social activists) engage in dialogue.11 • Track II diplomacy is a specific kind of informal diplomacy. with the aim of conflict resolution.
may extend over to different regions or to issues gathering local governments in multilateral fora worldwide. local or non-central governments.. However. Some non-central governments may be allowed to negotiate and enter into agreement with foreign central states. provinces.12 • • • Paradiplomacy refers to the international relations conducted by subnational. regions etc.10. regional. The most ordinary case of paradiplomatic relation refer to co-operation between bordering political entities. interest of federal states. .
13 • • Cultural diplomacy is a part of diplomacy. Cultural diplomacy becomes a subject of academic studies based on historical essays on the United States. When classical diplomacy fails. and the Cold war . Europe. In the frame of globalization.10. Joseph Nye points out the importance of having a soft power besides a hard power. a better knowledge can help bridging the gap between different cultures. It alludes to a new way of making diplomacy by involving new non governmental and non professional actors in the making of diplomacy. culture plays a major role in the definition of identity and in the relations between people.