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UNIVERSITY OF RAJSHAHI Faculty of Life and Earth Science DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY

Syllabus for the M. Sc. Final Examination, 2009 Session 2008-2009
There shall be three Groups in the M. Sc. Final Examination in Zoology. The Department offers M. Sc. in six special branches, viz. Crop Protection & Toxicology, Ecology, Entomology & Insect Biotechnology, Fisheries, Genetics & Molecular Biology, and Sericulture & Seribiotechnology. Group A and Group B constitute the General (non-thesis) Groups while Group C comprises the Thesis Group. A student may choose any one of the Groups subject to the approval of the Academic Committee of the Department. Both non-thesis students (Groups A and B) and thesis students (Group C) shall choose courses from any one of the following special branches: Special Branches for Group A Ecology Fisheries Genetics & Molecular Biology Special Branches for Group B Crop Protection & Toxicology Entomology & Insect Biotechnology Sericulture & Seribiotechnology

There shall be of 800 marks for each Group. Each theoretical course shall be of 100 marks and the examination shall be of 4 hours duration. For Groups A and B each, there shall be a Practical Examination of 150 marks (6 hours x 4 days = 24 hours duration) at the end of the academic year and a Research Project of 50 marks. There shall be another 100 marks for viva-voce (50 marks), tutorial (25 marks) and class records and collections (25 marks). For Group C, in lieu of Practical Examination and Research Project, 200 marks will be allotted for a dissertation (thesis by research) and 100 marks for: (i) viva-voce (50 marks), (ii) tutorial (25 marks), (iii) laboratory/field preparations and collections (10 marks), and (iv) seminar presentation on dissertation (15 marks).

COURSES OFFERED BY THE SPECIAL BRANCHES

Groups A & C
Courses Zool. M. 611 Zool. M. 612 Zool. M. 613 Zool. M. 614 Zool. M. 615 Zool. M. 616 Zool. M. 621 Zool. M. 622 Zool. M. 623 Zool. M. 624 Zool. M. 625 Zool. M. 626 Zool. M. 631 Zool. M. 632 Breeding Zool. M. 633 Zool. M. 634 Zool. M. 635 Zool. M. 636 : : : : : Course titles Ecological Concept Ecological Energetics & Ecosystem Ecology Environmental Biology Population Ecology & Vermitechnology Conservation Biology in a Changing Climate Ecology Practical (Group A only) Fisheries Biology, Fish Genetics & Biological Limnology Capture Fisheries, Culture Fisheries & Fisheries Management Fish Pathology, Immunology, Fish Parasitology Fisheries Technology & Hatchery Management Fisheries Extension, Economics & Socio-Economics Fisheries Practical (Group A only) Chromosomal & Extra-chromosomal Inheritance Quantitative, Population and Human Genetics & Animal

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: Nucleic acids & Regulation of gene expression : Immunogenetics & Genetic Engineering Microbial Genetics & Applications of Biotechnology : Genetics & Molecular Biology Practical (Group A only) : Insect Pest Biology : Pest Biology & Weeds : Pest & Weed Control : Crop Loss & Toxicology Pest Sampling, Crop-pest Interactions & Pest Ecology Crop Protection & Toxicology Practical (Group-B only) Insect morphology & Taxonomy Insect anatomy, Physiology, Embryology & Ecology : Medical & Veterinary Entomology : Pest Biology & Management : Insect Biotechnology : Entomology & Insect Biotechnology Practical (Group B only) : : : : : : : : : : Food plants of Silkworm Silkworm Biology Silkworm rearing & Diseases Silkworm Genetics & Breeding Silkworm Biotechnology Sericulture & Seribiotechnology Practical (Group B only) Research Project (Groups A and B) Viva-voce (Groups A and B) Viva-voce (Group C only) Thesis by research (Group C only)

Groups B & C
Zool. M. 651 Zool. M. 652 Zool. M. 653 Zool. M. 654 Zool. M. 655 Zool. M. 656 Zool. M. 661 Zool. M. 662 Zool. M. 663 Zool. M. 664 Zool. M. 665 Zool. M. 666 Zool. M. 671 Zool. M. 672 Zool. M. 673 Zool. M. 674 Zool. M. 675 Zool. M. 676 Zool. M. RP. 691 Zool. M. V-A&B. 692 Zool. M. V-C. 693 Zool. M. Thesis. 699

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- 2 Special Branch: Ecology Courses for Groups A & C
Course: Zool. M. 611 Ecological Concept Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours History and scope of ecology: Definitions and preview, historical development of ecology; great personalities and their contributions for the development of ecology; relation to other sciences and human civilization; subdivisions of ecology, modern trends in ecology. Ecology of human population: Demography, history of human population growth (primitive man, industrial man), factors regulating human population. Influence of weather on the organisms: Temperature, moisture, photoperiod. Population dynamics: Definition and concepts; significance of population study; important theories in population ecology; intrinsic rate of natural increase of population; concepts and significance of models in population study with examples; classification and mechanism of outbreaks. Ecological tools and techniques: Theoretical concepts of animal population sampling; estimation of number of animals, mapping of study area. Influence of biotic factors on the organisms: Predators, parasitoids and pathogens. Course: Zool. M. 612 Ecological Energetics & Ecosystem Ecology Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Ecological energetics: Concept of ecosystem; energy flow in ecosystem; laws governing energy flow in the ecosystem, concept of productivity and measuring method. Trophic levels: Concept; autotrophs, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores; food chains, food webs and pyramids of number and pyramid of biomass. Habitats and niche: Definitions and concepts; Gause’s competitive exclusion principle; species coexistence; fundamental and raised niches. Fresh water ecology: Limiting factor in fresh water environment; ecological classification of fresh water organisms; zonation of fresh water habitat; adaptation of lotic animals, classification of lakes. Marine ecology: Importance of marine habitat; zonation of sea, communities of the continental shelf region, communities of the oceanic region. Estuarine ecology: Definition and types, biota and productivity; food production potential. Terrestrial ecology: The terrestrial biota; general structure of terrestrial communities; distribution of major terrestrial communities - the biomes. Course: Zool. M. 613 Environmental Biology Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Microbial ecology: Viable counts, biomass measurement and microscopy; the question of recognition and performance; importance of microorganisms in environment. Radiation biology: Basic concept, kinds of radiations and their properties; source of radiation; units and measurements of radiation; radio-isotopes and their use in biological and agricultural researches; use of radiation; comparative radio sensitivity; radiation effects at ecosystem level; contamination of radio-isotopes, waste management, fall out problem and fate of radio-nucleotides in the environment. Pollution: The cost of pollution; the kind of pollution; the phases of waste treatment; the strategy of waste management and control; monitoring pollution. Environmental health: Principles and methods of epidemiology; detection of outbreaks; environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Ecology of space travel: Types of space support system in long space flight; physiological effects of space flight. Ecology and man: International biological programme (IBP), man and biosphere programme (MAB), IUCN. Course: Zool. M. 614 Pest Ecology & Vermitechnology Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Pest concept: Definition, salient features of different groups of pests; ecology and pest control; agro-ecosystems affect pest population. Pest economics: Pest damage – direct and indirect effects; economics of pest attack and control; forecasting of pest attack. Ecology of cereal pests: Important pests of rice and wheat and their bio-ecology; pest damage and their control. Ecology of vegetable pest: Important pests of eggplant, tomato and bean and their bioecology with special emphasis on aphids, mites and borers.

