Alexander Yakovlev  Soviet Ambassador to Canada, one of main policy advisors for Gorbachev  “Father of glasnost and perestroika”

Anastasio Somoza (The father and son)  Command of US set Nicaraguan army: The National Guard  US left in 1933 bc confident they’ll beat Sandino’s forces  Killed Sandino in 1933 after guaranteeing him safe passage to peace talks  Seized power in 1936 and established dictatorship  Killed by assassin in 1956  His youngest son (same name) ruled in 1967 till 1979  1936-1979 = Somoza family fiefdom  Family used state for private fortune in major companies, private and public  1970, living standards fell and literacy rate barely 50%  US government supported dictatorship  Armed struggle again Somoza began in early 1960 by left.  Named organization after Sandino: The Sandinista National Liberation Front  Armed struggle gathered strength in 1970 and overthrew Somoza in 1979  FLSN voted outta power in 1990. US face harsher economic penalties if they were voted for again. They were voted back in 2006 and 2011 Archbishop Oscar Romero  Conservative archbishop horrified by atrocities committed by El Salvadoran military in late 1970s bc priests and poor were targeted  Called for US to end aid to the military and the soldiers refuse orders or commit atrocities  Death squad assassinated him in his Church on March 24 1980 Augusto Sandino  US Marines sent to Nicaragua in 1927 to suppress his rebellion  Killed by Somoza after guaranteeing him safe passage to peace talks Bandung Conference  Also known as Afro-Asia Conference  April 18-24 in city of Bandung in Indonesia  Idea of Sukarno (president)  Indonesia declared independence on August 17 1945 and attained in 1949 after defeating Dutch attempt of recolonization  29 countries in Asia and Africa attended  One of the main points of conference: Express refusal of newly independent countries to take sides in the cold war  Didn’t use the term Third World but it did make the term a reality The Film Battle of Algiers  Struggle for independence in 1954 led by Front de Libération Nationale  FLN methods of organizing insurgency and the French military suppressing it  French used counterinsurgency strategies like moving 2 million Algerians from hills to military controlled spaces and had mass roundups of suspects and interrogated them with torture  Capital city Algiers became battleground in November 1956 when FLN bombed European areas  French military arrested around 24000 people and gained info on identity of FLN people. This worked in ending the insurgency but conflict between Algerians and French more extreme and Algerians wanted to end French rule asap  FLN wanted to show UN that FLN represented all Algerians and hope UN pressure French into allowing Algerian independence  French president De Gaulle said in 1959 military occupation was too expensive and it was damaging French relations with other countries esp the US so made arrangements with Algeria saying they would continue be under French association but NOT independent under FLN  De Gaulle allowed French colonies in W. Africa independence in 1960 but not Algeria because of French settlers who were rebelling agaist him  Agreement between FLN and France in 1962

and turned over non-Bulgarian Jews. refused to send own. meltdown at nuclear power plant at Chernobyl (Ukraine)  Worst nuclear accident in history bc radioactive clouds over area and pushed by winds across western Europe. state officials weren’t allowed to speak of the dangers of radioactivity  Gorbachev said the disaster demonstrated the importance of Glasnost so state officials knows what’s happening and the public could be well informed of it  Considered as good analogy for Gorbachev’s reforms Chiang Kai-shek  Leader of the Republic of China  Had seat in UN until 1949 then sent to Taiwan  Led KMT  Believe CCP rule if not crushed. peasants and poor. Plan on defeating them after Japan  Scared of CCP because rise against elites  Principal: accommodate and protect existing elites  Led full scale attack on CCP October 1946  (look at civil war for more info)  SYS appointed him as military commander for the party KMT  Joined SYS secret organization.7% wanted independence so July 1962= Algerian independence (decolonization) Bulgaria’s refusal to turn over Bulgarian Jews to the Nazis in 1943  Despite being anti-Jewish and its relegation of Jews to 2nd class citizens. KMT didn’t turn to these people  Turn to majority of Chinese and fight against the elites  Allied with KMT to fight Japanese but fought separately  Base= Yan’an  Fought against Japanese guerilla warfare using smaller amounts of soldiers organized in to smaller teams and ambush and trap enemy to avoid large scale battle  Mobilized peasants to help fight big landlords  More organized that KMT  US hope CCP incorporate into national army and participate in multi party elections  USSR invaded Manchuria in 1945 and gave all weapons there to CCP to attack nationalist army in Manchuria  Chiang launched full scale attack on CCP in late October 1946  CCP not integrate into new KMT led national government  (Look at civil war for more info)  CCP priority = redistribution of land  Agrarian Reform Law in 1950 . Held referndum and 99. the Revolutionary Alliance  Leader after SYS died Chinese Communist Party CCP  Establish in 1910  Victory in October 1949  Led by Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai  Turned to workers. steam built up and caused explosion  Accident indicated to Gorbachev something seriously wrong with Soviet system and their technology was backward  State enterprises were mismanaged and after this. Many died of cancer and genetic damage to people around Ukraine and Belarus  Meltdown occurred because the engineers were running a test to see if they could cope with loss of electrical power to the water pumps that cools the reactor core  Changing the settings of the reactor threw the system in chaos. Carter Doctrine  By President Carter on Jan 23 1980 after overthrow key US overthrow Shah of Iran and again Jan 1979 and again in Dec 1979 after Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Chernobyl disaster  July 26 1986.

