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Brittle coatings and electrical strain gages are employed to determine stress distribution over surfaces of vessels
by A. J. Durelli, J. W. Dally and S. Morse
ABSTRACT--An experimental stress analysis of three
cylindrical pressure vessels with radius/thickness ratios ranging from 100 to 238 and different head closures is described. Brittle coatings and electrical strain gages were employed to determine stress distributions over the entire outer surface of the vessels. Electrical strain gages alone were used to determine stresses on the inside surface of the vessels. Particular emphasis was placed on determining stress concentrations and on nonlinear effects produced by geometric imperfections. An att e m p t was also made to correlate the failure, which started in the cylindrical portion of the three vessels, with the elastic-stress distribution. I t was found t h a t the imperfections in the cylinder were not significant if the vessel was fabricated from a ductile steel. However, if the vessel was constructed from a high-strength but brittle steel, the imperfections significantly lower the bursting strength of the vessel.
t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e s e gages w a s followed w i t h i n t h e elastic r a n g e o f t h e m a t e r i a l . T h i r d , t h e vessels were p r e s s u r i z e d u n t i l failure o c c u r r e d a n d t h e load, t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e failure a n d t h e t y p e o f t h e failure were r e c o r d e d . I n t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n , e m p h a s i s will be p l a c e d o n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s a n d general findings r a t h e r t h a n specific r e s u l t s w h i c h h o l d o n l y for a p a r t i c u l a r vessel.
Vessel A w a s a b o u t 7 f t long w i t h a d i a m e t e r o f a b o u t 28 in. a n d a w a l l t h i c k n e s s o f a b c u t 0.110 in, giving a n R / t r a t i o o f 128 in t h e c y l i n d r i c a l p o r t i o n o f t h e vessel. T h e f o r w a r d e n d o f t h e vessel w a s h e m i s p h e r i c a l w i t h a w a l l t h i c k n e s s o f a b o u t 0.15 in. a n d a c i r c u l a r o p e n i n g a t t h e t o p . T h e a f t e n d of t h e vessel w a s in t h e f o r m of a k n u c k l e r i n g o f v a r i a b l e t h i c k n e s s w i t h a large c i r c u l a r opening. I n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n a l y s i s , b o t h of t h e o p e n i n g s a t t h e e n d s o f t h e vessel were closed w i t h flat p l a t e s a n d sealed w i t h O rings. T h e vessel w a s f a b r i c a t e d b y d r a w i n g t w o ends as c u p s a n d w e l d i n g t h e s e t w o ends t o g e t h e r w i t h a c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l weld. T h e vessel m a t e r i a l w a s A I S I 4130 steel h e a t t r e a t e d to a h a r d n e s s o f R o c k w e l l C-37. T e s t s o f a c o u p o n t a k e n l o n g i t u d i n a l l y f r o m t h e vessel a f t e r i t s failure gave a 0 . 2 % y i e l d s t r e n g t h o f 170,000 psi a n d a n u l t i m a t e s t r e n g t h of 190,000 psi. A n o v e r - a l l view o f t h e vessel is g i v e n in Fig. 7. T w o t h i n s k i r t s w e l d e d a r o u n d t h e k n u c k l e s h i d e p a r t i a l l y t h e forw a r d a n d a f t closures. T h e s e s k i r t s a r e s t r e s s free. Outside micrometer measurements at a number of p o s i t i o n s a b o u t a n d a l o n g t h e axis o f t h e c y l i n d e r i n d i c a t e d ~hat t h e vessel w a s n o t p e r f e c t l y c y l i n d r i cal. T w o t y p e s o f i m p e r f e c t i o n s occurred. T h e first t y p e m a y be defined a s " o u t o f r o u n d n e s s , " i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e vessel is s o m e w h a t elliptical in s h a p e r a t h e r t h a n circular. T h e s e c o n d t y p e m a y be called " c o r r u g a t i o n , " i n d i c a t i n g local i r r e g u l a r i t i e s
T h e a u t h o r s believe t h a t a r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e y have conducted dealing with large-diameter thinw a l l vessels m a y be o f i n t e r e s t t o p e o p l e w o r k i n g in t h e missile field. T h r e e different vessels were s t u d led e x p e r i m e n t a l l y in o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e t h e i r stresses a n d failure c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s v~hen s u b j e c t e d to i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n were u s e d a s a basis for d e v e l o p i n g l i g h t w e i g h t vessel d e s i g n s a n d for e v a l u a t i n g v a r i o u s m a n u f a c t u r i n g t e c h n i q u e s used in t h e i r f a b r i c a t i o n . Although the experimental procedure varied somew h a t in t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f each of t h e t h r e e vessels, t h e following t h r e e p h a s e s were c o m m o n t o e a c h a n a l y s i s . F i r s t , b r i t t l e c o a t i n g s were a p p l i e d t o determine the stress distributions over the entire outer surfaces. Second, c e r t a i n regions of i n t e r e s t indic a t e d b y t h e b r i t t l e - c o a t i n g a n a l y s i s were i n s t r u m e n t e d w i t h e l e c t r i c a l - r e s i s t a n c e s t r a i n gages a n d
A . -=7. Durelli and S. Morse are associated with A r m o u r Research Foundation, Chicago, Ill. Dr. Durelli is also Professor of Civil Engineering at the Illinois Institute of Technolagy. J . W . Dally, formerly with A r m o u r Re= search Foundation, is now Assistant Professor in Mechanics at Cornell University, Ithaca, N . Y . P a p e r presented at 1959 S E S A Spring ~Ieeting held in}~Washington, D. C., on M a y 20-22.