- 3 Stored product pest ecology: Important stored pests of rice, wheat and cereals; life history, damage and control of stored product pest. Integrated pest management (IPM): Definition; problems and hazards of chemical control; advantages of IPM over chemical control; importance of biological control and its role in friendly environment. Organic farming and sustainable management: Vermicomposting and vermiculture; use of vermicomposting in agriculture; management of biological resources.
Course: Zool. M. 615 Conservation Biology in a Changing Climate Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Climate change and the environment: Global warming and evidences of climate change; causes of climate change; impacts of climate change on ecosystem and conservation. Introduction to conservation: Concepts, definition and history of conservation biology; conservation values and ethics. Biodiversity: Definition, components and importance of biodiversity; global patterns and processes of biodiversity; major threats to biodiversity and their interaction. Habitat degradation and fragmentation: Patterns and causes of habitat transformation; fragmentation process; biological consequences of fragmentation; approaches to habitat conservation. Priority setting and reserve design: History and types of protected areas; aims in reserve design; setting conservation priorities; gap analysis. Overexploitation: Concept, examples of extinction due to overexploitation; biological theory of sustainable harvesting; methods of exploitation monitoring; factors affect overexploitation; reducing risk of over exploitation. Invasive species: Definition and concept; problems by invasive species; paths of invasions; solution of invasions, effect of climatic change on invasions. Ex situ conservation: Definitions and purpose including case studies. Local people and conservation: The myth of the noble savage, reasons to include local people in conservation, ways of including local people. Case study: Sundarbans - Overview, main threats, conservation constraints and possible solutions. Course: Zool. M. 616 Ecology Practical (Group A only) Full marks: 150 (6 x 4 days) a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. l. Comparison of the relative densities of two populations. Estimation of sex ratio of different samples of animals by applying Chi-square test. Comparison of the animal population in different localities by randomized block design. Ecological survey of different groups of animals in different habitat with behaviour in relation to moisture, vegetation, food and other animals. Detection of the effect of mutagens and carcinogens. Detection of arsenic and formaldehyde in different samples. Model test of prey - predator relationship. Collection and identification of crop and vegetable pests. Physico-chemical analysis of water- conductivity, total alkalinity, acidity, CO2, disolved O2 ammonia, N2, hardness. Analysis of soil and aquatic sediments- sampling, handling, transport and storage. Species diversity indices. Visit, survey and collection of natural resources in Sundarbans and submission of report. Collection and survey report should be submitted along with practical note book at the time of examination. Time: 24 hours

Books Recommended Allee, W C et al. Andrewartha, H G and Birch, L C. Andrewartha, H G Begon, M Z and Mortimer, M Brock, T Browing, T O Brown A W A Chhatwal, G. R. Clapha, W B Clarke et al. Elton, C. Hill, D. S. 1987 Hutchinson, G E Kormondy, E J Kormondy, E.I Leith, H and Whittaker, R H Margalef, R Michael, P. Nebel, B J Odum, E P Philliopson, J

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Animal Ecology. The Distribution and Abundance of Animals. The Study of Animal Population. Population Ecology. Principles of Microbial Ecology. Animal Population. Ecology of Pesticides. Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology vol. I &II Human Ecosystem The Study of Animal Population in Theory and Practice. Animal Ecology. Agriculture insect pests of the tropics and their control. An Introduction to Population Ecology. Concepts of Ecology. Readings in Ecology. The Primary Productivity of the Biosphere. Perspective in Ecological Theory. Ecological Methods for Field and Laboratory Investigations Environmental Science. Fundamentals of Ecology. Ecological Energetics.

Quick, H.F Robert, E. R Rutna, F Southwood, T. R. E. Whitton, D A

- 4 : Population Ecology. Ecology Fundamentals in Limnology. Ecological Methods River Ecology

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Special Branch: Fisheries Courses for Groups A & C
Full marks: 100 Course: Zool. M. 621 Fisheries Biology, Fish Genetics & Biological Limnology Time: 4 hours General concept: Concepts of fishery, fisheries, , fisheries items, fisheries biology and biological limnology; classification of fishes; origin and evolution of fishes. External morphology & integument of fishes: Scales: origin, types, structure, modification and functions; Fins: origin, types, structure, modification and functions. Respiration: Respiratory organs (gills, air bladder, lungs); mechanism of respiration; physiology of respiration and transportation of gasses; accessory respiration. Circulatory system in fishes: Heart, blood, blood circulation; arterial system: afferent branchial and efferent branchial systems; venous system; lymphatic system. Excretion & osmoregulation: Osmoregulatory organs; role of kidneys and gills; salt water balance, homeostasis; osmoregulation in freshwater, saline water and diadromous fishes. Food & feeding habit of fishes: Food, ingestion, digestion and assimilation; feeding adaptation. Growth of fishes: Food conversion efficiency and food conversion factor; factor effecting growth; growth curve. Reproduction: Definition and types of reproduction; spermatogenesis, oogenesis, ovulation; sexual dimorphism; breeding cycle and breeding periodicity; fertilization and development; fecundity and fecundity estimation. cryopreservation technique. Behaviour of fishes: Breeding behaviour with particular reference to Labeo, Channa, Sticklebacks, Petromyzon and eels; migratory, schooling and communication behaviour; parental care of fishes. Fish genetics: Breeding and hybridization. sex determination, sex-linked and sex-limited inheritances in fishes, induced breeding of fish; inbreeding, inbreeding problem; induced spawning of Indian and common carps, catfishes and other commercially important fishes of Bangladesh. Biological Limnology: Planktonology: definition, types, distribution and migration; factors effecting growth of plankton; plankton as fish food.

Course: Zool. M. 622 Capture Fisheries, Culture Fisheries & Fisheries Management Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Capture Fisheries: Inland, estuarine and marine capture fisheries. Ecology of freshwater, estuary and sea in relation to fisheries; mangrove fisheries and effect of deforestation. Commercially important fisheries species of the inland open water, estuary and the Bay of Bengal. distribution of fishes in different zones of the sea. Fishing equipments: crafts and gears, their operation and preservation. Principles of fishing: under fishing, optimum fishing and over fishing. Culture Fisheries: Criteria for culturable species (fin fish and non-fin fish). Freshwater and coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh, its scope and importance. Freshwater culture: site selection, soil and water condition, preparation of culturable water body, selection of species and control of aquatic weeds, stocking density, supplemental feeding, culture management. Fish culture methods: extensive, semi-intensive, intensive, mono-poly-mixed and composite fish cultures; integrated fish farming: paddy-cum-fish culture, poultry-cum-fish culture, livestock-cum-fish culture, fish-cum-sericulture, prawn-cum-fish culture, swamp culture, sewage water fish culture, aquarium culture, Community Based Fisheries Management (CBFM). Coastal aquaculture: culturable water, various farming techniques (inter-tidal, sub-tidal, pens, floating cages, bericulture). Culture techniques: marine fishes, shrimps, prawns, crabs, mussels, clams and oysters, brine shrimp, pearl culture. Fisheries Management: Open water fisheries management: riverine, estuarine, marine and flood plains. Fishery reconnaissance: location and detection of fin and non-fin fishes, plankton monitoring, eco-sounding, infra-red photography, fish finder, low-light television, laser ray application, satellite investigation. Fish population dynamics: definition of stock and population, stock abundance, indicators of fluctuating populations, population structure (age, sex, size), theory of fishing, recruitment parameters (reproduction, stocking, immigration), mortality and causes of mortality (fishing and natural), fecundity, rates of survival and mortality, estimation of population size, prey-predator relationships, forage and carnivore fish (F/C) ratio, length-weight relationship and condition factor, software packages for analysis of population dynamics and stock assessment. Landing and post-harvest management: Handling of fresh fish and other fisheries species on board and on shore; characteristics of freshness of fishes: Physical test (appearance, eyes, colour, odour, flesh, skin, gills) and organoleptic test. Fisheries regulations and conservations, protection against hazards and habitat improvement, effective minimum legal size, regulation of fishing effort, protection of broods and spawns, survival of various age groups (up to first maturity and first spawning), Wild Life Ordinance of Bangladesh and regulatory authority, open water fisheries policy of Bangladesh (Jalmohal policy, exclusive economic zone-EEZ of the Bay of Bengal, International Convention on Sea). Course: Zool. M. 623

Fish Pathology, Immunology & Parasitology Full marks: 100

- 5 Time: 4 hours

Fish pathology Introduction to fish diseases: Symptoms, isolation and diagnosis of fish diseases; factors affecting fish diseases: water quality, aquatic vegetation, environmental factors (pollution, contamination, aquatic insects, fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture, stress, handling, malnutrition and animal association) Virulence and infection mechanism of fish diseases: Different types of diseases of fish (infectious and noninfectious diseases. Pathogens and diseases: (i) Fungal diseases (saprolegniosis, brachimycosis, ichthyoptheriasis). (ii) Viral diseases (iridovirus, nodevirus, baculovirus, hypodermal necrosisvirus, DNA virus). (iii) Bacterial diseases (motile aeromonad septicaemia/EUS, columnaris diseases, furunculosis, Pseudomonadaceae, Vibrionaceae, Cytophagaceae (bacterial cold water/gill disease), Edwardsiella septicaemia, Pasteurellaceae, mycobacteriosis (gram positive), bacterial kidney diseases, streptococcal infection). Disease for stress, handling and malnutrition; diseases in important commercial species: prawns and shrimps ; Shellfish and aquarium fish diseases. Treatment of fish diseases: Disinfection method and chemotherapy.