Chiang decided to put everything into the Manchurian campaign thinking fighting will only last 5 months  CCP had heavy causalities but kept winning battles  1947 KMT defeated and general Lingfu sent a letter to Chiang telling him KMT officers were corrupt and hopeless  Chinese economy in 1947-48 deteriorated because government spent so much money on military  Inflation rose out of proportion and riots and banditry increased  US still financing KMT but wasn’t enough  Final defeat of KMTs Manchurian army in October 1948. China didn’t want DRV defeat bc US will put military bases on China’s border  Last US troops left in 1973  April 29 1975 DRV troops captured Saigon and the presidential palace  SV and NV reunited under Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976 Dien Bien Phu  French defeated at Dien Bien Phu in May 1954 . more job opportunities but more insecurity  2) Government privatized Stated Owned Enterprises  Lots of corruption  Many workers dismissed  3) Opened up country for foreign investment Diego Garcia  Seized power in 1978 after fake elections  Overthrown by Rios Montt in 1982. Many landlords killed  Mao said reform policy was to preserve rich peasant economy  Began collectivization The Civil War between the Kuomintang and the CCP  Chiang launched full scale attack on CCP October 1946  Chiang made mistake of attacking CCP when it was strongest  Instead of fighting smaller CCP base areas. If not. KMT still large army but army still disorganized  CCP won against KMT in 1949  KMT and CKS fled to Taiwan and established Republic of China Cultural Revolution  1966-76  Mao launched to regain authority inside the party after Great Leap Forward  Red Guards formed all over China and built a cult around Mao  Anyone with ties to Western countries became suspects Deng Xiaoping  Denounced Cultural Revolution in 1977  New economic policy in 1979 called “socialist market economy” or “socialism with Chinese Characteristics”  1) Broke the agricultural communes and became private property of peasant households  By 1984 nearly all communal land divided and contracted out to peasant households to farm their own  Completely reversed collectivization of 1955-56  Migration looking for work. CCP took many and Chiang evacuated survivors thus ending the Manchurian campaign  After that. probably couldn’t have sustained against US  USSR provided for DRV because they felt obligated to bc didn’t want to see US defeat socialist state  China provided bc wanted DRV as buffer between itself and US puppet state. who was also overthrown by another coup 18 months later  Garcia and Rios Montt from 1981 to 1983 the Guatemalan army committed genocide (look at Genocide in Guatemala) Democratic Republic of Vietnam  Led by Ho Chi Minh  Capital= Hanoi  Communists organized action against Diem in 1960 and formed National Liberation Front in 1960  Had aid from USSR and China.