Experimental Mechanics I 33
The difference in the level of stress from one point to another. as is illustrated in Fig.123 in. the coating first cracked at a pressure somewhat less t h a n 125 psi and continued to crack over other areas until a pressure of 600 psi had been reached. above the ring. Brittle-coating Analysis The entire outer surface of Vessel A was coated with Stresscoat 1209 to a thickness of about 0.008 in. was the result of imperfections in the geometry of the cylinder. Thickness measurements were recorded on the surface of the vessel. (The top portion of the vessel. The nonlinear behavior of the stresses seriously impaired the usefulness of the brittlecoating method for providing quantitative data of Fig. The local imperfections become less pronounced and have less of an effect on the stre~s distribution. the brittle coating should crack over the entire cylindrical portion of the vessel at the same load. 2. a difference of more t h a n ~=10% from the specified thickness. (The figures on the isoentatic lines correspond to the amount of pressure in psi needed to bring the cracks to that line) .1 Isostatics and isoentatics were obtained o v e r the entire outer surface. the stresses do not increase linearly with pressure. Therefore. but varied from 0. Measurements of the wall thickness at about 200 points were made employing ultrasonic methods. 1--Brittle-coating crack formation produced on the forward portion of the cylindrical shell by internal hydrostatic pressure. The lack of uniformity of the stress level is indicated by the brittle-coating isoentatic lines (Vessel A). 4. As the pressure is increased. which shows the brittle-coating crack formation on the forward portion of the cylindrical shell. 1. The coating was cured at 86 ~ F for 14 hr and cooled slowly to a test temperature of 74 ~ F over an 8-hr interval.in the cylindrical shell. I t will be shown later t h a t these imperfections produce stress concentrations at various portions of the cylindrical shell. I f the stresses in the vessel occur as the elementary shell theory indicates. The test was conducted using conventional techniques as described elsewhere. 2--Close-up view of the brittle-coating crack formation in an area where local cylinder imperfections influence the stress distribution (Vessel A). An examination of the isoentatic lines shown in this figure indicates t h a t an appreciable nonuniformity in the distribution of stresses occurs over the cylindrical portion of the vessel. A close-up view of the brittle-coating pattern in the neighborhood of two of these local imperfections is shown in Fig. which in this case was as much as 5 to 1.099 to 0. the actual geometry of the vessel approaches the ideal cylindrical shape. Actually.. These measurements indicated t h a t the thickness of the drawn shell was not constant. as on position 4 in Fig. is a stressfree skirt) Fig.
