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Elementary Latin

Chapter 1 – Verbs 5 parts to every finite verb: • Person o First – I /We (plural) o Second – You / You (plural) o Third – He / She / It / They (plural) • Number o Singular o Plural • Tense o Present o Future o Imperfect o Perfect o Future-Perfect o Pluperfect • Mood o Indicative – factual/real o Imperative – command (only appears in the second person) o Subjunctive – potential / hypothetical-ish (should, might, would) • Voice o Active – subject DOES the action o Passive – subject RECEIVES the action Parsing a verb involves use of all 5 parts!! Ex: To Praise (Laudare) Present Tense (First person singular): “I praise.” “I am praising.” “I do praise.” Present Indicative Active Present “stem” + personal endings Present Active Infinitive – ex: to love (amare), to praise, to warn (monere), etc. To determine present stem, remove –re Ex: love = ama / warn = mone Verb conjugation 1st ends –are 2nd ends –ere

Conjugation 1st singular –o/m 2nd singular –s 3rd singular –t 1st plural –mus 2nd plural –tis 3rd plural –nt

1st Ex (laudo) laudo laudas laudat laudamus laudatis laudant

2nd Ex (mone) moneo mones monet monemus monetis monent

Present Active Imperative 2nd person singular / 2nd person plural To form, present stem + endings (different from Present Indicative Active) Conjugation 2nd singular 2nd plural 1st Ex lauda! laudate! 2nd Ex mone! monete!  add –te

Complimentary infinitive – ex: debemus cogitare = We ought to think. Parsing/Translation exercise: Amamus – 2nd Plural Present Active Indicative / We love Debetis – 2nd Plural Present Active Indicative / We owe Erra! – 2nd Singular Present Active Imperative / (You) Make a mistake! Terrent – 3nd Plural Present Active Indicative / They are terrified Valete! – 2nd Plural Present Active Imperative / Be strong! (Goodbye!) Salveo – 1st Singular Present Active Indicative / I am well. Laudat – 3rd Singular Present Active Indicative / He/She/It praises. Monent – 3rd Plural Present Active Indicative / They warn. Videtis – 2nd Plural Present Active Indicative / We see. Vocas – 2nd Singular Present Active Indicative / You call. For tomorrow: focus on changing number parsing.

Nouns All nouns are feminine Except for: (occupations, in antiquity, generally held by men) • Poeta – poet • Agricola – farmer • Incola – inhabitant { It is a P.A.I.N. to remember these! } • Nauta – sailor • (pirata) - pirate • (auriga) – chariot driver When parsing, there are only 3 parts: • Number

o o Case o o o o o

Singular Plural

Nominative – subject Genitive – “of”  Possessive Case or Modifier Dative – Indirect Object  “to” or “for” Accusative – Direct Object / Object of certain prepositions Ablative – Object of certain prepositions (involving stasis)  “by” / “with” / “from” o Vocative – Direct Address Gender o Masculine o Feminine o Neuter (ne/ueter = not either)

Nouns are put into groups called declensions. To identify declensions, you look at the second piece of information given in the noun. “Base” + case endings Ex: A. The poet is giving large roses to the girl. B. The girls are giving the poet’s roses to the sailors. C. Without money the girls’ country is not strong. In sentence A: • The poet is nominative. • To the girl is dative. • Roses is Accusative. In sentence B: • The girls is nominative. • The poet’s is genitive. • To the sailors is dative. • Roses is accusative. In sentence C: • Country is nominiative. • Girls’ is genitive.

