SDH Introductory Overview A comprehensive introduction to the terminology and technology that comprises Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH

) and the technologies carried over SDH. Duration - 2 Days. Who will benefit Network/Systems engineers/Operators/Planners, working within the SDH arena. Prerequisites Introduction to Telecommunications or An understanding of Telecommunications technology. By the end of the course delegates will be able to describe: By the end of the course delegates will be able to describe: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The OSI Concept OSI Layers The role of Communications Layers Multiplexing, the PDH Hierarchy, and its limitations The role of the ITU-T The different equipment and topologies used within the SDH Network Hardware Components and position The role of the overheads and pointers The use of Functional Blocks The use of Concatenation The use of Synchronization The various methods of Protection Network Management Transportation of other Technologies

Course Content Introduction Overview of the OSI Concept. Description of OSI Model. Description of OSI Layers The Communications Layers. The Role of the Transport Network. Overview of PDH. PDH Hierarchy. PDH Multiplexing Mapping Structure. Principles of PDH Multiplexing. Justification. Multiplexing Principles. Versions of Time Division Multiplexing. PDH Equipment Options ADM, TM, and DXC's. Limitations of PDH. SDH Multiplexing Technique Multiplexing Terminology. Mapping and aligning Tributary signals (Containers 'C'). Virtual Container (VC) and Path Overheads. VC's into Tributary Units (TU). TU Pointers. Multiplexing TU's into a Tributary Unit Group 2 (TUG2). Multiplexing TUG 2's into TUG 3. Multiplexing TUG 3's into VC 4. Multiplexing numbering scheme. VC 4 Path Overheads. KLM Numbering Scheme. Administrative Unit (AU 4) Pointer. Role of the AU 3. Role of the Administrative Unit Group (AUG). SDH Frame. Scrambling in SDH. STM-N Section Overheads. Example of a Complete STM-N. STM-1 to STM-4 Mapping Process.

SDH Introduction

PDH-SDH Comparisons. PDH Synchronisation. SDH Synchronisation Advantages of SDH. ITU-T Recommendations/Standards for SDH. SDH and SONET Bit Rates. SDH Multiplexing Hierarchy. Analogy of SDH Multiplexing Hierarchy. Difference between Paths and Sections. Definition of Path and Section Overheads.

SDH Functional View

AU-4 Contiguous Concatenation VC 4-4c. AU-4 Virtual Concatenation. Switching in SDH. Functional Block. Overview of SDH Functional Blocks. Low Order Functional Blocks. High Order Functional Blocks.

SDH Equipment Configurations and Topologies SDH Network Synchronisation SDH Electrical and Optical Interfaces. Types of Client Traffic and Network Inputs. SDH Equipment and their Component Parts. Make up of STM-16 Sub Rack. The Digital Cross-Connect (DXC). SDH Terminal Multiplexer (TM). SDH TM Configuration examples. SDH Add Drop Multiplexer (ADM). SDH ADM Configuration examples. SDH Digital Cross Connects (DXC). SDH Network Sections. SDH Point to Point. SDH Ring Networks. SDH Star Topology. SDH Meshed Network Example of SDH Network.

Network Synchronisation Methods. One Master Clock for the whole Network. Distributed Master Clocks. Synchronisation Signal from a Co-operating Network. Jitter and Wander in SDH. ITU-T Standards for Synchronisation. Clock Quality. Primary Reference Clock (PRC). Clock Qualities (Caesium). Clock Qualities (GPS). SASE and SEC, Working Modes. SDH Equipment Timing Sources. SDH Equipment Timing Options. Synchronisation Reference selection options. Distribution of Timing in SDH Networks (PAMS).

SDH Protection

ITU-T Rec G.803 Synch Trails.

Hardware Component Protection. Power Supply Protection. Equipment Protection 1:N. Software and Database Protection. Multiplexer General Block Diagram. Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) 1+1, MSP 1:1, And MSP 1:N. Sub Network Connection Protection (SNCP). Hardware Capacity in SDH. STM-N Ring Capacity. Dedicated Protection Ring (DPRing). Protection Ring (MS Spring).

SDH Auxiliary and Alarm Functionality

Optional use of Auxiliary Functionality. Interaction of Maintenance Signals. SDH Alarm Generation and Interaction. SDH Error Monitoring Signals and Remote Alarms. Examples of SDH Alarms. SDH System Testing.

Transportation of other Technologies over SDH

SDH Management

Management Platform Responsibilities. Network Management Roles/Activities. Types of System Access for Management Control. Management Platform Functional Components. Role of Network and Element Managers (NEM). Element Manager Functionality. Network Manager Functionality. Role of Local Controllers (LC). Local Controller Functionality. Management Information Base (MIB). Access of Network from Management Platforms. Network Service Access Point (NSAP) Addressing. Layout of SDH DCN. Example of Options for Access via the DCN onto SDH Network. Network Access via DCN. Data Flow-Logging into the Mgt Platform. Data Flow-Managing a NE. Data Flow-Sending SDH Commands.

SONET over SDH. SONET Payload over SDH. Mapping of ATM Cells into a VC-4. ATM over SDH Concatenation. Advantages of WDM over SDH. Previous Transmission set-up. SDH and WDM Interworking. Interfacing WDM to Other Layers. WDM verses DWDM. DWDM Overview. DWDM Regulatory Bodies. Description of Closed and Open Architectures.


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