... Strain readings were taken at pressures of 50.oo--/~. are shown in Fig. Strain-gage Analysis Although the brittle-coating test provided much information concerning location. magnitude and directions of stresses.sL.. as well as a dial-gage installation. 150. 600 and 700 psi. as shown in Fig. At position 2 for a pressure of 700 psi....-~E. 300. 3--Hydraulic-loading system. 4--Electrical-strain-gage positions in a region on the cylindrical shell where two local imperfections occur (Vessel A).. I n other words. 500.-. electrical strain gages were necessary to supplement the brittle-coating data..'.. I n all a total of 72 B L H type A-7 gages were employed in the investigation. (The figure next to Position 4 corresponds to the thickness of the vessel in inches) '2~ I j~#.. 4... A few of these gages were placed at the zone of local imperfections and on the forward and aft ends where the coating response was not sufficient.... electrical-strain-gage installation and dial gages (Vessel A) Fig... By combining the data obtained from the inside and outside surfaces.. The strain gages mounted on the internal and the external surfaces of the heads of the vessel indicated that both the bending and membrane stresses in the heads were relatively low in comparison to the cylinder stresses. 3. The test was discontinued at a pressure of 700 psi because of a seal failure. '~ .. 5.the stresses at pressure levels above or below the values at which cracking of the coating occurred. Strain gages were mounted on both inside and outside surfaces along a line drawn through two imperfections as illustrated in Fig. 100. the hoop stresses are in- Fig. 5--Bending and m e m b r a n e stresses as a function of pressure at Position 2 on the cylinder (Vessel A) Experimental Mechanics I 35 .. ' r~". P (PSI1 800 900 lOOO Fig..~\ z~. The hydraulic-loading system.. 400. the strain-gage installation and instrumentation. y 60 f 0 I00 gO0 300 400 500 600 700 PRESSURE.. it was possible to plot bending and membrane stresses in the hoop and axial directions as a function of pressure. I [ i /1 .. 200. the coating provides only one point on the curve showing stresses versus pressure at a given location.
8--Close-up view of the failure of Vessel A showing the fracture surfaces. P (PSI) Fig. 7--Over-all view of Vessel A showing the region of failure Fig. where hoop stresses have been plotted as a function of pressure and compared with the theoretical values.000F~SI i S ~.~ / ' --192000 $1~' [/4/" Pl ~120 ~POSIT. / / THEORETICAL)'IS2AoSED ON///~// " /. 6. ~-.? 5 "'~ / / VILUES OF STRESS IN THIS I ~U~ 81 i t / RANGEEXIRAPOLATED SUMINGELASTICRANGE 4O 0 200 400 600 800 I000 1200 1400 1600 1800 PRESSURE.000 psi (membrane) to 110. the stresses at position 5 are approximately 20% lower. Results for the stresses at positions 2 and 5 are shown in Fig.200 0 -- POSITION 2~. Combined Strain-gage and Failure Analysis T h e strain-gage analysis described in the previous section was extended in this phase of the investigation in order to study the changes in the stress distribution on the cylindrical shell when the internal pressure is increased up to 1600 psi. (It is noted that the fracture surface is inclined 45 degrees to the surface of the vessel indicating a shear-type failure) creased 34% from 82. These differences are due to bending stresses produced by imperfections in the cylindrical shell which the elementary theory does not consider.000 psi (total) b y addition of the bending stresses. whereas. T h e stresses at position 2 for a pressure of 1600 psi are approximately 30% higher t h a n the theoretical stresses.. 6--Hoop stresses on the outside surface of Vessel A as a function of pressure at positions 2 and 5 Fig. T h e vessel failed by splitting longitudinally at a .28o --I 240~ ~ I I 250. An appreciable difference exists between the stresses at positions 2 and 5. The straingage data were converted to stress d a t a using Hooke's law. A change in curvature in the vessel will produce bending stresses which superimFose upon the membrane sfresses.