First Declension Nominative* Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative Plural Nom* Gen Dat Acc Abl

Example (gate) port-a port-ae port-ae port-am port-aa Example port-ae port-aarum port-iis port-aas port-iis

Translation of the gate to/for the gate by/with/for the gate

*The Vocative has the same declension as the Nominative and will be identified by commas. (ex: O, fortuna! = O fortune!) An adjective must agree in number, case and, gender with the noun it modifies. In sentence structure, the noun precedes the adjective. (There are 36 different ways to say “red”!) Homework: Sentences pp.14-15, #1-15

Homework review Homework: English to Latin sentences, p. 15. #16-20 / Catullus Passage

Missed class

Substantive Adjective– an adjective standing on its own / stands in as a noun Practice and Review 1. Filium nautae Romani in agris videmus. • We see the son of the Roman sailor in the fields. 2. Pueri puellas hodie vocant. • The boys call the girls today. 3. Sapientiam amicarum, filia mea, semper laudat. • My daughter always praises the wisdom of her friends. 4. Multi viri et feminae philosophiam antiquam conservant. • Many men and women conserve ancient philosophy. 5. Si ira valet, O mi fili saepe erramus et poenas damus. • If anger is strong, we often err and pay the penalty, O my son.

6. Fortuna viros magnos amat. • Fortune loves great men. 7. Agricola filiabus pecuniam dat. • The farmer gives money to his daughters. 8. Without a few friends life is not strong. • Sine amicis paucis vita non valet. 9. Today you have much fame in your country. • Hodie in patria tua famam multam habes. 10. We see great fortune in your daughters’ lives, my friend. • Fortunam magnam in tua filiabus vitae videmus, amico/a mea. 11. He always gives my daughters and sons roses. • Rosas mea filiae et fili semper dat.

Neuter nouns Clues to determine masculine/feminine declensions: • Check the ending! o Donum; doni (n) = gift  This is in masculine declension, though it is a neuter noun (Singular) Nom: +um Gen: +i* Dat: +o* } Nom/Voc/Acc take the same form! Acc: +um Abl: +o* (Plural) Nom: +a Gen: +orum* Dat: +is* Acc: +a Abl: +is


*These take the same declensions as masculine nouns…? Irregular verbs Est (to be) – sum, esse, fui, futurus

“One thing you’ll never see is the accusative with the verb to be. “
1st Sing: sum 2nd Sing: es 3rd Sing: est 1st Plu: sumus 2nd Plu: estis 3rd Plu: sunt I am You are He/She/It is We are You (all) are They are

Email Rhiannon to request What’s That Ending? Copy Homework: Practice and Review for Chapter 4 Quiz tomorrow: chapter 4 vocab

Review: Aposition (Relative Clause w/o Relative Pronoun) • Ex: The boy (who is) tired.  Puer Predicate (Addjective in Nominative agreeing w/ subject w/ sum, esse…) • Ex: Puer est = The boy is tired. Substantive (Adjective working as a noun) • Ex: The good, the bad, and the ugly.

Future Indicative Actives & Imperfect Indicative Actives Review: for Present Indicative Active Verbs… Form = stem + endings For Future Indicative Active and Imperfect Indicative Active verbs, form = stem + infix + endings Future Indicative Active: infix = BI (BO for 1st singular; BU for 3rd plural) Ex: laudare trans. monere -------------------------------------------------------------------------------1st: laudaBo I shall praise monebo nd 2 : laudaBIs You will monebis 3rd; laudaBIt He/she shall monebit 1st: laudaBImus 2nd: laudaBItis 3rd: laudaBUnt We shall You (all) will They will monebimus monebitis monebunt

For Imperfect Indicative Active verbs, form = stem + BA + endings 1st: laudabam 2nd: laudabas 3rd: laudabat 1st: laudabamus 2nd: laudabatis 3rd: laudabant I was praising / I used to You were He was We were You (all) were They were

For future quizzes… Supply masculine / feminine / neuter of a noun. Ex: magnus (m); magna (f); magnum (n)

Review When translating: • Imperfect o “was/were ______ing” • Future o “will/shall _______” For Present/Imperfect/Future verbs: STEM + TENSE MARKER nd Present: 2 n/a Imperfect: principal ba Future: part bo/bi/bu (inf w/o re) + ENDING o/s/t/mus/tis/nt m/s/t/mus/tis/nt o or m/s/t/mus/tis/nt


Oct. 20th: Translating the Aenid Principal parts: First p.p.: 1st Person / Singular / Present / Indicative / Active Second p.p.: Infinitive Third: Fourth: Homework: Finish translating the assignment sheet to turn in on Monday!

