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Grammar I

Disusun oleh: FITRI RAKHMAWATI, S.S.

UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH PURWOKERTO MARET, 2012

Present Indefinite Tense (Simple Present Tense) Pola Kalimat ( + ) S + V1(es/s) orang ketiga tunggal (she,he,it) + O ( - ) S + does/do not V1 + O ( ? ) Does/do + S + V1 + O a. Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kebiasaan yang dilakukan. Contoh: Do you smoke every morning? I always smoke every day. b. Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kebenaran umum. Contoh: The universe is ruled by God. The sun doesnt rise in the west, but east. c. Digunakan untuk menyatakan peristiwa saat ini. Contoh: The patient feels sick today. A nurse comes to hospital this noon. d. Digunakan sebagai pengganti Present Continuous Tense jika Verb tertentu tidak adapat dipakai dalam Present Continuous tense; misal: agree, consider, prefer, remember, wish. Contoh: I love nursing......bukan I am loving nursing. He likes a doctor......bukan He is liking a doctor. e. Simple Present Tense sering digunakan dengan adverbial of time (keterangan waktu), adverbial of place (keterangan tempat), dan adverbial of frequency (keterangan frekuensi). Seperti berikut: Every week Every month Every year Every day Sometimes Usually Seldom : setiap minggu : setiap bulan : setiap tahun : setiap hari : kadangkala : biasanya : jarang-jarang Twice a week : duakali seminggu Once a week : sekali seminggu Always On Sunday Often Never Hardly ever : selalu : di hari Minggu : seringkali : tidak pernah : hampir tidak pernah

Exercise 1 Choose the correct main verb in each sentence! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Patients sometimes (complain/complains) about the medical care. The procedures of diagnose (is/are) not error. Patient (get/gets) inadequate explanation about the drugs. They (contact/contacts) with health institution every week. The most common problem (are/is) infection via visitors.

Exercise 2 Determine subject, verb 1, object, adjective and adverb from each sentence in the following paragraphs. First Nia goes to campus. She studies nursing. She learns about different kinds of parts of human body. Her classes are interesting. They give her insights become good nurse. They make her smarter. She may work in hospital. She may work in England. She may only work her village. She can surely be a better citizen. Second Summer gives families change and recreation. It makes everyone happy. The days are long and hot. Children are out of school. They swim and read. They telephone their friends. They play sports. Whole families go on vacation. Children return to school in the fall. Teachers give their students long assignments. Children go to scout meetings or to music lessons. Parents keep busy.

Past Indefinite Tense (Simple Past Tense) Pola Kalimat ( + ) S + V2/to be (was/were) + O ( - ) S + did not/was-were not + V1/Adjective ( ? ) Did/was-were + S + V1-ing

a.

Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa atau perbuatan yang dilakukan atau yang terjadi di waktu lampau. Contoh: I met a doctor yesterday. Did she come to Margono hospital last week?

b.

Digunakan untuk menyatakan kebiasaan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau. Contoh: I always carried aspirin. When I was young, I went swimming every day.

c.

Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang jelas dilakukan pada waktu lampau tetapi tidak disebutkan keterngan waktunya. Contoh: Nurses bought some drugs in drugstore. Dentist was not a person who made children crying.

d.

Keterangan waktu yang biasa digunakan adalah: Yesterday Last night Last month Formerly Last Friday : kemarin Last year : tahun yang lalu This morning : tadi pagi : tadi malam : bulan lalu : dahulu : Jumat lalu

Three months ago : tiga bulan yang lalu Two years ago Last week Two days ago In 1982 : dua tahun yang lalu : minggu yang lalu : dua hari yang lalu : pada tahun 1982

e.

Untuk membentuk Verb I menjadi bentuk Verb II, perlu diperhatikan aturanaturan senagai berikut: 1) Kata kerja beraturan (regular verb) pada huruf akhir ditambah ed. Misalnya: to work ---------------- worked to play ----------------- played to finish ---------------- finished 2) Verb yang berakhir dengan y dan sebelumnya konsonan (huruf mati), diubah dulu dari y menjadi i kemudian ditambah ed. Misalnya: to carry --------------- carried to cry ---------------- cried to apply --------------- applied 3) Verb yang berakhir dengan y dan sebelumnya vokal, tidak ada perubahan, dan langsung ditambah dengan ed.

