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**In the year 1820, it was discovered by Orested that an electric current produces a
**

magnetic field. Soon after this, efforts were made to observe the converse of the

magnetic effects of current, i.e. to show that magnetic field may produce electric

current. Michel Faraday in England in 1831 demonstrated that electric current can

be produced by employing a changing magnetic field. This phenomenon is called as

electromagnetic induction.

Faraday’s Laws of Electromagnetic Induction

Faraday summed up his experimental results in the form of two laws known as

Faraday’s Laws of electromagnetic induction .These are stated as follows

First law: When the magnetic flux linked with the coil changes, an emf is induced

in it which lasts so long as the change of magnetic flux continues.

Thus condition for an emf to be induced in a coil is changing magnetic flux.

Second law: The magnitude of the induced emf is directly proportional to the rate

of change of magnetic flux. Mathematically,

d

e

dt

o

4

i.e.

d

e K

dt

4

·

Where K is constant of proportionality and is taken as 1.

· Induced emf

d

e

dt

4

·

The direction or sense of polarity of the induced emf is such that it tends to produce

an induced current that will create a magnetic flux to oppose the change in the

magnetic flux through the coil. This is known as Lenz’s Law and is stated below.

Lenz’s Law

Whenever an induced emf is set-up, the direction of the induced current through the

loop is such that it opposes the cause which produces it.

Thus induced emf in a coil becomes

d

e

dt

4

·

The Lenz’s law is the consequence of the law of conservation of energy.

Integral and Differential form of Faraday’s Law of em induction

Consider a closed circuit or a coil of any shape and is moving in a stationary

magnetic. Let S be the surface enclosed by the coil C. Let

B

r

÷

magnetic flux density

in the neighborhood of the coil C. Then the magnetic flux through a small

elementary area

dS

r

is a scalar product

. B dS

r r

.

·Total magnetic flux through the entire coil is

.

B

S

B dS 4 ·

l

r r

According to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction the induced emf in a

circuit is the –ve time rate of change of magnetic flux linked with the circuit.

· induced emf

B

d

e

dt

4

·

.

S

d

e B dS

dt

·

l

r r

----------------(1)

Also by definition, the line integral of the electric field over a closed path give the

induced emf in the circuit

. e E dl ·

l

r r

Ñ

----------------

(2)

Where

E

r

is the induced electric field at the current element

dl

r

of the closed

circuit.

From

n

eq s (1) and (2)

. .

S

d

E dl B dS

dt

·

l l

r r r r

Ñ

-----------------(3)

This

n

eq (3) is known as integral form of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic

induction.

Differential form :

If the circuit (coil C) remains stationary and only magnetic flux density

B

r

is

changing then time derivative in

n

eq (3) may be taken inside the integral sign where

it becomes a partial derivative.

i.e. . .

S

B

E dl dS

t

o

·

o

l l

r

r r r

Ñ

--------------------(4)

Now, by Stoke’s Theorem

. .

S

E dl curl E dS ·

l l

r r r r

Ñ

·

n

eq (5) becomes . .

S S

B

curl E dS dS

t

o

·

o

l l

r

r r r

Since the surface is arbitrary above

n

eq is true for any surface

·

B

curl E

t

o

·

o

r

r

or

B

E

t

o

V× ·

o

r

r

---------------(5)

This is the differential form of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.

Proof :

. e E dl ·

l

r r

Ñ

Consider a wire loop or frame of any shape which occupies the positions

1

C at

time t. It is moving with a velocity v

r

so that it occupies the position

2

C at time

t dt + .

Let elementary length

dl

r

of the loop is displaced

through a distance . v dt

r

in the time dt , then the area

dS

r

swept by the element

dl

r

is given by

. dS v dt dl · ×

r r

r

----------------(1)

If

B

r

is the magnetic flux density t any point on this

area, then the magnetic flux the area

dS

r

is

. B dS

r r

.Hence

the total magnetic flux crossing the ribbon shaped

surface S spanned by the boundary of the loop is

.

S

B dS ·

ll

r r

The integral

.

S

B dS

ll

r r

, therefore represent the change in magnetic flux crossing the

wire loop, as it moves from position

1 2

C to C in a time dt .

Thus

.

