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2: D-Ha, Wiesbaden 2005, 294-96
Éndägañ ethnography The É. (also Šadgär) are a member group of the Säbat Bet ÷Gurage confederation. Their settlement area is situated in the southern part of today’s “Énnämor and Énär [or Gunóure] wäräda” of Gurage zone. It is bordered by the ÷Énär in the West, the ÷Énnämor and ÷Geto in the north and the Azärnät-Bärbäre (÷Sélte; ÷Énnäqor) in the east. In the south the neighbours of the É. are the Leemo (÷Hadiyya). Until the 1990s most of the É. territory was part of the “Kontäb [today Miišaa] wäräda” of Hadiyya zone and even before the É. were affiliated with Leemo in one awragga. Small groups of É. are to be found in Hadiyya, Sélte and Kambaata territories. The É. conduct a mixed farming system with a significant importance of ÷énsät. Since generations many É. leave their lands for seasonal or constant labour migration, and nearly every family has relatives outside of É. country. The oral traditions of the É. say that they migrated from GuraŸ (in Akkälä Guzay) to the th south with azmaó Sébhat in the early 14 cent. (cp. BeckHuntAlm lxvi, lxix). The ancestors Éndägañ (also Bädägañ) and his “grandson” Šadgär are said to have led their people into the area. The É. claim to have brought the tabot of Maryam from the north. Its sanctuary was at the early É. settlement of Bušurro on the slopes of the Mugo massive. The tabot itself is said to have been hidden in a cave while the church was destroyed during the war of Ahmad b. th Ibrahim al-Ëazi (Grañ) in the 16 cent. As a relatively small group the É. for the most part of their history were dominated by other th groups. Since the beginning of the 17 cent. the Sooro subgroup of Hadiyya was the dominant power in the area which according to historical remembrance “suppressed” the É. by raids and collection of irregular tributes. After the Leemo th reached Énnäqor at the end of the 18 cent. an alliance of Leemo and É. was established. The alliance was based on strong ties of intermarriage and mutual military aid. The Sooro were pushed to the south of today’s ÷Hossäyna until the th second half of the 19 cent. and the Leemo became protecting partners of the É. Leemo and É. continued their alliance in the many conflicts they had with different Gurage neighbours, the
Azärnät-Bärbäre and in the fight against Ménilék II’s troops. The tradition counts twelve houses of É., but the real number of subdivisions (téw) is much higher. The social system resembles that of the other Säbat Bet Gurage (cp. ShGurage ch. 4, 5). The high-priest of the É. folk-religion is the Saýamar dam, a spirit medium representing Saýamar (also Awaqa), the ÷Waq of É. who was syncretized with Archangel Gabréýel. The Saýamar dam has some significance for the cult of the ÷Boïïä spirit in other areas of the Säbat Bet Gurage country as well. He also had some authority among the Leemo, ÷Mäsmäs and Énär. The É. folk-religion lost its influence after Ménilék’s conquest. Today a great majority of the É. are Orthodox Christians and the memory of the old cults has faded. The recent Saýamar dam Gärammo defines himself as an Orthodox Christian who blesses his people and prays for the well-being of the country.
Src.: ms. BN Éth. 342/Griaule 38; BeckHuntAlm lxvi, lxix. Lit.: BrHad 201–04; ShGurage ch. 4, 5; DIRK BUSTORF, Leemo-Hadiyya und Indagayn-Gurage: Zur Geschichte und Gegenwart ihrer interethnischen Beziehungen, M.A. thesis, Georg August-Universität Göttingen 2002, passim; ID., “Oral Traditions on the Inter-ethnic Relations of the Leemo-Hadiyya and Éndägañ-Gurage”, in: PICES 15, 48-57; GETAHUN WATUMO, Land Tenure System in Konteb Warada (Shoa) 1893–1975. B.A. thesis, Department of History, Addis Ababa University 1988; BEDRU AHMED, The Relationship between the Western Gurage and the Konteb CA 1850-1973, B.A. thesis, Department of History, Addis Ababa University 1984; WORKU NIDA, The Revitalist Movement of Hassen Enjaamo, B.A. thesis, Department of History, Addis Ababa University 1984; JEAN-FRANÇOIS PRUNET – BERHANU CHAMORA, “A Sky-god Cult of Gurage”, in: PICES 13, vol. 2, 559–64; DÉNBÄRU ALÄMU et al., QQMz YL=Oy -h:A-y K<ly +Ws!y <#< (Gogot. Yägurage béòeräsäb tarik, baòélénna qwanqwa, ‘Gogot, the History, Culture and Language of the Gurage People’), Wälqite 1987 A.M. [1994/95 A.D.], 105–07. Dirk Bustorf