 German Democratic Republic: Created by USSR in eastern zone Oct 1949. wanted to expand beyond Korea and Taiwan. in whole or in part. ethnic. so invaded Manchuria in 1931  Invasion on rest of China in 1937  War with Chinese nationalists and communists  Japan willing to surrender of emperor remain and power and imperial system continue  Japan didn’t surrender earlier because of Hirohito (didn’t want to admit defeat)  Believe Japanese spirit will prevail and win (Kamikaze) and divine rulers don’t lose  Waited till last minute to surrender to save face  Public announcement: Could have kept going at the war but too many deaths so it made him look noble Famine in Vietnam 1945  Japan took a lot of commodities from Vietnam without paying market price for them  Japan forced peasants to switch from rice and food crops (corn and beans) to peanuts. a national. Rice from South couldn’t get to the north so much of the rice rotted in the South  The above points resulted in a famine  Oct-Nov 1944 had storms that destroyed much of rice harvest in North  1945 1-2million died in the famine  Vietminh organized peasants to attack granaries and seize grain  1945 French removed by Japanese and countryside in North more open for Vietminh to operate  Vietminh setup own government in provinces as the Japanese stuck to the cities and roads  Vietminh had alliance with Allies  When Japan surrendered Vietminh powerful in N. deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part.” .  Defines genocide as “any of a number of acts committed with the intent to destroy. causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group. hemp and castor  Former imports of oil and cotton fell so Vietnam had to transport and clothes for much of the war  Huge black market where overall price increases by as much as 2000% in the north  Government printed new money and it increased nearly ten times the money supply from 1939-1945  Disruption of shipping along coast. Vietnam and occupied Hanoi  Ho Chi Minh read declaration of independence Formation of the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic  Federal Republic of Germany: formed from 3 western zones in May 1949. Geneva conventions of 1949  Core of International humanitarian law and body of international law that regulates the conduct of armed conflict and seeks to limits its effects  Protect people not part of hostilities like civilians and health and aid workers  1949 draft new version with 4 documents called conventions. and forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group. jute. West Berlin remained in place here. racial or religious group: killing members of the group. Democratic Republic of Vietnam won  Geneva conference May-July 1954 agreed to a two year timetable for withdrawl  French troops went below 17th parallel and DRV went north  US ignored Geneva Accords and built new state Emperor Hirohito  Throne in 1926  Dictorial government ending WWI democratic experiments  Military had great power  1930.  1) Deals with sick and wounded in the battle field  2) Same as #1 but for maritime warfare rather than land warfare  3) POWs  4) “Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War” Genocide Convention of 1948  Actually codifies genocide as a crime under international law.

many CCP leaders reluctant  End of 1959 24000 communes set up replacing collective farming system  Each commune had 2000 peasant families involved in agricultural and industrial production  Communes supposed to be ideals of socialism  Emphasis on industry  Government had villagers set up small smelters to melt metal to pig iron that will eventually become steel  Peasants forced to work on collective projects they didn’t have time for the private plots  Mao predicted China move from agricultural country to industrial one.1946  Wrote in article called “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” stating that Stalin’s regime is hostile to US and Western Europe and the idea that foreign threat justifies existence of USSR to Soviet people and that Stalin’s regime was neurotic and insecure  He argues that USSR was only concerned with Eastern Europe and not doing much beyond it because when he read NSC 68. religious organizations.Genocide in Guatemala  Killed about 200 000 people. beating UK in 15 years  Party leaders tried to back off from in 1959 but Mao insisted  Late 1959 Mao realized disaster of program and withdrew form some party affairs. Later he was no longer dominant leader inside the party  Result: millions dying of starvation Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere  Every territory Japan occupied.1938 and 1944. had to reply on local collaborators meaning empowerment of many nationalists (except Indochina because of French admin in power)  Nationalists persecuted by Europeans were placed in power under the Japanese  In each region. (China bc leading national resistance against foreign occupation Glasnost  Gorbachev ordered censorship to relax rules  Allowed formerly banned books films and plays to reappear . nationalist forces divided between collaborators and resisters  Empowerment of locals and impoverishment meant good place for birth of communists  Communists led resistance to Japanese colonialism in most of countries in SE Asia: Vietnam Philippines. (Japan hope local population be behind Japan because they pledge for greater independence)  Philippines and Burma given nominal independence in 1943  Major attraction of all Japanese officials: sponsored organizations for some food money and prestige  During occupation. he thought it exaggerated USSR’s expansive tendencies The Great Leap Forward  December 1957  Sudden increase in economic terms (production and productivity) and in social terms (quick transition to socialism)  Implemented this in summer of 1958  Idea of the commune. Indonesia and China. Burma. 83% were indigenous Mayans  Killed by Guatemalan army under Garcia and Rios Montt  Mostly concentrated in El Quiché province  Army systematically massacred people in over 600 villages  US government provided military aid to the Guatemalan military throughout and said they had to because it was needed to defeat communism George Kennan  Main critic of NSC 68  1904-2005  Senior specialist on USSR state department  Following USSR since 1931 when he was posted to US consulate in Lativa  Worked in US embassy in USSR from 1933. had a supreme governor  Not many Japanese officials in SE Asia. militias and mobilized its colonial subjects  Japanese admin increased encouragement of nationalism as their military position became more precarious. Japanese officials organized political parties.