Translation Review Latin 101 Worksheet – complete by tomorrow! Tomorrow: Covering Chapter 6. NO QUIZ!!

Present Sum Sumus Eres Estis Est Sunt Sum: future and imperfect tenses Imperfect Future eram eramus ero erimus eras eratis eris eritis erat erant erit erunt

Complimentary infinitives Ex: Amo laudare pueros et paellas.  I love to praise girls and boys. Possum: Compound Verbs Meaning: to be able (present); used to be able to (imperfect); shall/will be able to (future) Present Possum Potes Potet Possumus Potest Possunt Conjugation Imperfect poteram poteras poterat poteramus poteratis poterant Future potero poteris poterit poterimus poteritis poterunt

Chapter 7 – Third Declension Nouns For 1st and 2nd Declension Nouns Dat/Abl Plural nouns end in is. (Ex: Tyrannis / Rosis) Gen Plural nouns end in rum. Accusative Plural nouns end in s. Accusative Plural nouns end in m. For 2nd Declension Neuter nouns Nom/Acc are the same Nom/Acc Plural end in a. All declensions are the same as masc. except for Nom/Acc. For Third Declension Nouns (Fem/Masc) Dative/Ablative Plural end in ibus. Genitive Plural nouns end in um. Accusative Plural nouns end in s. Accusative Singular nouns end in m. For Third Declension Nouns (Neut) Nom/Acc are the same Nom/Acc Plural end in a. All declensions are the same as masc. except for Nom/Acc

Ex: (Sing) Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl (Plu) Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl Litotes

labor (m) labor laboris labori laborem labore labores laborum laboribus labores laboribus

virtus (f) virtus virtutis virtuti virtutem virtute virtutes virtutum virtutibus virtutes virtutibus

corpus (n) corpus corporis corpori corpus corpore corpora corporum corporibus corpora corporibus

Third Conjugation Verbs Ex: ago, agere, egi, actum (to do) Third conjugation verbs can be identified by the lack of macron over the ending vowel in the infinitive. To conjugate Third Conjugation Verbs: • Take the present stem • Change the e to … o For Present Act Ind, i o For Future Act Ind, a  Only applies to nominative, all others take future act ind e o For Imperfect Act Ind, add ba plus endings o For Present Act Imperative  1st: singular plus the stem  2nd: change the ending to i, add te • Add endings Ex: agere (Sing) Present Future st 1 ago agam 2nd agis ages rd 3 agit aget (Plural) 1st agimus agemus nd 2 agitis agetes 3rd agunt* agent rd *For 3 Plural, change e to u. Imperfect agebam agebas agebat agebamus agebatis agebant Imperative age!


Study third conjugation verbs!! Homework: Sententiae and Cicero translation

Demonstratives Pronouns in Latin: Words that replace nouns Arranged in terms of proximity*: this / that / that over there (Like Japanese!!) This (closest) That (closer) That (farthest) Masc. Hic Iste Ille Fem. Haec Ista Illa Neut. Hoc Istud Illud

* Only used when changing the subject. Ille/Illa/Illud Declensions (Sing) Masc. Fem. Neut. Nom Ille Illa Illud** Gen Illius Illius Illius*** Dat Illi Illi Illi*** Acc Illum Illam Illud** Abl Illo Illa Illo Iste/Ista/Istud Declensions (Sing) Masc. Fem. Neut. Nom Iste Ista Istud** Gen Istius Istius Istius*** Dat Isti Isti Isti*** Acc Istum Istam Istud** Abl Isto Ista Isto Hic/Haec/Hoc Singular Declensions (Sing) Masc. Fem. Neut. Nom Hic Haec Hoc** Gen Huius Huius Huius*** Dat Huic Huic Huic*** Acc Hunc Hanc Hoc** Abl Hoc Hac Hoc (Plu)* Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl (Plu)* Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl (Plu)* Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl Masc. Illi Illorum Illis Illos Illis Masc. Isti Istorum Istis Istos Istis Masc. Hi Horum His Hos His Fem. Illae Illarum Illis Illas Illis Fem. Istae Istarum Istis Istas Istis Fem. Hae Harum His Has His Neut. Illa Illorum Illis Illa Illis Neut. Ista Istorum Istis Ista Istis Neut. Haec Horum His Haec His