between the two 175 isoentatics were obtained by refrigeration. a n d a close-up v i e w s h o w i n g d e t a i l o f t h e f r a c t u r e d surface is s h o w n in Fig. T h e f r a c t u r e surfaces a r e i n c l i n e d a t a 45-deg a n g l e w i t h t h e o u t e r n o r m a l to t h e vessel surface. = ~ 1 ~j~ _ ~)~ + ( ~ - ~)-~ + ( ~ - ~)~ (1) I f i t is a s s u m e d t h a t t h e shell is p e r f e c t l y c i r c u l a r a n d c o n s t a n t in t h i c k n e s s . B y s u b s t i t u t i n g eq (2) i n t o eq (1) i t follows t h a t : ~ = ~'3 pr -2 t (3) or t h e b u r s t i n g p r e s s u r e is given b y P - a.e n e r g y principles. The isoentatic lines in the neighborhood of the longitudinal weld indicate a concentration of stress in the areas adjacent to the weld) Fig. 9--Brittle-coating crack pattern produced over a large region of the vessel by internal hydrostatic pressure (Vessel B). ~ a n d ~3 is given below: ~. 10--Detail view of the brittle-coating pattern in the regions adjacent to the longitudinal weld (Vessel B). t h e p r i n c i p a l stresses are: ol ~2 a3 o. T h e expression r e l a t i n g t h e s t r e s s a t fail- w h e r e p is t h e vessel pressure. a n d t is t h e vessel t h i c k n e s s . Cracks on the weld. A n o v e r . ure a~ a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l s t r e s s e s al. 1 (2) z~ = pr 2t t 0 Correlation Between Elastic Stress Analysis and Failure T h e H e n c k y . They show several changes in the direction of the maximum stress) p r e s s u r e o f 1640 psi.a l l view o f t h e vessel s h o w i n g t h e r e g i o n o f failure is p r e s e n t e d in Fig.t 2 r ~J3 (4) Experimental Mechanics I 37 . I t is believed t h a t t h e f a i l u r e i n i t i a t e d n e a r t h e c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l weld a n d t h e c r a c k p r o p a g a t e d in b o t h t h e forward and aft directions approximately parallel to t h e axis of t h e vessel.Fig. (The figures associated with each isoentatic represent the pressure in psi necessary to crack the coating at the points on the isoentatic. 7. W h e n t h e c r a c k s r e a c h e d t h e h e a d closures. t h e y t u r n e d a b r u p t l y t h r o u g h 90 d e g and began to propagate circumferentially about the f o r w a r d a n d a f t e x t r e m i t i e s o f t h e c y l i n d r i c a l shell.V o n M i s e s t h e o r y o f failure 2. (The figures associated with each isoentatic represent the pressure necessary to crack the coating at the points on the isoentatic. is c o n s i d e r e d as one of t h e m o s t a p p l i c a b l e for p r e d i c t i n g d u c t i l e failure. psi. in. w h i c h is b a s e d o n s t r a i n . r is t h e vessel r a d i u s .. 8. in. T h i s a n g l e o f i n c l i n a t i o n indic a t e s t h a t t h e t y p e o f failure w a s shear.
is d e p e n d e n t o n m a t e r i a l d u c t i l i t y . T h i s v a l u e is a b o u t 4 % l~wer t h a n t h e 1640 psi a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e d to fail t h e vessel. ernployed with Vessel B T h e wall t h i c k n e s s a n d t h e r a d i u s n e a r t h e failure l o c a t i o n were a b o u t 0. Vessel B Vessel Description Vessel B w a s a b o u t 40 in. . T h e vessel m a t e r i a l w a s sufficiently d u c t i l e to yield before failure a n d r e d i s t r i b u t e t h e b e n d i n g stresses.. r e s p e c t i v e l y . long. a n d . a n d a w a l l t h i c k n e s s of 0. t h e local c y l i n d e r i m p e r f e c t i o n s m a y become significant. H o w e v e r .100 a n d 14 in.080 in. 11--Strain-gage installation and recording equipment. from eq (4). T h e c y l i n d r i c a l shell was f o r m e d b y rolling two flat s h e e t s of steel a n d w e l d i n g t h e m a l o n g t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l axis. T h e f o r w a r d e n d w a s ellipti- . Hence.. giving a n R/t r a t i o o f 238. t h i s r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e b e n d i n g stresses . T h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e local i m p e r f e c t i o n s w h i c h influence t h e elastic stresses v e r y a p p r e c i a b l y do n o t significantly influence t h e b u r s t i n g pressure. . . if v e r y high38 [ February1961 s t r e n g t h steels w i t h low d u c t i l i t y are e m p l o y e d in f a b r i c a t i o n . t h e b u r s t i n g p r e s s u r e was comp u t e d as 1570 psi. w i t h a d i a m e t e r of 38 in.Fig.