October 4 1943 (#23)  Spoke to SS officers in Poland  Jewish race is to be exterminated Hiroshima and Nagasaki  Hiroshima. quarter million soldiers would die  Controversy: Was it fair? Civilians were attacked  Nagasaki: Aug 9 was uncalled for and lacked reasoning because Japanese leaders were meeting in Tokyo to discuss surrender  Aug 10 Japanese PM sent word to Allies that they accept surrender at Potsdam as long as Hirohito still in power  Aug 12: Allies saying surrender be unconditional but allies made no promises  Aug 13-14 Japanese leaders met with Allies and agreed to unconditional surrender Ho Chi Minh  Leader of the Vietminh  Declared Vietnamese independence Japanese Invasion of South East Asia  France overrun by German in June 1940  Japan interested in Indo China: V. Guam and Aleutian Islands and Philippines  GOAL: eliminate threat from US  JAN 2: US LOST MANILA  DEC 25: LOST HONG KONG  JAN 11: LOST KUALA LUMPUR  FEB 15: LOST SINGAPORE  MARCH 7: LOST RANGOON . Appointed new editors to state newspapers and magazines  Denounced Stalin and encouraged others to expose his crimes Heinrich Himmler’s speech at Posen. cost lives of many US soldiers (originally they planned on doing it in November) If they did it later in the year. Asia’s Pacific region  JAPAN’S PLAN FOR INVASION: 1941 get natural resources in SE Asia needed for military and industry such as: oil rubber tin and rice  Wanted to control shipping lanes and gain ports and airfields so Japan can attack Britain and India and Austraila  December 8 1941: Began invasion of SE Asia  Japan used Indochina (Vietnam and Taiwan) as base for Dec 8 attacks  Before invade SE Asia Japan had surprise attack on Pearl Harbour. Poland. L and C  Vietnam July 28 1941  Roosevelt declared partial embargo on July 25 1941  UK and Netherlands prohibited to export oil and other key goods to Japan in August  And prepare invasion of Singapore Borneo and rest of SE Asia  Denied Japan resources of SE Asia outside of Indochina  US response to invasion of Vietnam: Stop commercial treaty with Japan by stop selling scrap iron and steel (70% came fro US)  Roosevelt encourage Dutch in Indonesia to stop selling oil to Japan BUT still allow US oil to Japan to prevent war  US and Japan trying to bargain and US object Japan in China  US suggest find settlement between J and C by working together against the communists and also suggests that US may recognize Japan’s hold on Manchuria  Japan claims economic supremacy in China and E. August 6 1945 around 300 000 killed  Three days later Aug 9 Nagasaki bombed killing 40 000 immediately  Dropped on civilians causing many to die of radiation  Purpose: Meant to influence Japanese decision makers (not bomb military targets)  Also meant to have psychological effect on Hirohito and officials  Meant for surrender and necessary to save American lives  Rationale behind the bombs:  1) Japan refuse to surrender to US UK and USST on July 26 1945 at Potsdam conference  2) If bomb wasn’t used.

