Spearhead Network for Innovative, Clean and Safe Cement and Concrete Technologies

Continuous Monitoring of Setting and Hardening Process of Cement Paste by Means of Elastic Waves
Nenad Bijelić Department of Materials Faculty of Civil Engineering University of Zagreb

Zagreb SPIN Meeting, 7-12 May, 2012

• background – acoustic emission / ultrasoud • fundamentals of AE maesurement
• measurement system • AE data analysis

• application example – early age monitoring of cement paste

Zagreb SPIN Meeting, 7-12 May, 2012

Background to acoustic emission Ed>Rd !!! crack .

Background to acoustic emission Seismology Andrija Mohorovičić .

U.Background to acoustic emission Acoustic Emission .the release of transient elastic waves produced by a rapid redistribution of stress in a material detection of AE wave crack nucleation propagation of generated AE wave propagation of sonic wave [adapted from Grosse. M.C. Ohtsu..: Acoustic Emission Testing] .

Fundamentals of AE measurement Measurement system AE sensor Source generator sample Amplifier Frequency filters PC usually PZT • resonance type • broadband type • band-pass filter • threshold • RILEM TC 185-ATC: Final Report (2005) • RILEM TC 212-ACD: Final Report (2010) .

Ohtsu.: Acoustic Emission Testing] .. M.U.C.Fundamentals of AE measurement Data analysis [adapted from Grosse.

2009] . Hariri 2006 // Mikulić et al. ultrasonic measuring techniques • shear waves [Valič 2000 // Voigt.Early age monitoring of cement paste • setting and hardening processes are the most critical phases during construction → significant influence on properties of concrete structure • necessary to monitor setting and hydration – maturity method can be augmented by other methods to obtain a more comprehensive picture of the hydration process and setting times e.g. 2006 // Gabrijel et al. Shah 2004] • longitudinal waves [Reinhardt. Grosse 2004 // Kraus.

Early age monitoring of cement paste • continuous monitoring possible [adapted from Kamada et al. 2005] .

Early age monitoring of cement paste • experiment scheme .

Early age monitoring of cement paste • experiment scheme .

Early age monitoring of cement paste • hydration of cement paste was monitored • transformation from liquid to solid state – characterised with two points in hydration time: initial setting & final setting • development of strength and stiffness .

Early age monitoring of cement paste • goals of our research: • get measurement system to work • identify ultrasonic wave parameters that could. be indicative of or used to represent period of setting and period of hardening of cement paste . by virtue of their trend.

4.5 and 0.Early age monitoring of cement paste • materials and mixture proportions Properties of CEM I 42. 0.5R cement • • • w/c ratios 0.6 mixing procedure → HRN EN 196-3 Vicat needle test → HRN EN 196-3 .

Early age monitoring of cement paste • Setting of cement paste: liquid ↔ solid • parameters that significantly change during the transformation: • duration – time from the first threshold crossing to the end of the last threshold crossing of the signal in one wave • risetime – time between the first threshold crossing and the peak amplitude of the signal in one wave • both parameters start to change before any change in the Vicat penetration test can be observed • w/c ratio has influence on both parameters – the change in parameter starts at a later time with the increase in w/c ratio (linear correlation) .

Early age monitoring of cement paste • several maxima and minima – problematic contact between the transducer and specimen • first maximum at the age close to the final setting time .

Early age monitoring of cement paste • relatively low values for all cement pastes at the beginning of ultrasonic signal appearance • the end of a sudden increase/decrease close to the final setting time .

two parameters were found to show different trends during hydration which seem to be related to changes other than the transformation from liquid to solid state: • ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) – specimen length / time of flight • signal strength – integral of the rectified voltage signal over the duration of the waveform .Early age monitoring of cement paste • Hardening of cement paste • from the analysis of the ultrasonic signal.

the influence of w/c ratio on UPV becomes evident afterwards • UPV primarily influenced by cement paste stiffness .Early age monitoring of cement paste • impulses transfered only after a certain age → high absorption of the material in the liquid – mash state • UPV reciprocal to w/c ratio • final setting time appears at the speed around 1300 m/s.

morphology.Early age monitoring of cement paste • signal strength reciprocal to w/c ratio • larger scattering observed than in the case of UPV – possible that signal strength is governed by different processes than UPV • signal strength more closely related to microstructure. porosity and microcracs of material [Vary. influence of shrinkage on the amount of transfered energy . 1988].

Concluding remarks • active ultrasonic technique enables continuous monitoring of cement paste at early age thus providing a more comprehensive picture of cement paste hydration • parameters extracted from the waveform (e. signal strength) are indicative of the processes. risetime.e. i. setting and hardening. duration. in the cement paste during hydration .g.

Properties of early age Portland cement mortar monitored with shear wave reflection method. [2] Voigt. str. Florida. O and Derobert. D. [12] Mehta. T.NewYork. [7] Van Breugel. 1420-1426. and Middle East Technical University.. (Ed. D. // International Journal of Microstructure And Materials Properties. Determination of initial degree of hydration for improvement of early-age properties of concrete using ultrasonic wave propagation. S. M. Monteiro. Istanbul : Florida International University. .. Hydration of cementations materials by pulse echo USWR: Method. 33 4(2003). Plenum Press.. J. K. Turkey. K. Bjegović. 2009. Štirmer.. // 7th International Symposium on Non-destructive Testing in Civil Engineering / Abraham.473-482. // Construction in the 21st Century CITC-V / edited by Birgonul. [8] Mikulić.I. str. C.A. P. W. PhD thesis. B. The Application of an Ultrasonic Shear Wave Reflection Method for Non-destructive Testing of Cementbased Materials at Early Ages: An Experimental and NumericalAnalysis. 297-309. M. P. 6(2004). Grosse.A. 18 (2004). // Cement and Concrete Research. X. Milovanović. Aggelis. Gabrijel. str. U.. Sekulić. 145-154. [6] Gabrijel. N. Application of Ultrasonic Measurements for Determination of Setting and Hardening in Cement Paste. I. 101. str. Shah. Nantes : Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees. U. Mikulić. Miami.. 1633-1640. 525-538.. 4(2006). 2009.Press. I.S. D..) / Acousto-Ultrasonics: Theory and Application. P... Delft Univ.). P. 1991. D. 1988. 299–306. 3/4(2006). C. 1. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. third edition. H. apparatus and application examples. properties and materials. Application of ultrasonic methods for early age concrete characterisation. 2004. Cement and Concrete Research. [4] Krauss. University of Leipzig. Milovanović.. [5] Mikulić. Simulation of Hydration and Formation of Structure in Hardening Cement-Based Materials. The acousto-ultrasonic approach. str. Testing of Compressive and Bending Strength of Concrete and Monitoring Acoustic Emission Parameters. 903-908 [9] Philippidis. 10(2000). Concrete . Hariri. M. // Cement and Concrete Composites. K. (ur.References [1] Valič. 2006. str. Delft. NewYork. // ACI Materials Journal. [10] Vary. G.microstructure. [3] Reinhardt. D. Continuous monitoring of setting and hardening of mortar and concrete // Construction and building materials. str. M. T.T. 30. et al. str 1-21 [11] Voigt.. Ankara. D. T. // Duke J. B.. An Acousto-Ultrasonic Approach for the Determination ofWater-to-Cement Ratio in Concrete. 28..

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