*Plural forms employ the same paradigms as gender-based adjectives. **Remember! Nominative and Accusative Neuter nouns share the same form. ***Genitive and Dative forms are the same regardless of gender.


Fourth Conjugation and –io Verbs of the Third Third conjugation verbs end with –io, such as audio (to hear), capio (to capture), and facio (to make)

Personal Pronouns Ego, Tu, and Is; Demonstratives Is and Idem Similar to chapter 10 demonstratives (Sing) Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl (Sing) Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl He Is Eius Ei Eum Eo I (1st) Ego Mei Mihi Me Me She Ea Eius Ei Eam Ea It Id Eius Ei Id Eo (Plu) Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl (Plu) Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl They (masc) Ei/Eii Eorum Eis Eos Eis They(fem) Eae Earum Eis Eas Eis They Ea Eorum Eis Ea Eis

You (2nd) Tu Tui Tibi Te Te

We Nos Nostrum/nostri Nobis Nos Nobis

You (all) Vos Vestrum/vestri Vobis Vos Vobis

The Perfect System You find the perfect stem by locating the 3rd principal part, MINUS the final i. Ex: Perfect stem for moneo is monu. PS for laudo is laudav. Translation Perfect: I have, I did, I ____-ed (denotes completion) Future Perfect: I will have ____-ed Pluperfect: I had ____-ed Conjugation order for all three tenses Perfect: Perfect stem + endings (new) Future Perfect: Perfect stem + future form of sum Pluperfect: Perfect stem + imperfect form of sum Ex: laudav (Perfect stem of laudo) (Sing) Perfect Future Perfect 1 laudavi laudavero 2 laudavisti laudaveris 3 laudavit laudaverit (Plu) Pluperfect laudaveram laudaveras laudaverat

1 2 3

laudavimus laudavistis laudaverunt/ere

laudaverimus laudaveritis laudaverint

laudaveramus laudaveratis laudaverant

Chapter 13 – Reflexive Pronouns and Possessives; Intensive Pronoun Reflexive pronouns – to reflect the subject of the sentence; to “curve back” to the subject. Ex: I gave a present to myself. / Cicero praised himself. Because reflexive pronouns reflect the subject, it cannot be the subject. Therefore, there are no reflexive pronouns in the nominative case. Differences Laudavit me = He/She/It praises me. (This is the use of a personal pronoun.) Laudavi me = I praise myself. (Use of a reflexive pronoun) 1st Person (s + p): same as personal pronouns. (myself) 2nd Person (s + p): same as personal pronouns (yourself, yourselves) 3rd Person (s + p) (his-/her-/itself/themselves) Nom ----------Gen sui Dat sibi (Similar to personal pronouns for you (tui, tibi, te, te), Acc se but with an s instead of a t.) Abl se Reflexive Possessives Reflexive Possessives are adjectives that show possession of the subject. My (own) = meus, mea, meum Your (own) = tuus, tua, tuum Our own = noster, nostra, nostrum Your own (pl) = vester, vestra, vestrum His/Her/Its/Their own = suus, sua, suum Examples: Cicero laudat suum librum = Cicero praises his own book. Cicero laudat suam sororem = Cicero praises his own sister. Intensive Pronoun/Adjectives (Sing) Masc. Fem. Neut. Nom ipse ipsa ipsum Gen ------------------ipsius-----------------Dat -------------------ipsi-------------------

Acc Abl

ipsum ipso

ipsam ipsa

ipsum ipso

Homework: Practice and Review 13-17, Translate Alexander the Great and the Power of Literature (p. 87) Pejorative = negatively