Immunology
Mechanism of immune system: Principles of immunology in fish; Non-specific immune response; specific immune response; preparation and application of vaccine; methods for assessing and optimizing factors for fish vaccines; methods for vaccination in fishes; rules and regulations for use of vaccines and licensing. Parasitology Major groups of fish parasites and their characteristics: Parasitic fauna of freshwater and marine fishes (Chilodonella, Trichodina, Costia, Myxobolus, Dactylogyrus) and shellfishes; classification of parasites. Symbiosis and parasitism: Types of symbiosis, types of parasitism, morphological adaptation of parasites to their mode of life; host-parasite relationship. Host’s reaction to parasites: Cell and tissue reactions, hosts’ specificity; ecology of fish parasites; host-parasiteenvironment relationship; distribution of parasites in aquatic habitats; dynamic changes in parasitic fauna of ponds, lakes and reservoirs. Public health and fish consumption: Parasitic zoonosis and their control. Fish quarantine: Principles and code of practice. Course: Zool. M. 624 Fisheries Technology & Hatchery Management Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Fish feed technology 1. Artificial feeds, importance, advantage in semi-intensive and intensive aquaculture. 2. Feedstuffs: Sources of ingredients for fish feeds, plant and animal origin; survey of commercially available feed ingredients in Bangladesh and their nutritional value; non-conventional fish protein sources-fish silage, single-cell protein, use of micro-encapsulated diets in larval rearing. 3. Toxic constituents of feedstuffs: antinutritional factors present in plant feedstuffs; adventitous toxic factors in feedstuffs. 4. Formulation of feeds based on nutritional requirements of various culturable fish species by the use of square method, spreadsheet method and linear programming method. 5. Feed processing and manufacture: feed mills and their design, component part of a feed mill and pellet mill; compounded feed: hand pellets, expanded pellets, extruded pellets, crumbles; moist and semi-moist pellet; milling, grinding, mixing and preparation; factors affecting pelleting rate and quality; packaging and storage. 6. Feeding regime, intensity, frequency, particle size and types of feed pellets. 7. Effects of environmental factors (temperature, water quality, crowding, etc.) on feeding. 8. Use of binders and antitoxicants in fish feeds. Fish processing technology Characteristics of fresh condition: Organoleptic, bacteriological and chemical test, prevention of mechanical damage in fishes. General principles of fish and shellfish preservation; proximate composition of fish and its application in fish preservation; nutritive value of fish and their changes under preservation treatments; biochemical properties of white and dark muscles of fish. Post-mortem changes: Biochemical changes in fishes and shellfishes during rigor mortis period, rigor mortis and keeping quality of fish; role of protease and bacteria on the spoilage of fishes and shellfishes during post-rigor storage. Chilling of fish: Preservative effect and changes in fishes and shellfishes during chilling, chilling with ice, ice as preservative, other methods of chilling; factors effecting the quality of fishes and fin fishes during chilling. Freezing: Characteristics of refrigerated media and basic process of cold preservation, methods of freezing (shrimp, shellfishes and fin fishes); factors effecting quality during processing and subsequent freezing. Drying and dehydration: Basic mechanism of fish drying, physical properties of fishes in relation to drying, methods and processing technology, drying of salt treated fish; quality aspects of dried fish. Smoking: Preservative effect and changes in fish during smoking, factors effecting smoking, quality aspects of smoked fish. Salting: Types of salting, technological aspects of salting, salting process and characteristic features of salting, effect of salt quality on shelf life of salted fish.

- 6 Canning: Principles of canning, preparation of raw material, canning operation, types and availability of can materials, tests of canned products. Preservation of fishes and fishery products by irradiation: Effect of irradiation on the keeping quality of fishes, effect of multiple doses of irradiation on bacterial flora, status of radiated fish and fishery products. By-products of fishes: Fish protein concentrate (FPC), fish meal, fish oils, fish roe, shark fin, ising glass. Quality control to fisheries products: HACCP, HACCP-based freezing factory (sanitation, inspection and quality control). Packaging: Function of packaging, package selection, packaging materials, packaging regulations, future of packaging. Design of a cold storage and fish processing plant. Hatchery Management Introduction: Definition, scope and importance of fish hatcheries. Hatcheries: Type and essential components; fry production methods; water quality monitoring, water supply and treatment, water pollutants. Induced Breeding: Hormone injection: Fish pituitary gland (PG) and hypophysation, human chorionic gonadotropins (HCG), other ovulating agents, role of induced breeding on fish and hatchery techniques, artificial propagation of carps, catfishes and prawns, induced breeding of major carps and catfishes. Egg handling and egg incubation: Identification of ripe fish, natural and artificial spawning methods, control of spawning time, egg incubation, factors effecting egg development, hatching trays, catfish troughs, hatching baskets, hatching jars, circular incubators, montona hatching box, vertical tray incubator etc. Fry rearing: Time of initial feeding, feeding frequency, feed particle size and feeding methods, rearing of fry and pond management. Transportation of live fry and fingerlings and brood fishes: Equipment, water quality, handling, loading and stocking, shipping, use of anesthetics and antiseptics during transportation.
Course: Zool. M. 625 Fisheries Extension, Fisheries Economics and Socio-economy Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Fisheries Extension: Objectives and principles, extension methods: mass-media, printed media (news papers, wall news papers and posters, blackboard news and notice board, books, magazines, news letters, folders and pamphlets), audio-visual media (radio, television, theatre), individual extension methods (informal contacts, formal visits of the client), group extension methods (PAL-participatory appraisal learning, PRA-participatory rural appraisal, RRA-rapid rural appraisal, demonstrations, excursions) and other extension methods; use SWOT(strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) methods for planning extension programmes. Fisheries Economics (Farm and Marketing Economics): Cost involved in fish farming, land/water areas and its rent or lease value, investment for machines, fertilizers (bio-and chemicals) feeds, seed-fishes and fish seeds, crafts and gears, their preservation and repairing, expenditure for persons involved (officers, clerk, guards, labourers etc.), bank interest for the total invested money etc; income from total production of fish, other incomes from farm yard horticulture and animal husbandry if available in the farming area; evaluation of net gross investment and return, then net balance; comparative study on the private and public farms and their importance in supplying fish in the markets. Fish marketing: Types of fish landing centres according to physical structures (DFDC-wholesale market Khulna, Chittagong, Barisal, Pagla, capital city retailing wholesale markets, divisional, district, municipal town, village markets, door to door hawker markets); demand and supply of fishes according to consumer’s choice. Marketing channel (grower to consumers), price analysis at different levels, cost for transportation and packaging etc; marketing margin, marketing margin ratios during in season and off-season; price index, index number, moving average, price estimation etc. Socio-economy: Family type, family size, age and sex pyramid, source of income, land holding, household status, education, earner dependency ratio, health (hygiene and sanitation), living standard etc.