Korea) driven North Koreans back to the border  US and SK decided to march to NK in October and took Pyongyang (capital)  Invasion of NK caused China to support ally and 250 000 Chinese troops in NK  US and SK troops retreated due to heavy losses  Chinese and NK retook Seoul in Jan 1951  China got some money from USSR to help pay for war  Ceasefire in 1953 and remained divided Kuomintang  Founded in August 1912  Sun Yat Sen was one of the leaders  Feb 1913. elections. it didn’t do much damage to Japanese  (Look at civil war for more info)  Established by SYS but exile for several years and hard to reorganize KMT and decided should have army for themselves         . Singapore.(British resisted against losing HK Singapore and Malaya but lost) Jan 10 1942 Japan attack Netherlands East Indies Dutch British US and Australian ships defeated at Java sea on Feb 1942 March 8 Dutch GG in Batavia surrendered to Japan and arrested May 1942 Europeans and Americans sent packing or arrested March. USSR put him in power leading Korean Communist Party  June 1950. US (S. Philippines. North invaded South and captured Seoul within 3 days  Obtained weapons from Stalin but did not send Soviet troops  September 1950. relied on numbers  Chiang’s strategy was to retreat due to lack of weapons and equipment  US sent billions of dollars to KMT to damage Japanese in China after they declared war  Larger than CCP and fought nearly all major battles against Japanese but later on when they used guerilla tactics. Malaya and Indonesia evicted and replaced by Japanese officials  JAPANESE EMPIRE REACHED PEAK IN MAY 1942 DUE TO DEFEAT AT CORAL SEA IN MAY 1942  Most fighting 1942-45 with advancing US troops in Pacific Islands and Philippines  Japan’s hold over other SE Asian countries were undamaged  POST WAR PERIOD: Surrender August 15 1945  Indonesian independence August 17  Vietnamese independence September 2 Kim Il Sung  In North Korea. Had 160 000 allies captured May 1942 Japan took 15000 US soldiers at Bataan peninsula White colonial officials in Burma. Kuomintang won  Yuan Shikai was a conservative guy and he banned the party in July 1913 and banned it  Sun Yat Sen fled to Japan  Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor in 1916 and died and new government of republic in chaos  Led by Chiang Kai-shek  Base in Nanjing  Chiang didn’t believe KMT ready for war with Japan so wait until better organized funded and armed  Allied with CCP against Japanese but fought separately  Moved capital from Nanjing to Chungking  Fought with regular and professional solders and engaged directly with Japanese army  Rep for corruption because officers lived comfortably while grunts did dirty work  Some troops steal supplies from civilians  Lack of reliable chain of command  Had no weapons against Japanese. took Indonesia.

The reconstruction known as perestroika (Look at perestroika)  Changed policy for Warsaw Pact countries  March 1985 he told them that USSR wouldn’t militarily intervene in their internal politics (no repeat of Czechoslovakia in 1968)  Expected Communist regimes would reform along lines of USSR and benefit from economic revival  Believe for economic revival. signed treaty to eliminate some types of nuclear weapons in Washington DC  Ordered censorship to be relaxed (look at Glasnost)  . Thought healthcare and edu better than in west but wanted new policies for economic revival. Korean and port city Dalian  1931. Manchuria  Japan  Soviets take in July 1945(direct threat to Japan)  Japan began conquest on China September 18 1931. not Japan)  USSR gave captured weapons to CCP May 4th movement  In 1919  Demonstration of students opposed government’s agreements to terms by Paris Peace Conference by transferring Germany’s concession in China to Japan  KMT and CCP emerged from this New Culture Movement in the 1910s Mao Zedong  Led Chinese Communist Party  Wrote a manual called On Guerilla War in 1937  (Look at CCP for more info)  When US asked CCP to incorporate to national army. invasion began and Japanese troops sent up the rail line and occupied the cities along it  Japan wanted to protect Manchuria form Chinese geurillas  Main commodity were soybeans which were exported to Japan and world market (Soybeans and tofu and soybean oil = 60% of exports)  Japan earned a lot by exporting clothing to Manchuria  Became Japanese puppet state  KMT opposed Japanese in Manchuria but didn’t attack  USSR occupied it in August 1945 and remained there until April 1946  USSR looted Manchuria claiming the loots to be reparations from Japanese (Manchuria suffered. Japan could control land on either side of the tracks  Capital of Mukden province and was crossroads of three rail lines from Beijing. Mao and Chiang had oral agreements  Mao agreed to follow Chiang’s leadership but he had no intention to he just wanted to delay civil war  (Look at Civil War for more info)  Announced People’s Republic of China on October 1 1949 at Tiananmen Square. Beijing  (Look at Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution for more info)  Threw country to crisis by GLF in 1958-60 and CR in 1966-76 Mikhail Gorbachev  General Secretary in March 1985  Desperately wanted to implement drastic reforms to improve the economy  Visited other countries in 1970 and 80 to see living conditions better than USSR and feared if people knew about it they would feel intolerant towards Soviet backwardness  Wanted reform Soviet system but not destroy. lessen spending in military and arms race with US have to stop and pull out troops from Afghanistan  Met with President Reagan to talk about reducing nuclear arms and in December 1987.Western countries didn’t give aid so turned to USSR in 1923 and they did if have formal alliance with CCP and SYS agreed The Lager  Literally “camp.” Primo Levi’s term used to describe his labor camp. Entered Manchuria  Japan had economic interest in Manchuria because of South Manchurian Railway (rail line Russia built)  With the railway.