3rd Declension Nouns (Sing) Nom rex (m) Gen regis Dat regi Acc regem Abl rege (Plu) Nom reges Gen regum Dat regibus Acc reges Abl regibus

corpus (n) corporis corpori corpus corpore corpora corporum corporibus corpora corporibus

I-Stem Nouns of 3rd Declension I-Stem nouns have an i in the ending. For Masc./Fem. Nouns, the Genitive Plural ends –ium. For Neuter nouns • Genitive Plural ends –ium. • Nom & Acc end –ia. • Abl Singular ends –i. How can you identify an I-Stem noun? Rules: 1. Masculine and Feminine nouns, where: • Nominative Singular ends –is or –es • Genitive Singular has same number of syllables as Nominative Singular o hostis, hostis (m) = hostile o navis, navis (f) = ship o moles, molis (f) = 2. Masculine and Feminine nouns where: • Nominative Singular ends –s or –x • Base ends in a double consonant o ars, artis (f)

a. dens, dentis (m) b. nox, noctis (f) 3. Neuter nouns where: • Nominative Singular ends -al, -ar, or -e o animal, animalis (n) o mare, maris (n) Ablative Case Uses Without preposition: 1. Ablative of means or instrument (by/with/by means of) • Ex: litteras stilo scripsit.  He wrote letters with a pen. • Ex2: id meis oculis vidi.  I saw it with my eyes. 2. Ablative of accompaniment (with whom) or manner (how) • Ex: cum amicis venerunt.  They went accompanied with their friends. o Must be animate accompaniment. • Ex2: id cum virtute fecit.  He did it with virtue. [Adverbial] Homework: Sententiae Antiquae 1-6, and Cicero passage on p. 95

Latin tidbits: ferro = sword

Numerals # Latin 1 I 2 II 3 III 4 IV 5 V 6 VI 7 VII 8 VIII 9 IX 10 X Eng. One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Span. Ital. French Uno Uno Une Dos Dues Deux Tres Tre Trois Quatro Quarto Quatre Cinco Cinque Cinqe Seis Seis Six Siete Siette Sept Ocho Otto Huit Nueve Nuovo Neuf Diez Dieci Dix Cardinal Latin unus-a-um duo-ae-o tres-tria quattuor quinque sex septem octo novem decem

Declension For duo-ae-o (Plural only) M F Duo duae Duorum duarum Duobus duabus Duos duas Duobus duabus

N duo duorum duobus duos duobus

For tres-tria M+F Tres Trium Tribus Tres Tribus

N Tria trium tribus tria tribus

For 1000 (mille) When using as a numerical, it is indeclinable. Ex: I saw 1000 Romans = vidi mille Romanos When using as an adjective (Ex: I saw thousands of Romans)… Declension of mille + Genitive Plural Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl Neuter milia milium milibus milium milibus

Genitive of the Whole (partitive genitive) Ex’s: piece of pie / thousands of men / part of the city Ablative with Cardinals Number ex + ablative Ex: Three of the poets = tres ex poetis Ablative of time when/within which *No preposition Ex: eo tempore = at that time bonis annis = in the good years Ordinal Numbers (First, Second, Third…) 1st primus-a-um 2nd secundus-a-um rd 3 tertius-a-um 4th quartus-a-um th 5 quintus-a-um 6th sextus-a-um th 7 septimus-a-um Homework: Practice and Review (all)

Homework for chapter 16, pick out all third declension adjectives and what they modify in Practice and Review, and Translate p. 109 passage.