Course: Zool. M. 626 Fisheries Practical (Group A only) Full marks: 150 (6 x 4 days) Taxonomy, morphometrics and biology: (40 marks) a. Taxonomic study: Species identification b. Morphometric and meristic analysis: Mean, Co-variance and Variance, Standard deviation, Coefficient of correlation, Regression analysis (Y= a+bx), Length-weight relationship (W= aLn/ Y=aXn), Condition factors (K, Kn), Application of t-test etc. c. Age determination d. Accessory respiratory organs e. Reproductive system (male and female) f. Fecundity estimation, Sex ratios and application of Chi-square test, GLI and GSI. g. Feeding adaptations, modification of mouth parts and alimentary canals Capture, culture and management: (35 marks) a. Identification of culturable fisheries species and brood fish selection. b. Identification of developmental stages of fin and non-fin fish. a. Identification of different types of gears. b. Determination of productivity of a pond from physical parameters. c. Determination of breeding period of a given species from a 12 month data on condition factor (supplied data). d. Determination of freshness of fish using visual parameters. Collection: Freshwater fisheries species, crafts and gears. Class record: Time: 24 hours

- 7 Field visit and report: Local fish farm, fish seed multiplication farm, prawn seed farm. Fish pathology and immunology: (40 marks) a. Water management for disease control b. Ecology of waters of ponds, swamps and paddy field c. Isolation and identification of pathogen from diseased fish d. Culture and stock preservation of pathogen e. Determination of virulence of pathogen f. Preparation of vaccine and mode of vaccination g. Detection of antibody h. Potency test of fish vaccines i. Water quality test Fisheries extension, economics and socio-economy: (35 marks) a. Field visit and working with the fisher groups, marginal fish farmers, working principles of CBFM program study, working principle of PRA. b. Evaluation system of investment and return ratio of some farms or fish cultivators. c. Preparation of budget for fish farming and hatchery. d. Practical work for private and public farms and problem and prospect. e. Calculation of price index number of fisheries community, moving average, price estimation, intra- and extra- polation.
Books Recommended Adiyodi and Adiyodi BOBP – Fisheries Development – 1990. Fertilization, Development and Parental Care (Vol. IV) Country papers from the consultationon fisheries extension, January 18-20, 1990. Medan, Indonesia. Bradfield, D.J. 1966. : Guide to Extension Training. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 6. FAO – UN, Rome, Italy. CBFM Project report, 1996. : DOF – Bangladesh, ICLARM, CARITAS, PROSHIKA – Funded by The Ford Foundation. Directorate of Agriculture. Agriculture Extension Manual (in Bengali).Ian Chaston, 1991. : Marketing in Fisheries and Aquaculture, Blackwell Science. IFREMER : Advances in Tropical Aquaculture. J.J. Connel and the staff of the Torry Research Stations. Advances in Fish Science and Technology, Pub. Fishing News Books Ltd. England, Farnham, Surrey. Jiggins, J. and Rolling, N. 1982. : The Role of Extension in People’s Participation in Rural Development, A Technical Report of Human Resources, Institutions, and Agrarian Reform Division. FAO – UN, Rome, Italy. John Kurien : Development of Small-scale Fisheries. Fisheries Cooperatives in Kerala. A critique. BOBP/MIS/I. Jungeling, Inge. 1993 : Guidelines on Fisheries extension. BOBP – For Fisheries Development. Madras, India. P. 1–10. Lagler et al. : Icthyology Lagler : Freshwater Fishery Biology Love : The Chemical Biology of Fishes Malcolm Beveridge : Cage Aquaculture, Fishing News Books. Marshal : The Life of Fishes Moyle and Cech : Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology Nelson : Fishes of the World Proceeding of a workshop on Farming System Development. NRDP/DANIDA, Noakhali, 1985. 1 – 89. Robert R. Stickney (Editor), 2000 : Encyclopedia of Aquaculture, John Wiley and Sons. Stephen Spotte : Fish and Invertebrate Culture, Pub. – A Wiley Interscience Publication. Townsley, Philip. 1996 : Rapid rural appraisal, participatory rural appraisal and aquaculture, FAO – UN. (358). Rome, Italy. Tsai, Chu-fa. 1990. : The Five year research master plan for the Bangladesh Inland and open water capture Fisheries Management. BARC. : :

Special Branch: Genetics & Molecular Biology Courses for Groups A & C
Course: Zool. M. 631 Chromosomal & Extra-Chromosomal Inheritance Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Chromosomal basis of heredity: Inheritance of XY-linked genes, inheritance of X-linked genes, inheritance of Ylinked genes, inheritance of Z-linked genes, inheritance of automosomal genes in Drosophila and Man, sexinfluenced and sex-limited characters. Multiple alleles: Characters of multiple allele, Multiple allelism in Drosophila, rabbits and mice; Blood group alleles in man. Pseudoalleles. Mutation: Classification of mutation, molecular mechanism of mutation, kinds of mutagens, detection of sexlinked recessive and dominant mutations, sex-linked recessive lethal mutation, autosomal recessive and dominant mutations, and autosomal recessive lethal mutations, practical application of mutations. Extra-Chromosomal inheritance: Cytoplasmic inheritance in Paramacium, extra-chromosomal inheritance in Drosophila and milk factor in mice. Determination of sex: Mechanism of sex-determination, Chromosomal theory of sex determination, balance concept of sex determination, Y-chromosome in sex determination, hormonal theory of sex determination, external environment and sex-determination, Gynandromorph, sex-differentiation, dosage compensation.

- 8 Course: Zool. M. 632 Quantitative, Population & Human Genetics and Animal Breeding Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Quantitative Genetics: Polygenes and their inheritance, estimation of the number of polygenes, transgressive variations; Biological variations, their sources of origin and significance. Chromosome mapping: Principles underlying chromosome map construction, determination of gene sequence, map distance and compilation of chromosome map, interference and co-efficient of coincidence. Population and Ecological genetics: Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium; Changes in allelic frequencies due to (a) selection against recessives, (b) dominants, (c) selection favouring heterozygotes, (d) mutations, (e) migration and (f) genetic drift; Estimation of genetic variation in natural populations using electrophoresis and PCR; Genetic differentiation during speciation; Polymorphism in Drosophila and snail. Human Genetics: Human chromosome complements; human disorders associated with autosomal and sexchromosomal abnormalities and polygenes; some common metabolic diseases; genetics of haemoglobin; human twins and their significance in genetic studies; Human Genome Project (HGP) and its relevance to human welfare; eugenics, euphenics and euthenics; Genomics and proteomics. Animal Breeding: Genetic effects of inbreeding, out breeding and cross breeding; Breeding plans for farm animals like chicken, cattle, sheep, pig and goat; Artificial selection (directional, disruptive and stabilizing) and their responses; Genetic control of insect pests. Course: Zool. M. 633 Nucleic acids & Regulation of gene expression Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Nucleic acids: DNA: Physical and chemical structure of DNA, requirements and mechanism of renaturation and denaturation of DNA; mechanism of DNA damage and repair. DNA replication: The basic rule of DNA replication, Semiconservative replication double stranded DNA. Mechanism of action of DNA gyrase and enzymology of DNA replication, DNA purification by buyant density centrifugation. RNA: Classes of RNA molecules, Structure of RNA molecules, Basic features of RNA synthesis, RNA polymerase. RNA processing and transport: Molecular basis of post transcriptional modifications of mRNA, rRNA, removal of intron sequence by RNA splicing processes. Gene: Fine structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes; recombination test, cis- and trans- tests, complementation test, intragenic complementation, the changing concept of gene, the T4II locus, transposons or movable genes. Genetic Code: Basis of cryptoanalysis, Involvement of amino acids in protein synthesis, the genetic code is a triplet code, the code is non-overlapping, and commaless, the code has polarity, codons and anticodons, initiation codons and termination codons, the code is degenerative, the Wobble hypothesis, the code is universal. Biosynthesis of protein: Central dogma and central dogma reverse, Components of protein synthetic machinery, Mechanism of protein synthesis (Initiation, elongation, and termination). Regulation of gene expression: Regulation of gene action in prokaryotes, enzyme regulation of gene action, gene regulation of gene action, operon hypothesis, induction and repression in prokaryotes, regulation of gene expression of eukaryotes, regulation of transcription by translation, regulation of transcription by site specific inversion. Course: Zool. M. 634 Immunogenetics & Genetic Engineering Time: 4 hours Immunogenetics: Introduction of immune system, Regulation of the immune response, Genetic control of immune response, Evolution of immunity, Invertebrate immunity, Vertebrate immunity, Lymph myeloid tissues in lower vertebrates, Immunity to viruses, Bacteria, Fungi and Protozoa. Vaccnation: Immune to response to vaccination. Live and killed conventional vaccination, efficiency and safety of vaccination, Biotechnology designs vaccination, modern diagnostic methods. Bacterial Genetics: Recombination; transformation; conjugation and transduction in bacteria. Monoclonal Antibody: Mechanisms and uses; consideration and obstacles. Genetic Engineering: Historical perspective; synthetic DNA; polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Preparation of recombinant-DNA. Plasmids: Characteristics, types and isolation of plasmid DNA; Curing of plasmid DNA by physical and chemical methods; plasmid replication; Physical methods of identifying a plasmid containing foreign DNA and role of plasmid in molecular biology. Characteristics of cosmids. Restriction enzymes: Types, nomenclature, functions and importance. Gene Cloning: Historical perspective; types of cloning (DNA, reproductive and therapeutic cloning); Uses of cloning technologies; Cloned animals; Risks and benefit of cloning. Course: Zool. M. 635 Microbial Genetics & Applications of Biotechnology Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Microbiology and Public Health: Basic concepts of microbiology. Microbiology of Food: Food spoilage: The condition of spoilage; meats and fish; poultry and eggs; breads and bakery products; milk and dairy products. Food

