Abutments

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Abutments

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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You are on page 1of 6

RCI Project - Rail Component Subproject - 1 Bridge No. FOUNDATION DESIGN Specification Data: Unit Weight of Concrete Unit Weight of Soil Angle of Internal Friction () Co-eff., Active Earth Press. (Ca) Coefficient of Friction between Base and Soil Ultimate Strength of Steel (fy) Ultimate Strength of Conc. (f'c) Allowable Stress of Steel (fs) Allowable Stress of Concrete (fc) Shear Stress, no Web Reinf. (vc) Shear Stress (Punching) Allowable Bond Stress (d = Bar Diameter, mm) Modulus, Elasticity of Steel (Es) Modulus, Elasticity of Conc. (Ec) Cover + 1/2 the Bar Diameter For Pile Embedment into the Cap For Above Unit Stresses, n For Above Unit Stresses, k For Above Unit Stresses, j For Above Unit Stresses, R Span Data: Clear Span of the Bridge Effective Span of the Bridge Overall Span of the Steel Bridge Load Data: Loading : 32.5 Ton Axle Loading Load of Steel Superstructure and Bearing @ 3.59 Track Load including Ballast, Sleeper etc. @ 9.15 178.80 Live Load (Bridge Rules, RDSO) 0.408 Impact Load (Bridge Rules, RDSO) DFC Loading, 32.50 Ton Axle Loading, Max 3 Axles 0.50 84.00 Longitudinal Force, Coefficient =

(As per UIC Code 774 - 3R, @nd edition, October 2001, Page 16, With CWR)

OR -->

3 = 25.00 kn/m 3 = 18.00 kn/m = 30 = 0.50 = 0.45 = 5.00E+05 kn/m = 2.80E+04 kn/m 0.40 * fy = 2.0E+05 kn/m 0.40 * f'c = 1.1E+04 kn/m 2.89 * f'c^.5= 4.8E+02 kn/m 5.25 * f'c^.5= 878 kn/m 113* (f'c)^0.5/d = 1.9E+04 /d kn/m = 1103 Kn/m (whichever is less) = 2.00E+08 kn/m = 2.53E+07 kn/m = 91 mm = 50 mm = 7.90 = 0.307 = 0.898 = 1.54E+03 kn/m

= = =

Impact Factor

Ton

= = = = = = =

kn kn kn kn kn kn

Depth of Girder

L/10

2.600 m

Sub-structure Height Data: Formation Level or Wall Top Level Wall Bottom Slab Level Return Wall Data Wall/Stem Thickness at Top Wall/Stem Thickness at Bottom Height from top of base, h Total height from top of base, H Length of the Return Wall

= =

8.15 m 2.147 m

= = = = =

mm mm m m m

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Abutment Wall Data Base Slab Thickness Required Thickness of Abutment Wall at Top Thickness of Abutment Wall at Bottom Width of Deck/Abutment Length of Toe Wall DESIGN LOADS AND MOMENTS Static Earth Pressure (At Bottom of Base) per meter width Ph = 0.50 * Ca * (Height of Abutment Wall (H)) * Weight of Soil = 0.50 * 0.500 * 60.84 * 18.00 Dynamic Earth Pressure (At Bottom of Base) per meter width Phd = 1/2**H 2 *C AD Foces due to Dead and Live Load Surcharge per meter width Force due to Active Earth Pressure, Rectangular Part, P1 = (S+V)/L*Ca*h Corresponding Moment Arm, h1 Force due to Active Earth Pressure, Triangular Part, P2 = ((S+V)*(L-B)2*Ka)/2BL Corresponding Moment Arm, h2 Forces due to Longotudinal Forces/Braking Forces 0.50 84.00 Longitudinal Force, Coefficient = Ton

(As per UIC Code 774 - 3R, @nd edition, October 2001, Page 16, With CWR)

= = = = =

mm mm mm m m

= = = = = = = = =

273.78 kn/m width 7.48 kn/m width 65.30 3.90 53.64 3.93 kn/m width m kn/m width m

Selection of Piles in Longitudinal Direction Laterally Loaded Piles Total Length of Embedment of Pile, Le = 30.00 m L1 (Pile tip to calculated scour or loose soil or liquifaction level) = 3.00 m Type of Soil for Fixity Portion, L f : (Any one of the following:) * From pile top to calculated scour or loose soil or upto liquifaction level shall be excluded. * Then after, the Type of Soi l shall be selected from below. Loose Sand Medium Sand = Loose Sand Dense Sand Very Loose Sand/Clay No. of Piles in Transverse Direction No. of Rows of Piles in Longitudinal Direction Depth of Fixity Ultimate Strength of Concrete (f'c) Diameter of the Pile Used