Relative pronouns – qui, quae, quod Relative pronouns provide descriptive information about their antecedent. Ex: The woman whom you are praising is talented. They follow in number and gender, but vary in case based on the use within the relative clause. (Sing) Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl Masc. qui cuius cui quem quo Femi. quae cuius cui quam qua Neut. (Plur) Masc. quod qui cuius quorum cui quibus quod quos quo quibus Femi. quae quarum quibus quas quibus Neut. quae quorum quibus quae quibus

Ex: Diligo puellam quae ex Italia venit. = I esteem the girl whom came from Italy. Homo de quo dicebas est amicus carus. = The man about whom you were speaking is a dear friend. Puella cui librum dat est fortunata. The girl to whom he is giving a book is fortunate. Puer cuius patrem iuvabamus est fortis. = The boy of who (whose) father we used to help is brave. Vitam meam committam eis viris quorum virtutes laudabas. = I shall entrust my life to those men whose virtues you were praising. Timeo idem periculum quod timetis. = I fear the same danger, which you fear.

First and Second Conjugations: Passive Voice of the Present System Translation: to be ______-ed (speaking in the passive voice) When forming a verb in the passive voice, use the present stem + passive endings (Sing) 1st 2nd 3rd (Plur) 1st 2nd 3rd r ris tur mur mini ntur Ex: laudari (to be praised)  passive infinitive 1st laudor 2nd laudaris 3rd laudatur 1st 2nd 3rd laudamur laudamini laudantur

Ablative of Agent In the active voice, the subject takes the Nominative case. In the passive voice, the direct object then becomes the subject, while the agent by whom the action occurs takes the ablative case. Ex: The poet writes a book.  Active voice The book is written by the poet.  Passive voice The king gives money to the people. Active Money is given to the people by the king.  Passive For a person: a(b) + abl For inanimate: abl (no preposition) Homework: Sententiae Antiquae 1-13

No class tomorrow! Homework: Passage handout Quiz Wednesday on 1st and 2nd passive conjugations

Perfect Passive conjugations Reivew: To form perfect active conjugations, use the third principal part, remove the –i, and add the endings. For perfect passive: 1. we use the 4th principal part aka the Perfect Passive Participle 2. change fourth principal part into an adjective form (meaning: give it gender and number) 3. Add present form of sum Ex: laudatum (Singular) 1st: laudatus-a-um 2nd: “ “ rd 3 :“ “ (Plural) 1st: laudati-ae-a 2nd: “ “ rd 3 :“ “

+ + + + + +

sum es est

= = =

I have been praised You have been praised He/She/It has been praised We have been praised You (all) have been praised They have been praised

sumus = estis = sunt =

For future perfect passive: 1. Same 2. Same 3. Add future form of sum For pluperfect passive: 1. Same 2. Same 3. Add imperfect form of sum When translating, notice whether a fourth principle part is used before the form of sum. Homework: Vocab, Parse verbs in Practice and Review

The Interrogative Pronoun Quis?; Quid? (Who? Whom? Whose? Which?) Typically embedded in the sentence Masculine and Feminine have the same form (in the singular) It declines like the relative pronoun, except for Quid? In place of neuter quod. The Interrogative Adjective Found at the beginning of the sentence, and always in the form of a question, and agrees with something in number, case, and gender. a vs ab: ab is used when the following word begins with a vowel. Otherwise, use a. Over the break: Break down noun declensions

Chapter 21 – Third and Fourth Conjugations: Passive Voice of the Present System

Homework: Virgil passage (English  Latin), Practice & Review 14-17 / Quiz: Passive forms


Chapter 22 – Fifth Declension Nouns Summary of Ablative Uses • Time when: “I got to school at 10 in the morning.”  at • Time within which: “I will finish this semester within 3 weeks.”  in / within • Manner: “I ran the marathon with vigor.”  used with abstract things • Means: “I hit the nail with a hammer.”  used with tools • Agent: “I was beat up by that man.”  a / ab • Accompaniment: “I went to school with Robey.”  cum • Separation: “I moved from San Jose.”  e / ex • Object of preposition: • Place where: “The Trojan War occurred in Troy.”  in / sub • Numbers: “Three of the ships sailed north.”  partitive use of ex / de Homework: Vocab Quiz Chapter 22 / Practice and Review 1 – 11

Homework: 145 poem, passage on literature on p. 146