Full marks: 100

- 9 Preservation: Heat; low temperature; drying; chemical; radiation; preventing food borne diseases.
Epidemiology of infectious diseases: Diseases of man; principles and control of infectious diseases; bacterial diseases (air-borne, food-borne and sexually-transmitted diseases), viral diseases, fungul diseases, rickettsial diseases; pathological aspect of cells. Transgenic Animals: Technique of gene placement into the cells of the transgenic animal; Transgenic animal products; Risks and benefit of transgenic animal. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): Production of GMOs; Why are GMOs controversial?; Where and why are GMOs used?; Advantages and disadvantages of GMOs. Application of biotechnology: Pharmaceuticals: Production of insulin, vaccine and growth hormone; interferon. Agriculture: Transgenic plants; herbicide, virus and insect resistant plants. Industry: Production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages; vinegar; lactic acid; wine and enzymes. Environmental applications of biotechnology: Concept; Biotechnological approach of environmental pollution abatement; Biodegradation of pollutants; Toxic site reclamation; Role of enzymes and plasmid in the degradation of pollutants. Microbial biotechnology: Traditional uses of microorganisms; Microbes as insecticides and chemical factories. Course: Zool. M. 636 Genetics & Molecular Biology Practical (Group A only) (6 x 4 days) Chromosomes & chromosomal inheritance: Preparation and study of giant chromosomes from the salivary glands of Drosophila; Preparation and identification of different stages of meiosis from grasshopper testes; Study of the simple Mendelian and sex-linked inheritance in Drosophila; Study of Drosophila mutants; Construction of chromosome maps in Drosophila. Quantitative genetics: Identification of autosomal and sex-chromosomal mutants in Drosophila; Studies and identification of human karyotypes; Studies and estimation of such quantitative traits as sternopleural bristles in Drosophila, and heterosis and correlation for cocoons in Bombyx mori; Studies on the effects of mutagens and aging on Drosophila and methods of estimating such effects. Recombinant DNA technology & genetic engineering: Extraction of plasmid DNA from E. coli and its demonstration by gel electrophoresis; Separation and identification of amino acids by paper chromatography. Immunogenetics & microbiology: Studies on culturing, isolation and purification of bacteria; Procedures of antibiotic sensitivity test for bacteria. Books recommended Adams, R.L. et al. : The biochemistry of nuclic acids. Ahlusalia, K.B. : Genetics Alberts et al. : Molecular biology of the cell. Alcamo, I.E. : Fundamentals of Microbiology Altenberg, E. : Genetics Ananthanarayan, R. & Paniker, J.C.K. : Text book of Microbiology Auerbach, C. : Mutation Research Ayala, F.J & Kiger, Jr. : Modern Genetics Benjamin, H. : Gene VI Benstey, R.R. : Hand book of histological and cytological techniques. Biswas, S.B. & Biswas, A : An introduction to virus. Boyed, W. : A Text book of Pathology Brown, T.A. : Gene Cloning Burns, G.W. : The Science of Genetics Carpenter, P.Z. : Microbiology Chowdhury, M.R. : Modern Medical Microbiology Crick, F.H.C. : Nucleic Acid Darke, J.W. : The molecular basis of mutation Darlington, C.D. & Lacour, L.F. : The handling of chromosomes Davidson, J.F. : The biochemistry of the nucleic acid. Desmond, S.T.N. : An Introduction to genetic Engineering Dupraw, T.E.J. : DNA and chromosome Eckles, H.C. & Combs, B.W. : Milk and Milk products Falconer, D.S. : Introduction of quantitative Genetics Freifelder, D. : Molecular Biology Frobisher, M. : Fundamentals of Microbiology Geise, A.C. : Cell Physiology Gloner, D.M. : Principles of gene cloning Jay, J.M. : Modern Food Microbiology Kingsman, S.M. & Kingsman, A.J. : Genetic Engineering. Klung, S.W. & Cummings, R.M. : Essentials of Genetics Kumar, S.D. : Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Lowey, A.C. & Siekevitz, P. : Cell Structure and Function. Meynell, G.E. : Bacterial plasmid. Novitski, E. : Human genetics Prave, P. et al. : Basic Biotechnology. Primrose, S.B. : Modern Biochemistry. Primrose, S.B. : Principles of gene manipulation. Rashid, K. M. et al. : Text book of community medicine and public health. Scaife, J. et al. : Genetics of bacteria Schiegel, H.G. : General Microbiology. Singleton, W.R. : Elementary Genetics Sinnott, et al. : Principles of Genetics

Full marks: 150

Time: 24 hours

Smith, J.B. Snyder, A.L. et al. Stern, E. Strickberger, M.W. Sutton, H.E. Suzuki, D.T. & Griffiths, A.J.F. Swanson, C.P. Szkeley, M. Verma, P.S. & Agarwala, V.K. Walker, J.M. & Gingold, E.B. Watson, et al. Watson, J. et al. Watson, J.D. et al. Watson, J.D. Winchester, A.M.

- 10 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Biotechnology Principles. General Genetics Principles of human Genetics Genetics An introduction to human Genetics An introduction to Genetic analysis The cell Structure. From DNA to protein Genetics / Cytology Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Recombinant of gene cloning Modern biology of the gene Molecular Biology of the Gene. The molecular biology of the gene Genetics.