P (PSI) ~ / 400 # 0 0 0 I 1 200 400 PRESSURE. 9 and 10. The vessel was pressurized in incremental steps until coating cracks had covered the entire cylindrical body and a portion of the aft-head knuckle. P (PSI) Fig. An examination of these figures shows the very appreciable influence of the bending stresses. A detail view of the brittle-coating crack pattern in regions adjacent to the longitudinal weld is shown in Fig. The vessel was fabricated from A I S I 4130 steel. The opening was sealed with a flat plate and O ring assembly (Fig. the hoop bending strains were equal to the membrane strains at about 270 psi. the aft knuckle is stressed to a much lower level t h a n the cylindrical portion of the vessel.2 % yield strength of 103.000 psi and ultimate strength of 123. The test setup showing the strain-gage installation and vessel configuration is shown in Fig. Strain-gage Analysis I n order to supplement the brittl. The bending stresses superimpose upon the membrane stresses to produce high tensile stresses on the outside surface of the vessel at the regions to the left and right of the weld and to produce high tensile stresses on the inside surface at the weld itself. Micrometer measurements again indicated that the cylindrical shell was not perfectly cylindrical. First. Britt!e-coating Analysis Stresucoat ST-1208 was sprayed over most of the surface of Vessel B. a number of strain gages were mounted on both the inside and outside surfaces of the vessel. I n Fig. 10. the regions on either side o f the longitudinal weld show a very high concentration of stress. coating response was obtained in the other regions by refrigerating the coating Typical brittle-coating results are illustrated in Figs.000 psi. 12. The nonlinear behavior of the membrane stresses is presumably due to the yielding of the vessel which occurs at about 300 psi. where photographs of the crack formations are shown. 9. Second. 12--Strains as a function of pressure at the region of stress concentration to the right of the longitudinal weld in Vessel B ~al in shape and deliberately overdesigned since it was not the subject of the imvestigation. The nonlinear b e h a v i o r of the bending strains is due to changes in the radius of curvature of the local imperfections as the vessel is pressurized. I t is believed t h a t the sheets of rolled steel used in the vessel fabrication would be nearly constant in thickness.ooo - o 0 0 ~ SURFACE ~_ z ~ 0 4000. and then cooled slowly to a testing temperature o 72 ~ F for 7 hr. Hardness tests showed the stress~ steel had a Rockwell hardness of C-22. stress relieved after welding and not hardened. The coating was cured at 80 ~ F for 14 hr. two isotropic lines are clearly Experimental Mechanics [ 39 . three items of importance are noted. Last. Typical results from gages placed at one point on the right side of the weld where the~e is a concentration of stresses are shown in Fig. The data obtained in the knuckle region indicated a precise level of the stresses and gave a basis for making space-saving recommendations regarding the redesign of the aft knuckle.e-coating data in the low-stressed regions of the aft knuckle and the highly stressed regions near the weld. The complex state of stress along the weld is clearly indicated by this crack pattern. The vessel was pressurized to 400 psi and strain-gage readings were taken at a number of levels of pressure. 11. indicated in the aft-knuckle region where the maxim u m principal stresses change direction twice. The aftend knuckle was machined from a forged ring to specified dimensions and joined by a girth weld to the cylindrical portion of the vessel. Material tests indicated a 0. Since it was not safe to further increase th e pressure. 11). No thickness measurements were made.SURFACE-~----~-~ ~ OU IDE . 200 4OO i 0 200 400 ~800 I I cr I-'-ff) MEMBRANE 31~ ~ MEMBRANE -~ a_ 2000 0 0 I / J 0 200 400 PRESSURE. For example.
The material exhibited a 2% yield strength of 198. More information could be obtained from the brittle-coating analysis conducted on Vessel C than from the analysis conducted on the other two vessels. give the maximum principal stresses. (b) transferred to a cyclone furnace at 800 ~ F and held there until equalized. The ultimate strength. This value of 600 psi was about 10 % higher than the 540 psi at which the vessel actually ruptured. When the cracks reached the head closure. they divided. and the secondary isoentatics shown by the dashed scribed lines give the minimum principal stresses. however.060 in. 14. 13) showed t h a t failure originated at about the center of the vessel and the crack propagated both forward and aft along the weld seam. 15 and 16. The vessel was subjected to the following heat treatment: (a) soaked at 1700 ~ F for 1 hr. as in the case of Vessel A. The detailed crack pattern shown in Fig.. wall thickness and cylinder radius were substituted into eq 4. 15). and a wall thickness of 0. Typical brittle-coating results are shown in Figs. turned and began to propagate circumferentially about the forward and aft extremities of the vessel. The direction of these . The cylindrical portion of the vessel was made by roll forming a sheet of Vascojet1000 steel and by welding it longitudinally. This decrease in strength was probably due to the stress concentrations at the weld. 15 show high stress concentrations in the region near the longitudinal weld. with a diameter of 12 in.Failure Analysis Vessel B was pressurized to 540 psi before it split along one of its longitudinal welds. and a bursting pressure of 600 psi was obtained. more t h a n a few remarks concerning this analysis. An over-all view of the failure is shown in Fig. Brittle-coating and Strain-gage Analysis Brittle-coating and strain-gage tests were conducted with Vessel C in the same manner as previously described in the sections on vessels A and B. 13--Over-all view of the failure of Vessel B Fig.000 psi and an ultimate strength of 237. The primary isoentatics. shown by the solid scribed lines on the coating. An inspection of the fracture (see Fig. 14--Transit:ion from shear to a tensile-type failure as the crack propagated from the circular cylinder into the aft-end knuckle (Vessel B) Vessel C was about 3 ft high. The fracture surfaces shown in Fig.000 psi with a Rockwell C hardness of 49 to 51. for a given pressure. The length of this paper prohibits. 14 indicate a shear-type failure in the cylinder and a tensiletype failure in the low-stressed aft-knuckle region. The over-all crack patterns indicated in Fig. (c) air cooled at room temperature and (d) double tempered at 1000 ~ F. 16 indicates the completeness of the whole-field character of the brittle-coating approach. 13 and a detail view is shown in Fig. Vessel C Vessel Description Fig. which gives an R/t ratio of 100. Hemispherical heads were welded to the cylindrical shell by means of girth welds (Fig.
