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ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

In the year 1820, it was discovered by Orested that an electric current produces a
magnetic field. Soon after this, efforts were made to observe the converse of the
magnetic effects of current, i.e. to show that magnetic field may produce electric
current. Michel Faraday in England in 1831 demonstrated that electric current can
be produced by employing a changing magnetic field. This phenomenon is called as
electromagnetic induction.
Faraday’s Laws of Electromagnetic Induction
Faraday summed up his experimental results in the form of two laws known as
Faraday’s Laws of electromagnetic induction .These are stated as follows
First law: When the magnetic flux linked with the coil changes, an emf is induced
in it which lasts so long as the change of magnetic flux continues.
Thus condition for an emf to be induced in a coil is changing magnetic flux.
Second law: The magnitude of the induced emf is directly proportional to the rate
of change of magnetic flux. Mathematically,

d
e
dt
o
4
i.e.
d
e K
dt
4
·
Where K is constant of proportionality and is taken as 1.
· Induced emf
d
e
dt
4
·
The direction or sense of polarity of the induced emf is such that it tends to produce
an induced current that will create a magnetic flux to oppose the change in the
magnetic flux through the coil. This is known as Lenz’s Law and is stated below.
Lenz’s Law
Whenever an induced emf is set-up, the direction of the induced current through the
loop is such that it opposes the cause which produces it.
Thus induced emf in a coil becomes
d
e
dt
4
·
The Lenz’s law is the consequence of the law of conservation of energy.
Integral and Differential form of Faraday’s Law of em induction
Consider a closed circuit or a coil of any shape and is moving in a stationary
magnetic. Let S be the surface enclosed by the coil C. Let
B
r
÷
magnetic flux density
in the neighborhood of the coil C. Then the magnetic flux through a small
elementary area
dS
r
is a scalar product
. B dS
r r
.
·Total magnetic flux through the entire coil is
.
B
S
B dS 4 ·
l
r r
According to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction the induced emf in a
circuit is the –ve time rate of change of magnetic flux linked with the circuit.
· induced emf
B
d
e
dt
4
·
.
S
d
e B dS
dt
·
l
r r
----------------(1)
Also by definition, the line integral of the electric field over a closed path give the
induced emf in the circuit
. e E dl ·
l
r r
Ñ
----------------
(2)
Where
E
r
is the induced electric field at the current element
dl
r
of the closed
circuit.
From
n
eq s (1) and (2)
. .
S
d
E dl B dS
dt
·
l l
r r r r
Ñ
-----------------(3)
This
n
eq (3) is known as integral form of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic
induction.
Differential form :
If the circuit (coil C) remains stationary and only magnetic flux density
B
r
is
changing then time derivative in
n
eq (3) may be taken inside the integral sign where
it becomes a partial derivative.
i.e. . .
S
B
E dl dS
t
o
·
o
l l
r
r r r
Ñ
--------------------(4)
Now, by Stoke’s Theorem
. .
S
E dl curl E dS ·
l l
r r r r
Ñ
·
n
eq (5) becomes . .
S S
B
curl E dS dS
t
o
·
o
l l
r
r r r
Since the surface is arbitrary above
n
eq is true for any surface
·
B
curl E
t
o
·
o
r
r
or
B
E
t
o
V× ·
o
r
r
---------------(5)
This is the differential form of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.
Proof :
. e E dl ·
l
r r
Ñ
Consider a wire loop or frame of any shape which occupies the positions
1
C at
time t. It is moving with a velocity v
r
so that it occupies the position
2
C at time
t dt + .
Let elementary length
dl
r
of the loop is displaced
through a distance . v dt
r
in the time dt , then the area
dS
r
swept by the element
dl
r
is given by
. dS v dt dl · ×
r r
r
----------------(1)
If
B
r
is the magnetic flux density t any point on this
area, then the magnetic flux the area
dS
r
is
. B dS
r r
.Hence
the total magnetic flux crossing the ribbon shaped
surface S spanned by the boundary of the loop is
.
S
B dS ·
ll
r r
The integral
.
S
B dS
ll
r r
, therefore represent the change in magnetic flux crossing the
wire loop, as it moves from position
1 2
C to C in a time dt .
Thus
.
S
d B dS 4 ·
ll
r r
Substituting the value of
dS
r
from
n
eq (1), we get