Special Branch: Crop Protection & Toxicology Courses for Groups B & C
Course: Zool. M. 651 Insect Pest Biology Time: 4 hours Insect structure and life process: General organization: The head (mouth parts and antennae), The thorax (wings and legs), The abdomen, Circulation of blood, Respiration, Nervous system, Sense organs, Reproduction and embryonic development. Insect taxonomy: Classification of insects with special reference to pest and entomophagous insects; insect preservation; shipment and identification. Major tropical crop pests: Description, biology, extent of damage and control of the important tropical crop and storage pests of the following groups of insects: Orthroptera, Isoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera. Course: Zool. M. 652 Pest Biology & Weeds Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Nematodes: i) Structure and organization of nematodes: Body wall, nervous system, alimentary system, secretory and excretory system, reproductive system; Modes of reproduction, sex determination, and embryogenesis. ii) Phytonematology: Morphology and systemetics of Tylenchida, Dorylaimia, Trichodoridae. iii) Plant parasitic nematodes: Sedentary endoparasites, migratory endoparasites and ectoparasites. iv) Survival through arrested development in plant parasitic nematodes: v) Disease complexes and economics: Evolution of parasitism, plant reactions, Ecological association of nematodes. vi) Entomopathogenic nematodes: vi) Agricultural importance and control strategies: The bases for nematode control; prevention, crop rotation, cultural practices, physical methods, resistance, biological control, chemical control. vii) Laboratory and field techniques related to Nematology. Mites: Tetranychids and Eriophyids Mollusca: Snails and slugs Vertebrate Pests: Birds and mammals; Major weeds of tropical Crops: Grass weeds, sedges and broad leaf weeds. Course: Zool. M. 653 Pest & Weed Control Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Principles of pest control: Definition of the term pest; History of pest control; Pest management practice (preventive practice, Therapeutic practice, selection of tactics, integration of tactics); agroecosystem pollination; insect pheromones and hormones in relation to pest control; development of pest status, pest damage, economics of the pest attack and control. Methods of pest control: Natural Control (Climatic factors, Natural barriers, Natural enemies, Diseases); Applied Control (Legislative methods; physical methods; cultural methods; Plant Resistance; Biological control; Genetic control; Chemical control; Integrated Pest management; Radioactive isotopes and ionising radiations in pest control). Weed control: Short comings of mechanical control; weedicides; biological control of weeds. Pesticides: Chemistry and toxicology of inorganic and organic (natural and synthetic) pesticides; Mode of action of pesticides Classification of pesticides according to mode of action, insecticide-induced symptoms, mode of action of neuroactive and respiratory poisons; Pesticide formulations; Chemicals used with pesticides: synergists, solvents, diluents, surfactants, stickers and deodorants; Pesticides in current use, IGR; Repellants; Attractants; Antifeedants; Chemosterilants. Crop protection equipments: Necessity of appliances, Types and description of appliances; Spray lance rig and

Full marks: 100

- 11 boom, agricultural aircrafts, Maintenance of appliances. Course: Zool. M. 654 Crop Loss & Toxicology Full marks: 100
Time: 4 hours Pest damage to crop plants: Pest damage assessment and crop yields; types of pest damage to crop plants. Crop loss: Economic threshold, Assessment of levels of infestation, Reasons and methods of assessing crop losses, Use of cost/potential benefit ratio, Relation between pest intensity and crop loss. Environmental toxicology: Principles of ecotoxicology; chemical ecology; tropical environmental aspects of formulation and application; Pesticide movement in water, air and soil; pathway of pesticide degradation, activation and biomagnification in the environment. Pesticide residue analysis: Residual action and residues; Techniques of pesticide residue analysis in plants, soils and animal tissues, Pesticide residues monitoring. Safety and precautions: Hazards of insecticides; Precautions to reduce hazards, Safety and precautions of application of insecticides and weedicides; Clinical symptoms and treatment of pesticide poisoning; Antidotes for organic, botanical, pentachlorophenol and inorganic pesticides. Resistance and metabolism: Resistance to Pesticides (Definition, history, mechanism of resistance, difference between R strain and S strains, genetics of resistance); Metabolism of insecticides (reactions involved, detoxification enzymes and metabolism of organochlorine, organophosphates and botanical insecticides). Toxicological statistics: Bioassay experiments and Probit analysis of correlated data: Topical application (choice of solvent, droplet size and insecticide concentration, size of application), Residual exposure methods (dipping and spraying, painting, application in volatile solvents, exposure to treated grains), Direct Spraying on test insects, Evaluation methods, The median effective dose, Median residual life, Fiducial limits, heterogeneity, Pesticide dilution Stoke’s law, Importance of quantal response assessment, Obtaining date for quantal response, Statistical procedures, correction for control mortality. Course: Zool. M. 655 Pest sampling, Crop-pest interactions & Pest ecology Time: 4 hours Surveillance and sampling: Common sampling techniques in insect pest management (In Situ counts, Knockdown, Netting, Trapping, Extraction from soil, Indirect techniques, Auxiliary Survey equipments); The sampling programmes( Kinds of estimates, Descriptive Statistics, Criteria of estimates, Programmes dimensions, Pest management scouts and scouting records, sequential sampling); Forecasting and Protective Monitoring (Necessity of forecasting and monitoring pest attack, Practice of forecasting and monitoring of pest attack, Examples of pest forecasts for soil and air-borne pests). Ecological management of crop environment: Ecological role of insect pests; Dynamics of insect life systems, Effects of environment on insect development; regulation of insect population; Reducing average favorability of the ecosystem; disrupting continuity of pest requites; diverting pest populations away from crop; Reducing the impact of insect injury. Crop-pest interaction: Insects, weeds and crop interactions; Tritrophic interactions among plants herbivores and their natural enemies, Gall, rust and malformation of leaves, roots and fruits due to pest attack. Economic decision levels for pest populations: Concept of economic levels; Dynamics of economic Injury levels, calculation of economic decision levels using economic levels. Insecticide law and regulations: International and national Laws of insecticide regulation, pesticide Label regulation Applicator certification, Regulating pesticides. Course: Zool. M. 656 Crop Protection & Toxicology Practical (for Group B only) Full marks: 150 (6 x 4 days) a. b. c. d. e. f. Identification of major crop pests and weed. Pinning, setting, preservation, shipment and duration of insect pests. Preparation of permanent slides of insect pest; measurement and drawings. Handling of manually operated, pre-pressurized and motorized sprayers and selection nozzles; determination of sprayers parameters and calibration of sprayers. Determination of LD50 and LD90 in bioassay experiments. Sampling of insect and weed pests in different crop fields Books Recommended Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1992 Attwood, P. J. 1975 Atwal, A. S. 1993 Boardman, R., 1986 Brent, K. J. and Athi, R. K. 1987 Coats, J. R. 1982 Coulson, R. N and Witter J. A. 1984 Ghosh, M. R. 1989 Green, M. B., Hartley, G. S. and West, T. T. 1987. Hill, D. S. 1987 Kumar, R. 1986 Martin, H. and Woodcock. D. 1987 Matthews, G. A. 1984. : : : : : : : : : : : : : Dimensions of Insect-Plant Interactions Crop Protection Agricultural Pests of India and South-East Asia Pesticides in World Agriculture Rational Pesticide use Insecticide mode of action Forest Entomology Concepts of Insect Control Chemical for crop improvement & Pest Management. Agriculture insect pests of the tropics and their control. Insect Pest Control The Scientific Principles of Crop Protection. Pest Management. Time: 24 hours

Full marks: 100

Olive, J. A. 1979. Oudejaus, J. H. 1982. Pedigo, L.P. 1996 Saha, L.R., 1992 Sanders, C. L. 1986. Smith, F. H. and Pimental, D. 1975 Srivastava, K. P.1993 Waage, J. and Greathead, D. 1986 Worthius, C R. 1987. Youdeowei, A. and Service, M.W. 1983

- 12 : : : : : : : : : : Toxicology. Agro-pesticides their Management and application. Entomology and Pest Management Handbook of Plant Protection Toxicological aspects of Energy Production. Pest Control Strategies A Text Book of Applied Entomology Insect Parasitiods The pesticide Manual. Pest and vector management in the tropics.