the operated across the border in Honduras  Most were former members of the National Guard  Blew up bridges. even anti communists who wanted to work with him  His government failed because of own failings  Killed in 1963 with his brother because CIA urged RV to Nicaraguan Contras  Reagan financed. burned down schools. relied on his family.June 1988 persuade party to allow a partially elected parliament (Congress of People’s Deputies) Recall Tsar’s decision to form Duma in 1905 May 1989 elections held for two thirds of the seats in the 450 member parliament (most people elected from communist party) and they chose Gorbachev to be president of USSR  Wanted to reduce spending on WARSAW pact National Security Council 68  Written two months before Korean War  Stated USSR was expansionist and it wanted to export revolution  Seemed to have confirmed expansionist goals of communism  (look at Kennan and Ral for more info) Ngo Dinh Diem  CIA picked him to be head of new state of South Vietnam  Declared new independent state on October 1955: Republic of Vietnam before elections in 1956  Capital = Saigon  Had no base for support. This was done to prevent FSLN from achieving economic development and make civilians fearful of supporting new government  Defunded by Congress in 1984  Reagan admin organized secret programs out of the White House to raise money for the Contras in third world countires and from illegal sales of military equipment to Iran  The illegal trade was uncovered in late 1986 (Iran-Contra scandal) Nicolae Ceausescu  Deadset against Gorbachev’s reforms bc threatened his personal rule (He’s from Romania)  Became head of communist party in 1965 and only concerned about power  Distanced himself from Moscow and supported reformers in Czechoslovakia in 1968  Denounced Soviet invasion and refused to send Romanian troops for invasion  Stayed in WARSAW but USSR hated him but didn’t attack  US and W Europeans saw him as great reformer and wanted to use him to break Iron Curtain  West gave him loads of money and he used it to expand industrial production and improve living standards so that the people would be loyal to him and his regime  At the same time he’s also borrowing money to build personal power outside the communist party by creating cult around himself  Problem 1981 when they wanted 10billion dollars back  He agreed and cut back spending to pay off this debt  Living standards quickly dropped in 1980s but maintained lavish lifestyle  Overthrown. armed and trained them  Opposed to the FSLN  For short counter revolutionary. Catholics and US  Ruled by repressing  Alienated everyone. captured and excuted Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals  Nuremberg: focused on charges of waging war aggression and committing war crimes (Crimes against civilians) and crimes against humanity (killings Jews)  “International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg and Nuremberg War Crimes Trial”  Began November 20 1945 ended October 1 1946  No war crime trials after WWI because US prevented it  Nuremberg trials organized by US USSR UK and provisional government of Frace    . bombed oil depots. massacred villagers.