.( . )
S
d B v dt dl 4 · ×
ll
r r
r
Now dt is independent of integration
·
.( )
S
d
B v dl
dt
4
· ×
ll
r r
r
---------------(2)
Now .( ) ( ). B v dl B v dl × · ×
r r r r
r r
[ since cross and dot product are
interchangeable ]
( ) . v B dl · ×
r r
r
· ( ) .
d
v B dl
dt
4
· ×
l
r r
r
Ñ
-----------------(3)
As the integration is now with respect to
dl
r
which is a line element and the
integration is to be carried out over the boundary of the loop, the surface integral
S
ll has been changed to the line integral
l Ñ
.
If
E
r
is the electric field associated with the elementary length
dl
r
when it is
moving with velocity v
r
then
E v B · ×
r r
r
Substituting the value of
E
r
in
n
eq (3)
.
d
E dl
dt
4
·
l
r r
Ñ
According to Faraday’s law , induced emf is
d
e
dt
4
·
. e E dl ·
l
r r
Ñ
Thus induced emf = line integral of
E
r
over the circuit.
SELF INDUCTION and COEFFICIENT of SELF INDUCTION
The phenomenon due to which a coil opposes any change in the current that flows
through it by inducing an opposing emf in itself is called as self induction. The
induced emf is called as back emf and obeys the faraday’s law of electromagnetic
induction. According to Lenz’s law this induced emf have a direction so as to oppose
the cause (changing current ) due to which it is produced .
Coefficient of Self Induction or Self Inductance (L)
Whenever a current is passed through a coil magnetic field is produced in the surrounding of the coil. The
number of lines of induction passing normally through an area near the coil i.e. magnetic flux is found to
be directly proportional to the current passing through the coil.
I o 4
or
LI 4 ·
-----------(1)
Where L is constant of proportionality and is called as coefficient of self induction or self
inductance of the coil. Its value depends upon the following factors
1. The number of turns of the coil N.
2. Length of the coil
3. Area of cross-section of the coil A
4. Nature of the material of the core on which coil is wound
µ

n
eq (1) may be put as
L
I
4
·
i.e.
L · 4
when
1 I unit ·
Thus self inductance of a coil is numerically equal to the magnetic flux linked with the coil when
unit current flows through it. The SI unit of L is henry (H).
Also according to faraday’s law induced emf in a coil is
d
e
dt
4
·
( ) d LI
dt
·
d I
L
dt
·
·
e
L
d I
dt
·
If . . 1 /
d I
unity i e A s
dt
· then
L e ·
Thus self inductance of a coil is numerically equal to the induced emf when the current flowing
through it changes at the rate of unity (
1 / A s
).
1 henry The self inductance of a coil is said to be 1 henry when a current changing at the rate of 1 A/s
through it induces an emf of 1 volt in it.
NOTE: Inductance in a circuit plays the analogous role as mass in mechanics. Mass opposes the motion of a
particle and inductance opposes the change in the current. In other words the effect of inductance in a circuit is
same as inertia in mechanics and inductance is therefore called as electrical inertia.
MUTUAL INDUCTANCE and COEFFICIENT of MUTUAL INDUCTANCE
The phenomenon by virtue of which an induced emf is produced in a coil due to change in current in a
neighboring coil is called as mutual induction.
Consider two coils P and S close to each other. Let
1
I be the current flowing in the coil P at
some instant t and
2
4 be the magnetic flux linked with the coil S at that instant.
Now flux linked with the coil S is directly proportional to the current flowing in the
coil P.
i.e. S p
I o 4

S p
M I 4 ·
-----------(1)
Where M is the constant of proportionality and is
known as the coefficient of mutual induction or
mutual inductance of coil S with respect to coil P.
Now According to Faradays law of electromagnetic
induction emf induced in the coil S to change in
Current in the coil P is

S
S
d
e
dt
4
· i.e.
( )
p
S
d M I
e
dt
·
( )
p
S
d I
e M
dt
·
or
S
p
e
M
dI
dt
·
------------------(2)
1 /
p
dI
A s
dt
· then
S
M e ·
· the coefficient of mutual induction or mutual inductance of two coil is
numerically equal to the emf induced in the secondary coil when the current flowing
through the primary coil decreases at the rate of 1 A/s.
from
n
eq (1)
S
p
M
I
4
·
i.e.
S
M · 4 when
1
p
I unit ·
Thus coefficient of mutual inductance is numerically equal to the magnetic flux
linked with the secondary coil when a unit current flows through primary coil.
Unit of M is henry denoted by H. Its dimensions are
1 2 2 2
M L T A

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