Forensic

Special Branch: Entomology & Insect Biotechnology Courses for Groups B & C
Course: Zool. M. 661 Insect morphology & Taxonomy Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Morphology Head: Mouthparts - types and their adaptation to various modes of feeding. Thorax: Wing-venation with modifications, movement, flight muscles, wing articulation. Legs: Attachment, structure, musculature and adaptations in different habitats, mode of locomotion. Abdomen and Genitalia: Endoskeleton and musculature. Integument: Structure, chemistry and function. Introduction to Insect Taxonomy: Alpha (α)-taxonomy, Ootaxonomy, Chaetotaxonomy, Cytotaxonomy, Chemotaxonomy. Classification up to families with particular reference to those having biological and economic importance (15important orders). Course: Zool. M. 662 Insect anatomy, Physiology, Embryology & Ecology Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Anatomy & physiology of digestive, circulatory, reproductive, nervous and sense organs; excretory and respiratory systems; light and sound producing organs; endocrine organs (hormone and hormonal control); pheromones; insect nutrition. Embryonic & Postembryonic Development Water & Temperature Relations Diapause Insect Distribution & Population Dynamics, Phase Variation, Migration & Dispersal, Mimicry Plant-Insect Interaction Course: Zool. M. 663 Medical & Veterinary Entomology Time: 4 hours Medical Entomology (i) Introduction, history and scope, classification and identification of medically important arthropods. (ii) Zoogeography, biology, pathogenicity (diseases) and control of the following major insect vectors of public health importance: Mosquitoes, sand flies (leishmaniasis), houseflies and horseflies, bedbugs, fleas, lice and biting midges; mites (scabies mites, scrub typhus mites) and ticks (soft ticks and hard ticks). (iii) Distribution, biology, symptoms and control of the following major vector-borne diseases prevalent in Oriental Region: (i) Malaria, (ii) Kala Azar, (iii) Dengue, (iv) Filariasis, (v) Encephalitis, (vi) Leishmaniasis, (vii) Plague, (viii) Loa loa, (ix) Dermatitis, (x) Louse and flea-borne typhus. (iv) Zoonosis. (v) Forensic Entomology: History and Scope, Origin and Applications. Forensically Important Insects. (vi) Venomous Insects. Veterinary Entomology History and scope; biology and disease relations of the major insects, and acarine pests of important livestocks (cattle, goats, horses and poultry). Maggot therapy Course: Zool. M. 664 Pest Biology & Management Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Pest Biology, Nature of Damage and Their Control (i) Agricultural pests: Pests of paddy, wheat, maize, sugarcane, mustard, major vegetables, cotton, fruits (mango, banana, litchi, guava and pineapple) and tea. (ii) Stored grain pests: Paddy and rice pests, flour beetles, cigeratte beetles, lesser mealworm, Indian meal moth,

Full marks: 100

- 13 almond moth, dryfish beetles, khapra beetles and pulse beetles. (iii) Forest Pests: Insect pests of forests. Methods of Pest Control (i) Cultural control; Physical and Mechanical control; Genetic control and Sterile Insect Technique; Legislative control, quarantine. (ii) Biological control: Manipulation and exploitation. (iii) Chemical control: Classification of pesticides; pesticide formulation; toxicity, Probit Analysis; symptoms and treatment of pesticide poisoning; pesticide safety, transport, spills, disposal, storage and display of pesticides; tolerance, detoxification and resistance mechanisms; laws of pesticide regulations; spray equipment and maintenance of spraying tools. (iv) Pest ecology and environmental management of pests. (v) Semiochemicals: Pheromones and hormones in pest control; Insect growth regulators (IGRs). (vi) Integrated Pest Management (IPM): History, scope and present status; role of IPM in pest management.
Course: Zool. M. 665 Insect Biotechnology Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours A. Mass rearing of insects: (a) Economically important insects (b) Pollinating Insects: Biology of pollinating insects and their role in pollination, and propagation. B. Gene and Genome Organization in Insects a. Nuclear and Extra-nuclear DNA in insects. (i) Introduction, (ii) Repetitive DNA in insects, (iii) Composition of insect DNA, (iv) Structure of the nucleus, (v) Euchromatin and Heterochromatin, (vi) Centromeres, (vii) Telomeres, (viii) Extranuclear inheritance in mitochondrial genes, (ix) Transposable elements for genome alteration. b. Genetic Systems, Genome Evolution, and Genetic Control of Embryonic Development in Insects (i) Introduction, (ii) Genetic Systems in Insects, (iii) Endopolyploidy in somatic tissues of arthropods, (iv) Dynamic insect genomes, (v) Middle repetitive DNA in the nucleus, (vi) Highly repetitive DNA, (vii) Production of proteins, (viii) Multiple genomes in insects, (ix) Insect development. C. Molecular Genetic Techniques a. Recombinant DNA technology: Basic steps and their applications. b. DNA sequencing and the evolution of the Omics. c. DNA techniques: Electrophoresis and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and their applications. d. Molecular Genetics of insect behaviour (i) Inroduction, (ii) The insect nervous system, (iii) Traditional and Molecular genetic analyses of behaviour. e. Transgenic Pest and Beneficial Insects for Pest Management Programs (i) Introduction, (ii) Genetically modified insects and use of transgenic methods, (iii) Germ line transformation methods, (iv) Deployment of transgenic pest and beneficial arthropods, (v) Release of transgenic arthropods and their risks. D. Tissue Culture (i) Basic concept of tissue culture, equipments, preparation of media, cell culture methods. (ii) Culture of insect and tick cells. Course: Zool. M. 666 Entomology & Insect Biotechnology Practical (Group B only) Full marks: 150 4 days) a. Study of insects in their environments: collection, preservation and identification of insects of different groups. b. Study of the life cycle/history of different groups. c. Dissection of different organ/system of representatives from different orders of insect d. Preparation of histological slides and whole mounts of insects. e. Making of Nakka and Longs troth hive, identification of different parts of the hive. f. Inspecting of the bees, spotting the queen, identification of different cells of the comb. g. Identification of different stages of honey bee larvae, dissection of morphological and anatomical structures of adult and larval bees. h. Identification and dissection of varroa mite. i. Identification, collection and preservation of pollen. j. Detection of moisture content of honey. Books Recommended Akratanakul, P. : Honey bee diseases and enemies in Asia: A Practical Guide Albrechst : Anatomy of Migratory Locusts Brent and Atkin : Rational Pesticide Use Carter : Insect in Relation to Plant Diseases Chapman : Insect structure and function Coats, J R : Insecticide Mode of Action Coulson, R N and Witter, J A : Forest Entomology: Ecology and Management Clauson : Entomophagous Insects DeBach, P : Biological Control of Weed and Insect Pests Detheir : Insect Sense Davidson, R H & Lyon W E : Insect Pest of Farm, Garden and Orchard Time: 24 hours (6 x

FAO

- 14 : Beekeeping in Asia: Bulletin Beekeeping in Africa: Bulletin Probit Analysis Chemicals for Crop Improvements and Pest Management Pashu-pakhir Kittatta Text Book of Entomology The Asiatic hive bee Medical Insects and Arachnids Destructive and useful insects Hand Book of Toxicology The Bees of the World Insect Resistance in Crop Plant Apiculture: Know the bees, Manage the apiary 6th Edi. Beekeeping for Honey Production in SriLanka Insect Physiology Text Book of Entomology Medical Entomology for Students The Principles of Insect Morphology Insect Pathology Beneficial Insects The Principles of Biological Control Chemical Control of Insect Insect Physiology

FAO Finney Green, M N at al. Hoque, M. Imms, A D Kevan, P. Lane, R.W. & Crosskey, R.W. Metcalf and Flint Megheran Michner, C.D. Painter Prost, P.J. & Medori, P. Punthiata, R.W.K. Roeder Ross Service, M.W. Snodgrass, R E Steinhaus Swanson Sweetman West and Hardy Wigglesworth, V V

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

Special Branch: Sericulture & Seribiotechnology Courses for Groups B & C
Course: Zool. M. 671 Food plants of Silkworms Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours History and scope: History of sericulture; nature and importance of sericulture industry; scope, limitations and economic importance of sericulture in Bangladesh. Food plants of mulberry silkworm: Origin, distribution and varieties of mulberry plants cultivated in Bangladesh. Brief Botanical description of mulberry: Types of leaves, chemical composition of leaves. Climatic and other conditions required for the growth of mulberry, soils suitable for mulberry; Types of soil found in Bangladesh. Propagation of mulberry: Seedling, cutting, grafting and layering. Cultivation of mulberry: Different systems of cultivation – tree, lowcut, high bush and bush; selection and preparation of land; selection of varieties of mulberry plant; manuring; irrigation; pruning and harvesting of leaves. Diseases and pests of mulberry: Fungal, bacterial, viral diseases and mineral deficiencies disorders and their control measures; weed and insect pests and their control measures (cultural operations, chemical: weedicides, fungicides, insecticides and biological control). Food plants of non-mulberry silkworm: food plants of eri, muga and tasar silkworms. Course: Zool. M. 672