Ningpo under British occupation  Beijing response: huge army attack on British at Ningpo but defeated  British troops moved to Shanghai to find Chinese already fled and went straight to Nanking  British cut the empire in two separating north and south  Treaty of Nanking 1842: Qing compensate Britain and open five treaty ports and ceded Hong Kong  Second Opium War 1857-1860 (can also be called Arrow War)  October 1856 Canton seized a supposedly British ship and arrested the crew.5million Polish Jews died Opium Wars 1839-42 1856-60  First Opium War 1839-1842  Britain smuggle opium from India to China for exchange of tea (Indian opium to China and money earned is for Chinese tea back to London)  Qing stopped import of opium through Canton and as response British attacked Canton  Britain demand China compensate for seized and destroyed opium  Qing built a fort thinking it couldn’t be captured but the British moved past it  Chinese at Ningpo fled because cannons weren’t working. enslavement. and ship accused of piracy  Sir John Bowring (governor of Hong Kong) had military attack on Canton and ship was released and the ship was indeed engaged in piracy  Arrow incident ridiculed in House of Commons because not a sufficient justification for war  PM Palmerston ordered elections and stated that Canton violated British flag  Dec 1857 another military attack on Canton  After some battles. (Unit 731 not charged if results released to US) Operation Reinhardt  October 1941  SS commander Himmler ordered construction of the extermination of camp Belzec in Poland (Camp designed only for killing and not imprisonment)  Three more of these camps were built: Chelmno Treblink and Sobibor  1. 3 times longer than Nuremberg  Didn’t include Hirohito for political reasons and pretend he’s not responsible  No charges against comfort women or Unit 731 medical experiments on 3000 prisoners in Manchuria and Japan’s use of chemical weapons in China. destruction of cities etc)  3) Crimes against Humanity: Inhumane acts against civilians (murder. This was to criminalize all of the Nazi party. persecution on political racial or religious grounds etc)  Claim Nazi is charged for all 3 since their rule in 1933. Problematic because only 8/22 were found guilty  Crimes against humanity is new idea  Tokyo Tribunals “International Military Tribunals for the Far East/ Tokyo War Crime Trials”  General MacArthur established this on January 19 1946  Largely organized and financed by USA but appointed 11 prosecutors and judges from 11 countries involved in the Allied war effort  Began May 1946 and lasted 31 months. China lost and Qing Emperor concluded with Treaty of Tienstin with Elgin in 1858  China lost and had Treaty of Elgin in 1858  UK had 1 million pounds of compensation and more treaty ports opened  UK appointed ambassador to Beijing  Emperor legalized opium trade    .4 countries wrote charter and announced it on Aug 8 1945 each having a judge on a team of presecutors Indicted 22 Nazi civilian officials and military officers on Oct 6 Chose Nuremberg for several reasons: symbolic because site of Nazi annual rallies and in US zone of occupation and had standing courthouse surviving the allied bombings  Translated into 4 different languages  Crimes defined in Aug 8 Charter (#27 for more detailed info)  1) Crimes against peace: Waging war of aggression  2) War Crimes: Violation of laws or customs of war (murder. deportation. extermination. ill treatment of POW and civilians.

2004 main author for NSC 68  Head of the state Department’s Policy Planning Department in 1949  Made a fortune from investments and worked with powerful investment bank in the US (Dillon.  Author of “Genocide – A Modern Crime”  Argues that “international premeditated murder…must be brought into the scope and jurisdiction of future international law. and unable to form successful state because they didn’t gain support from the peasants  Collapsed in late 1950 early 1960 due to own failings and US kept sending more money and guns to the military . too dependent on the US. The Japanese turned their POW from India into an army to fight for the invasion of India through Burma  Pal admired Japanese officials as liberators of Asia from colonialism  His arguments during the trial:  1) Allies also guilty for atrocities and have no rights to judge Japanese officials. He admired a Bengali politican who collaborated with Japanese. US UK France and Netherlands waging war of aggression in Asia for centuries  Imperialism = “right of conquest”  2) Law under which Japanese defendants are being tried were not in force before the war  Japanese right wing adored him and had a shrine dedicated to him in their war memorial Raphael Lemkin  Polish lawyer of Jewish descent best known for work against genocide. Elgin’s brother provoked fight with Chinese military at Dagu Forts  British defeated badly  Elgin went for revenge at Dagu Forts and won  Marched to Beijing and looted and destroyed summer palace  Stuff brought back to London at Victoria and Albert Museum  Paul Nitze  1907. US military pretty much commanded South Vietnam’s army  CIA urged RV to overthrow Diem in 1963  Anti communists in Diem’s government: Didn’t have national credentials.)  Didn’t have much experience in foreign policy  Worked in various government departments on acquiring mineral resources and surveying bombing targets  Became head of policy planning means US places people who understand US business interest in priority Perestroika  New policies for economic revival by Gorbachev  Key economic policy change came with Law on the State Enterprise (implemented Jan 1988)  Employees at these state enterprises allowed to choose own managers and could produce more goods outside the quota from the central state  Set own prices and wages  Private enterprises were allowed to form  Reforms only in USSR and not Warsaw Primo Levi  Survival in Aushwitz 1946 Radhabinod Pal  Famous judge in Tokyo Trials from India (1886-1967)  Judge in Calcutta High Court  His decision to reliase defendants from wrong doing were partly due to his sympathy for the Japanese  Insipried by Japan’s defeat of Russia in 1905.” considering Germany’s extermination of its own Jews was considered an “internal problem” Republic of Vietnam  Led by Diem  May have succeeded if able to unite the non communist forces  But Diem alienated everyone even anti communists wanting to work with him  Diem’s government fell in early 1960 because of own failings  US sent a lot of money guns and advisors. Read and Co. which was a time when Bengalis were beginning a large movement against British Rule.