Cube Strength CF for Cylinder

= =

35000

Kn/m2 *

0.800

= = =

Allowable Deflection about 1% of the Pile Diameter = 12.00 mm 4 Moment of Inertia of Pile, I = 0.1018 m Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete (Ec) = 2.53E+07 kn/m For most normally consolidated clay and for granular soils the soil modulus is assumed to increase linearly with depth for which, Stiffness Factor T = (E*I/K1)^1/5 Therefore, 4 * T The Embedded Length of Pile, Le must be Greater than >= 4*T Pile Length is OK L1/T LF / T Depth of Fixity, LF = = = 0.670 2.08 2.08 = = 4.48 17.91 m

9.31 m

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Lateral Deflection Type of Soil: (Any one of the following:) Loose Sand Medium Sand Dense Sand Very Loose Sand/Clay H*(L1+LF)3/12EI Pile Head Deflection, Y = 41.19 mm > 12.00 mm The Lateral Deflecion is not within the Limit Maximum Moment The Fixed End Moment, MF

(For Fixed Head Pile)

= Loose Sand

41.19 mm

MF = H*(L1+LF)/2

= = =

The Applicable Reduction Factor, m The Actual Design Moment, M Substructure Base and Pile Data Diameter of Pile proposed to be used Distance from End of Pile to End of Cap No. of Piles in Longitudinal Direction No. of Piles in Transverse Direction Spacing of Pile in Longitudinal Direction Spacing of Pile in Transverse Direction Size of Cap in Transverse Direction Size of Cap in Longitudinal Direction Total Length Required : 5.50 Maximum Size of Cap in Long Direction PILE CAP SIZE : 5.800 m 8.250 2.450 1.0 1.633 6.00 m 1.50 1.00 1.70 EL 1.800 1100 3.600 1100 5800 Elevation of Abutment EL

1.50

0.000

= = = = = = = = = =

1200 500 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 9.400 5.800 8.250 8.250

9.400 m

8.147 m

7.80 m

2.147 m

Load on Foundation Load of Steel Superstructure and Bearing @ Track Load including Ballast, Sleeper etc. @ Live Load (Bridge Rules, RDSO) Impact Load (Bridge Rules, RDSO) DFC Loading, 32.50 Ton Axle Loading

= = = = =

kn kn kn kn kn

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Restoring Moment Components Thickness (mm) Length (m) 5.80 2.40 2.40 2.45 2.45 9.20 2.40 2.40 9.20 Width (m) 9.40 6.00 6.00 1.000 1.63 6.00 6.00 6.90 1.70 Volume (m) 100.86 16.56 5.04 1.960 1.60 46.92 5.04 99.36 46.92 Load (kn) 2521.55 414.00 90.72 49.00 40.02 1173.00 90.72 1788.48 844.56 468.40 1193.83 1752.94 715.31 956.48 12099 V. Load Static Dynamic Surcharge LF Arm (m) 2.900 4.60 4.60 7.03 4.42 2.30 2.30 4.60 0.85 1.95 1.95 1.95 1.95 2.90 Moment (kn-m) 7312.50 1904.40 417.31 344.22 176.74 2697.90 208.66 8227.01 717.88 913.38 2327.96 3418.24 1394.86 2773.78 32835

Bottom Slab 1850 Return Wall Conc., 2 nos. 575 Return Wall Earth, 2 nos. 175 Flag, Rect. Part, 2 nos. 400 Flag, Triangular Part, 2 nos. 400 Abutment Wall 850 Abutment Earth (triangular) 350 Earth Behind Abutment 6000 Earth Over Toe Part 3000 Steel Superstructure and Bearing Track Load including Ballast, Sleeper etc Live Load (Bridge Rules, RDSO) Impact Load (Bridge Rules, RDSO) DFC Loading, 32.50 Ton Axle Loading Total

R. M.

Moment (Over Turning) Moment (Over Turning) Moment (Over Turning) Moment (Over Turning) : Longitudinal Force Total Moment (Overturning) per meter width Total Moment (Overturning) for Entire Structure Design of Pile Foundation Substructure Base and Pile Data Size of Pile proposed to be used Distance from End of Pile to End of Cap No. of Piles in Longitudinal Direction No. of Piles in Transverse Direction Spacing of Pile in Longitudinal Direction Spacing of Pile in Transverse Direction Size of Cap in Transverse Direction Size of Cap in Longitudinal Direction Total Length Required :

= = =

= = = = = =

712 kn-m/m 29 kn-m/m 466 kn-m/m 233 kn-m/m 1439 kn-m/m 12415 kn-m

= = = = = = = = = ( d2 ) = = = =

Sum of the Squares of the Distances to each pile from Centre of Gravity of the Group 2 2 d L2 = About Longitudinal Direction, No. of Rows * s / 12 *(n1 * ( n1 - 1) 2 2 dT2 = About Transverse Direction, No. of Rows * s / 12 *(n1 * ( n1 - 1) Section Moduli Axis L-L Axis T-T i.e. about longitudinal direction i.e. about transverse direction