15--Over-all view of the brittle-coating crack pattern on Vessel C Fig. 50 100 150 ~0 250 300 PRESSURE I P (PSI) I 550 1 400 450 Fig. as shown in Fig. This fact is substantiated by the results of a pair of gages placed at the concentration to the left of the longitudinal weld. (Solid isoentatics give maximum principal stresses.stresses is given by the cracks (isostatics). The pieces of the vessel were recovered and the vessel was reconstructed as shown in Fig. 18) taken by microflash lighting a few milliseconds after failure shows some fragmentation and the violence of the failure. The herringbone appearance of the cracks indicates failure occurred along the weld at the position shown in Fig. A photograph (see Fig. 16--Brittle-coating crack pattern over the forward section of the Cylindrical shell near the longitudinal weld (Vessel C). Fig. Failure Analysis Vessel C failed violently at a pressure of 1500 psi. where the actual stress recorded was nearly twice the theoretical value. Strain gages placed at the stress concentrations near the longitudinal weld again indicated t h a t the local irregularities in the cylindrical shell produce appreciable increases in elastic stresses. No cracks appear on the surface of the weld indicating t h a t very low tensile stresses or likely compressive stresses are present on the outside surface of the vessel at these points. 19. 17--Comparison of the actual hoop stresses with the theoretical hoop stresses for a perfect cylinder representing Vessel C. 17. The use of the secondary isoentatic is not common among experimentalists. Dotted isoentatics give minimum principal stresses ) )0 i ACTUAL HOOP STRESS / POSITION 2 ~0 L ~ It I ~ "~THEORETICAL HOOP STRESS FOR A PERFECT CYLJNDER - O 0 . Experimental Mechanics I 41 .
. 42 I February 1961 . steels the local concentrations of stress were not significant and bursting pressures could be predicted with fair accuracy using the Hencky-Von Mises theory of failure using the theoretical values of hoop and axial stress. Chap. The circular white lines are a spiral of silver paint. A. p. Part I I . Second. 19--Appearance of cracks produced by bursting Vessel C. ~ . 17.ensile type. I t was found t h a t the local stress concentrations produced by these imperfections were significant in the failure of the vessel fabricated from a very high-strength brittle steel. and Tsao. An a t t e m p t was made to correlate the failure phenomena with the elastic stress distributions. 478. Timoshenko." McGrawHill. and there was little or no redistribution of this concentration. but more ductile. Phillips. "'Introduction to the Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Stress and Strain. Durelli.Fig. 2.. S. as evidenced in Fig.. Examination of the fracture surfaces indicated the failure was a brittle. Conclusions I t was found in the stress analysis of three cylindrical pressure vessels with R / t ratios ranging from 100 to 238 t h a t small local geometric imperfections influenced the elastic stress distribution very significantly. 17. 18--Microflash photograph of Vessel C as it burst. the weld efficiency was likely less t h a n 100% and a reduction in strength resulted. the breaking of which triggered the microflash 19. 1958. " 2nd Ed. C. For vessels constructed from lower-strength. J. for spraying the brittle coat: ing on the three vessels. the stress level at the weld is much higher t h a n indicated by the simplified theory. Equation 4 was again employed and gave a bursting pressure of 2790 psi which was about 86% higher t h a n the 1500 psi at which the vessel actually failed. References 1. assistant experimental engineer. . "Strength of Materials.. (Reconstruction after failure) Acknowledgment Credit should be given to Tahei Niiro. Fig. The premature failure was attributed to one or a combination of the two following causes: first.
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