President Sukarno  Idea of Bandung Conference  Expressed in the conference that newly independent states shouldn’t take sides in the cold war Taiwan (Republic of China)  Leader = Chiang Kai-shek  Chiang and around 2 million KMT supporters fled to Taiwan and established Republic of China  Hope to invade China and reunite China under their authority  One of the founding members of the UN in 1945. one of 5 permanent members of UN Security Council  Held seat until 1971  Most countries around the world do no recognize Taiwan’s sovereignty because priority with People’s Republic and thus Taiwan has no official diplomatic relations Tet Offensive 1968  January 31 1968  Enemy attacked heart of US power (Saigon) and even attacked US embassy  Result: major rethinking of the war back in US (US public felt lied to) Tiananmen Square Protest in 1989  April 15 students gathered to commemorate death of Hu Yaobang  He forced out as General Secretary of the Communist party led by Deng in Jan 1987 after he refused to crack down student protest in 1986  Purpose: some wanted greater openness for economic reform program without inequality. insecurity and corruption  Crackdown June 3-4 don’t know how many killed President Truman  Didn’t think atomic bombs immoral because bombed cities before in Europe and Japan  May 1945 had Interim Committee advising him bombs were okay to drop  Truman said no more bombs dropped after surrender August 10  Welcomed USSR to war in Pacific but once had atomic bomb. War with North Vietnam in 1965  US government bombed North March 1965 to “save the South”  Vietnamization increased size of ARVN and have $2billion worth of weapons in 1973  Fell when DRV attacked in late 1974  April 29 1975 DRV troops entered Saigon and captured the presidential palace the next day  SV and NV reunited in 1976 under Socialst Republic of Vietnam Rigobertu Menchu  1959 born  Her father was active resistance in El Quiché in Guatemala  She fled to Mexico in 1981 and joined campaign to expose the genocide  Told life story to French anthropologist who made her famous by writing a book  Won noble peace prize in 1992 SS Einsatzgruppen  Responsible for massacring Jews (men. children) and burying their bodies in mass graves. European states) US invasions of Grenada and Panama  US waged unilateral armed aggression without UN sanction on Grenada in 1983 and Panama in 1989 USSR successful testing of a nuclear bomb 1949 . didn’t need USSR and Truman wanted to end war before USSR involvement. This is to deny USSR any voice in post war settlement in Asia  Persuaded Congress to release funds for Marshall plan in March 1948 (separate currency for Western zones in June 1948)  Truman Doctrine March 1947  Approve aid to Turkey and Greece. Also says US policy to support free people who are resisting against armed minorities or by outside pressure. women.  $500 million spent on Greek army and Greek communists dependent on Yugoslavian government  Doctrine increased hostility between USSR (Stalin more insistent on direct soviet control over E.

European countries under Nazi occupation were to be sent to territories in East Germany where they would be killed  Main concentration camp: Auschwitz . USSR tested an atomic bomb for the first time Countries of the Warsaw Pact  Signed in May 1955 as response to NATO  Smaller versions of USSR  Relied to a certain degree on Soviet trade. East Germany. Romania. Bulgaria  Reforms only in USSR. Czechoslovakia. not WARSAW  4/6 hostile towards glastnost and perestroika but Gorbachev didn’t insist them to follow his reform or denounce them Wannsee Conference  January 20 1942  14 key Nazi leaders met in a mansion in Wannsee to discuss best way to coordinate their work in annihilating European Jewry  1st solution: expel Jews from every sphere of German people and encourage them to leave Germany  Jews of Germany and other W. Hungary. aid and military  Gorbachev wanted to reduce amount spend on WARSAW states because of Soviet economy  Poland.

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