S

d B dS 4 ·

ll

r r

Substituting the value of

dS

r

from

n

eq (1), we get

.( . )

S

d B v dt dl 4 · ×

ll

r r

r

Now dt is independent of integration

·

.( )

S

d

B v dl

dt

4

· ×

ll

r r

r

---------------(2)

Now .( ) ( ). B v dl B v dl × · ×

r r r r

r r

[ since cross and dot product are

interchangeable ]

( ) . v B dl · ×

r r

r

· ( ) .

d

v B dl

dt

4

· ×

l

r r

r

Ñ

-----------------(3)

As the integration is now with respect to

dl

r

which is a line element and the

integration is to be carried out over the boundary of the loop, the surface integral

S

ll has been changed to the line integral

l Ñ

.

If

E

r

is the electric field associated with the elementary length

dl

r

when it is

moving with velocity v

r

then

E v B · ×

r r

r

Substituting the value of

E

r

in

n

eq (3)

.

d

E dl

dt

4

·

l

r r

Ñ

According to Faraday’s law , induced emf is

d

e

dt

4

·

. e E dl ·

l

r r

Ñ

Thus induced emf = line integral of

E

r

over the circuit.

SELF INDUCTION and COEFFICIENT of SELF INDUCTION

The phenomenon due to which a coil opposes any change in the current that flows

through it by inducing an opposing emf in itself is called as self induction. The

induced emf is called as back emf and obeys the faraday’s law of electromagnetic

induction. According to Lenz’s law this induced emf have a direction so as to oppose

the cause (changing current ) due to which it is produced .

Coefficient of Self Induction or Self Inductance (L)

Whenever a current is passed through a coil magnetic field is produced in the surrounding of the coil. The

number of lines of induction passing normally through an area near the coil i.e. magnetic flux is found to

be directly proportional to the current passing through the coil.

I o 4

or

LI 4 ·

-----------(1)

Where L is constant of proportionality and is called as coefficient of self induction or self

inductance of the coil. Its value depends upon the following factors

1. The number of turns of the coil N.

2. Length of the coil

3. Area of cross-section of the coil A

4. Nature of the material of the core on which coil is wound

µ

n

eq (1) may be put as

L

I

4

·

i.e.

L · 4

when

1 I unit ·

Thus self inductance of a coil is numerically equal to the magnetic flux linked with the coil when

unit current flows through it. The SI unit of L is henry (H).

Also according to faraday’s law induced emf in a coil is

d

e

dt

4

·

( ) d LI

dt

·

d I

L

dt

·

·

e

L

d I

dt

·

If . . 1 /

d I

unity i e A s

dt

· then

L e ·

Thus self inductance of a coil is numerically equal to the induced emf when the current flowing

through it changes at the rate of unity (

1 / A s

).

1 henry The self inductance of a coil is said to be 1 henry when a current changing at the rate of 1 A/s

through it induces an emf of 1 volt in it.

NOTE: Inductance in a circuit plays the analogous role as mass in mechanics. Mass opposes the motion of a

particle and inductance opposes the change in the current. In other words the effect of inductance in a circuit is

same as inertia in mechanics and inductance is therefore called as electrical inertia.

MUTUAL INDUCTANCE and COEFFICIENT of MUTUAL INDUCTANCE

The phenomenon by virtue of which an induced emf is produced in a coil due to change in current in a

neighboring coil is called as mutual induction.

Consider two coils P and S close to each other. Let

1

I be the current flowing in the coil P at

some instant t and

2

4 be the magnetic flux linked with the coil S at that instant.

Now flux linked with the coil S is directly proportional to the current flowing in the

coil P.

i.e. S p

I o 4

S p

M I 4 ·

-----------(1)

Where M is the constant of proportionality and is

known as the coefficient of mutual induction or

mutual inductance of coil S with respect to coil P.

Now According to Faradays law of electromagnetic

induction emf induced in the coil S to change in

Current in the coil P is

S

S

d

e

dt

4

· i.e.

( )

p

S

d M I

e

dt

·

( )

p

S

d I

e M

dt

·

or

S

p

e

M

dI

dt

·

------------------(2)

1 /

p

dI

A s

dt

· then

S

M e ·

· the coefficient of mutual induction or mutual inductance of two coil is

numerically equal to the emf induced in the secondary coil when the current flowing

through the primary coil decreases at the rate of 1 A/s.

from

n

eq (1)

S

p

M

I

4

·

i.e.

S

M · 4 when

1

p

I unit ·

Thus coefficient of mutual inductance is numerically equal to the magnetic flux

linked with the secondary coil when a unit current flows through primary coil.

Unit of M is henry denoted by H. Its dimensions are

1 2 2 2

M L T A

]

]

.

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