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CENTRAL CONCEPTS IN BIOLOGY NOVEMBER 1998

4. (a) (i) Describe in outline two important steps that occur in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate in glycolysis. [2] During glycolysis glucose is activated when two adenosine triphosphates phosphorylates glucose to a hydrophilic and symmetrical compound, fructose bisphosphate. This process is called phosphorylation of glucose. ATP is dephosphorylated to ADP. Oxidation of the triose sugar is also important. It creates reducing power in the form of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucluetide.This allows for the possible formation of 3 ATP molecules in later reactions. NADH is manufactured as the hydrogen carrying, coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide which accepts hydrogen from the triose sugar and this is specifically called dehydrogenation.

(ii) Describe how pyruvate is converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide in anaerobic respiration in yeast. [3] Pyruvate is a 3 carbon compound which undergoes decarboxylation to form ethanal and carbon dioxide. The ethanal is reduced by NADH to form ethanol. This is called alcohol fermentation (iii) Explain why the yield of ATP from anaerobic respiration is low. [3] Anaerobic respiration relies on glycolysis to produce ATP. However only 2 ATP of a net total of a theoretic 38 ATP are produced in this stage. There was originally an ATP input of 2 ATP which lowered the net ATP yield from 4ATP to 2ATP.Anaerobic respiration does not proceed further as oxygen is needed to further oxidise pyruvate. Pyruvate thus remains with energy stored up within it. Ethanol is also produced in apples being stored under conditions of low availability of oxygen. In an experiment, apples were kept in gas mixtures containing different concentrations of oxygen. The quantities of ethanol produced in anaerobic respiration were measured in two regions of each apple, A and B, as shown in Fig. 4.1, which is a vertical section of an apple. The results are given in Table 4.2.

[2] There appears to be a greater level of respiration at region B than that of A. This may be due to the fact that at A.2. ( (ii) explain the observed differences in anaerobic respiration in parts A and B of the apple. The quantity of ethanol decreased from 7g-1 to 1g-1. Thus there is less tissue . Seeds are dormant and thus have no need to respire.b) With reference to Table 4. Thus they are inversely proportional showing that the greater the oxygen concentration is the lesser the quantity of ethanol that will be produced. (i) describe the relationship between ethanol production and the percentage of oxygen in the gas mixture. Ethanol indicated the amount of respiration taking place. At the 1% oxygen gas mixture the quantit per gram was 14 for A and 76 for B. there is a space and seeds are present there. [2] As indicated by the second and third readings of A where the percentage of oxygen increased from 3% to 5%.

around A to result in respiration and thus anaerobic respiration would be less than that of region B where the region is surrounded by respiring tissues. TOTAL: 12 .