Pile Reaction due to Vertical Load Total Vertical Load Total nos. of Piles Load per Pile Pile Reaction due to Moment Total Moment due to Static, Dynamic EP, Surcharge, Longitudinal Force Total nos. of Piles Load per Pile

= = = = = =

12099 kn 6.0 nos. 2017 kn/pile 12415 kn-m 6.0 nos. 1533 kn/pile

Page 5 of 6

Maximum Pile Reaction : MinimumPile Reaction : Design Moment of the Piles

APPROACH 1

= =

Pile tip to calculated scour or loose soil or liquifaction level Fixity Point below Scour Level Considered for a Depth, Zf Height of the Abutment Wall Horizontal Load per meter of Wall Total Horizontal Load of Wall Horizontal Load per Pile Length of Abutment Wall No. of Piles below the Abutment Moment per Pile from Horizontal Load

APPROACH 2

= = = = = = = = =

3.00 m 9.31 m 6.90 445 4094 682 9.20 6.0 4201 m kn/m kn kn m nos. kn-m

Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete for Pile, E Coefficient of Soil Modulus Variation, Nh Soft soil/ Loose Soil/ Scour etc. Horizontal Load Per Pile Diameter of the Pile Used, D Moment of Inertia of Pile, I The stiffness factor, T = (EI / Nh)0.20 (in units of length) M = 1/2 * (1.8*T + dloose) * H Moment on Pile Design Moment of Pile

= = = = = = = = =

m Kn m m4 Kn-m

4201 kn-m

Total vertical load on the Abutment Base Repeatative Strip in the Transverse Direction Total Length of Base Slab in the Longitudinal Direction Total Length of Base Slab in the Transverse Direction Load per unit area at the Bottom of Abutment Base (With unifom distribution) Load per Repeatative Strip in the Long Direction Pile Reaction at Toe Part C/C Distance of Piles Maximum Pile Load Minimum Pile Load Assuming Planner Distribution of Imposed Load, Toe Side Load is seen to be increased from Average by Moment in a Strip in longitudinal Direction, wl^2/9 Design Bending Moment Total Thickness of the Member Length of the Member Clear Cover + 1/2 Thickness of Reinf. Bar, tc Width of the Strip, b dr = Depth Required = (M/(R*b))^0.5 tr = Thickness Required = dr + tc ta = Thickness assumed ta > tr, Design is OK <----= = = = = = 12099 3.600 5.800 9.400 222 799 kn m m m kn/m2 kn/m

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

3.600 m 3549 kn 484 kn 1.760 times 562.45 kn-m/m 562.45 1800 5.800 91 Kn-m mm m mm

Page 6 of 6

REINFORCEMENT Minimum Flexural Moment = 1.20 * Cracking Moment 1.2 * Mcr = 1.2 * 19.70 * f'c^0.5 * (b*h2/6)

Design Moment for Reinforcement = da = Actual Effective Depth of Section = Actual Member Thickness - (Coverage + 1/2 Dia.Reinforcement) = ta - c = = 1800 91 = 2136.09 * 1.00E+09 Ast = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = = 2.00E+05 * 0.8978 * 1709

CHECK SHRINKAGE REINFORCEMENT

1709 mm 6961 mm

Length of Member ta = Actual Thickness of Member Ast = 0.0025 * Ast(Moment) > Ast(Shrinkage) Use 32 mm @

380

= = = = =

Use this Reinforcement both at Top and Bottom and in both directions in the Pile Cap

Punching Shear Checking of Piles Maximum Pile Load Diameter of the Pile Thickness of Pile Cap Pile Spacing in the Longitudinal Direction Pile Spacing in the Transverse direction Reinforcement Cover from Centre of Rod Contributing Area for the Pile Ultimate Flexural Strength of Conc. (fc') Uniform Load on the Pile Cap Effective Depth of the Pile Cap, d Side of the Squire having the same Area of Pile Perimetre Length of the Critical Section, bo Shear Force on this Perimeterr Section, Vs Critical Shearing Stress Developed, v Allowing Stress in the perimetre Section, 2*f' c Safe against Punching Shear

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

kn mm mm times times mm 2 12.96 m 2 2.80.E+04 kn/m 273.86 1709 1063 11090 kn/m2 mm mm mm

2 879 Kn/m

Member Reinforcement in Directions and at Top and Bottom Long Direction Top Long Direction Bottom Trans Direction Top Trans Direction Bottom Ast Requird Moment (mm) 6961 6961 6961 6961 Bar Dia. (mm) 32 32 32 32 Spacing @ (mm c/c) 100 100 100 100 Ast Provided (mm) 8042 8042 8042 8042

Bottom Slab

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