Silkworm Biology Full marks: 100

Time: 4 hours Classification: Classification of the class Insecta with special reference to Isoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera; kinds of silkworms; Systematic position of mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms in animal kingdom with their salient features. Morphology of larva, pupa and moth of Bombyx mori L. Life cycle: Life cycles of mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms. Anatomy: Different types of glands, structure of silk glands and their secretions; digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory, nervous and reproductive systems of Bombyx mori L. Physiology of mulberry silkworm: Ingestion of mulberry leaves, digestion, absorption and assimilation of nutrient materials; what is silk? biochemistry of silk and biosynthesis of silk protein during larval growth; secretion and formation of silk; physiology and functions of circulation, respiration and excretion; reproduction and development- oogenesis, spermatogenesis, fertilization of egg and its development up to hatching. Growth and metamorphosis: Growth and developmental curve of larva; metamorphosis of mulberry silkworm. Course: Zool. M. 673 Silkworm Rearing & Diseases Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours

- 15 Silkworm rearing: Rearing houses and appliances; disinfection of the rearing room; hatching and brushing; chawki rearing; late age rearing, spinning and mounting, gradation of cocoons. Function and importance of grainage in sericulture development; multivoltine and bivoltine hybrid preparation. Preparation of layings; moth examination; preservation and incubation of eggs before and after treatment; photoperiod and natural hibernation, artificial hatching of hibernated eggs. Role of silkworm seed organization in Bangladesh. Crop schedule for silkworm rearing with special reference to the environmental conditions of Bangladesh. Diseases of silkworm: Causal agents; infection; life cycle of causal agents; symptoms, prevention and control of pebrine, polyhedrosis – glassareie and flachereie and muscardine diseases of silkworm. Parasites and predators of silkworm larvae, pupae and adults; pests of stored cocoons and their products; control measures. parasitoid of silkworm larvae; life cycle of uzi fly; physical, chemical, male sterile technique and biological control of uzi fly.
Course: Zool. M. 674 Silkworm Genetics & Breeding Time: 4 hours Varietal materials of mulberry silkworm: Varietal materials of silkworm, chromosome number, genetic basis of variation in silkworms; collection and preservation of varietal materials. Mendel’s law of inheritance; interaction of genes with special reference to phenotypic expression in silkworm. Population genetics: Hardy Weinburg law and gene frequency. Silkworm breeding: Objectives of silkworm breeding; methods of silkworm breeding; hybridization- selection of parents for hybridization, selection – pedegree and mass selection, methods of hybridization; back cross method of hybridization-merits and demerits. Breeding for resistance/tolerance to disease and adverse physical conditions: Sources of disease resistance, selection of parental materials; hybridization for disease resistance; back cross method for dominant resistant character; back cross method for recessive resistant character Mutation and mutation breeding: Definition, kinds of mutation; mutations in silkworm; induction of useful mutation in silkworm; mutagenic agents; radiation sensibility in silkworm; measurement of mutation frequency in silkworm; methods of mutation breeding. Genetics of cocoon colour: Colour variation in different cocoon layers; genetic analysis of cocoon colour produced by carotenoid and flavonoid pigments; relationship between blood colour and cocoon colour; pigment content and geographical distribution of silkworm races. Sex determination: Theories of sex determination; sex determination in silkworm; chromosome, polyploidy and parthenogenesis in Bombyx mori L. Heterosis: Definition and causes of heterosis; estimation of heterosis and combining ability- its practical application in silkworm breeding; polyhibrids and current tendency of silkworm breeding. Course: Zool. M. 675 Silkworm Biotechnology Full marks: 100 Time: 4 hours Genes and genome regulation in eukaryotes: DNA, Gene and DNA replication; Transcription, translation and regulation of eukaryotic DNA; Nuclear and extra nuclear DNA in insects; Genetic system and genetic control of embryonic development in insects. Molecular genetic techniques: Some basic tools: how to cut, paste, copy, measure and visualize DNA; Cloning and expression vectors, libraries and their screening; DNA sequencing; DNA amplification by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): basic principles, modification and research application; Transposable-element vectors to transform silkworm; sequencing data analysis. Molecular systematics: Overview; Molecular genetics of silkworm; Molecular methods of molecular systematics; Targets of DNA analysis; Transgenic pest and pest management programs. Tissue culture: General Methods: Basic concepts, equipments, preparation of media, cell culture methods; Methods for setting up primary cultures specific to silkworms; organ cultures in silkworms: imaginal disc, integument, brains, prothoracic glands, silkglansds, Dechorionated egg culture and further development up to imaginal stage; Cell cloning, identification of cell lines, large-scale cell culture. Transgenic and cloned silkworm: Prospects and problems (an overview). Course: Zool. M. 676 Sericulture Practical (Group B only) (6 x 4 days) 1. Collection, preservation, identification and submission of the following: (a) Insect pests of food plants of silkworm (b) Disease infected leaves of food plants of silkworm (c) Pests of silkworm (d) Diseased larvae, pupae and adult of silkworm. 2. Identification and uses of garden equipments required for mulberry cultivation and rearing appliances. 3. Demonstration: Propagation of mulberry-preparation of cuttings and saplings and plantation in the field. 4. Different methods of pruning of mulberry followed in Bangladesh. 5. External morphology of silkworm larvae, pupae and moths.

Full marks: 100

Full marks: 150

Time: 24 hours

- 16 6. Dissection of larva, pupa, moth and studies of silk glands, digestive, respiratory, excretory, nervous and reproductive systems of silkworm. 7. Individual rearing: cellular and mass rearing of silkworm. 8. Measurement of quantities of formalin and water for disinfection of rearing room and appliances. 9. Selection of seed cocoons. 10. Observation of heterosis on different economic traits in silkworm. 11. Studies on the combining ability for cocoon characters in silkworm. 12. Studies on the relationship among larval, cocoon and egg characters of silkworm. 13. Studies on spermatogenesis and oogenesis. 14. Artificial hatching of hibernated eggs. 15. Identification of male and female larva, pupa and adult of silkworm. 16. Mother moth examination for the production of disease free laying. 17. Identification of pebrine spores, muscardine spores, bacteria and polyhedral bodies of silkworm.
Alberts et al. 2002 Arora and Gupta Brown, T.A. 2002 Chowdhury, S N Chowdhury, S N Copper, B A Griffiths et al. 1999 Hutchinson, C M Jolly, M S et al. Jolly, M S Jolly, M.S. Katsumata, F Kovalov, I A Krishnaswami et al. Krishnaswami et al. Rergusen, D C Sarkar, D C Tanaka Y Tanaka Y Tazima, Y Tazima, Y Tazima, Y Ullal & Narsimhanna Yokiyama, T Yokoyama, T Books Recommended : Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th edn.). Garland Science. : Taxonomic studies on some of the Indian non-mulberry silkmoths : Genomes (2nd edn.). Garland Science. : Muge Culture : Sericulture : Silkworm Rearing Handbook : Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th edn.). W. H. Freeman & Co. : Pebrine in India. : Tasar Culture : Industrial Bivoltine Grainage : Industrial Bivoltine Grainage : Text Book of Tropical Sericulture : Silkworm Breeding Stocks : Manual of Sericulture (Vol.1) : Manual of Sericulture (Vol.2) : The moths of America, North of Mexico (Bombycedae, Saturnidae) : Sericulture in India : Genetics of the Silkworm : Sericology : Silkworm Eggs : The Genetics of the Silkworm : The Silkworm: an important laboratory tool : Handbook of Practical Sericulture : Synthesized Science of Sericulture : Silkworm selection and hybridization