Misalnya: to obey --------------- obeyed to play --------------- played to pray --------------- prayed 4) Verb suatu kata dan hanya berakhir dengan konsonan, maka konsonan tersebut di dobelkan dan ditambah ed. Misalnya: to hit ------------ hitted to stop ----------- stopped to sit Exercise 3 Change the words in the brackets into Simple Past Tense. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. She (graduate) from Nursing Department three years ago. We (want) to visit them but we were busy. He (pay) for the medicine but he (forgot) to take it home. The ambulance (take) an injured person to the hospital. The patient (listen) attentively as the doctor (explain) his disease. ----------- sitted

Exercise 4 Create an essay telling what you did last weekend. The essay contains three paragraphs include (1) an introduction, (2) a paragraph about place where did you have and activities, (3) a conclusion. Make a plan with your own words before you begin.

Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense Pola Kalimat ( + ) S + to be ( is, are, am ) + V1-ing + O ( - ) S + to be + not + V1 + O ( ? ) To be + S + V1-ing + O

a.

Digunakan untuk menyatakan peristiwa atau kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung saat sekarang. Contoh: I am studying English now

She is not leaving at this moment Is she coming this morning? b. Keterangan waktu yang biasa digunakan: Tonight At present = malam ini = pada saat ini Today Now = hari ini = sekarang

At this moment = pada saat ini c. See

Right now = sekarang juga

Kata kerja yang tidak biasa digunakan dalam tense ini misalnya: Hear Smell Refure Notice Forgive Forget Hate Believe Possess Want Desire Think Know Mind Own

Understand Remember Owe Belong

d.

Untuk mengubah V1 menjadi Ving, maka perlu diperhatikan aturan-aturan yang umum sebagai berikut: 1. Verb yang berakhir dengan single e, langsung diganti dengan ing. Contoh: to love to lose loving losing

2. Verb yang berakhir dengan ee hanya langsung ditambah ing. Contoh: to agree to see agreeing seeing

3. Verb satu suku kata dengan satu vokal dan berakhir dengan single konsonan, maka konsonan didobelkan dan ditambah ing. Contoh: to run to stop running stopping

4. Verb lebih dari satu suku kata, akhir suku kata hanya ada satu vokal dan berakhir dengan satu konsonan, maka konsonan didobelkan ...(jika tekanan/stress jatuh pada akhir suku kata) Contoh: to begin to prefer beginning preferring

5. Verb yang berakhir dengan L dan sebelum L terdapat satu huruf vokal, maka L didobelkan. Contoh: to travel travelling

to signal Exercise 5

signalling

Complete the conversation using Present Continuous tense. A B A B A B A : I saw Brian a few days ago. : Oh, did you? __________ these days? ( what / he / do ) : Hes at university. : ________________________ ? ( what / he / study ) : Pathology : _____________________________ it? ( he / enjoy ) : Yes, he says its a very good course.

Exercise 6 You are a medical student and you are visiting a hospital. At the time, you are meeting with a doctor and she/he is asking about your purpose of visiting. Writing a dialogue between you and the doctor about what is happening in the hospital. Present Perfect Tense Pola Kalimat : ( + ) S + has/have + V3/been + O ( - ) S + has/have-not + V3/been + O ( ? ) Has/have + S + V3/been + O

a)

Digunakan untuk menyatakan pekerjaan yang dimulai pada waktu lampau, dan pada saat diucapkan masih ada hasilnya. Contoh : I have taken a medicine. I havent seen you for many years. Have you taken a medicine?

b) Sering digunakan dengan for atau since. Since: menunjukan arti dari suatu saat tertentu pada waktu lampau hingga kini.

Misalnya: since January since I left school since the last ten years since 1980 For: menunjukan lamanya waktu hinggga kini, karena itu, for selalu diikuti sejumlah jangka waktu tertentu. Misalnya: for a week for a long time for five months for six years Contoh: I havens seen you since Monday. She hasnt seen me for a week. c) Sering digunakan dengan adverb berikut: So far Up to know Almost Already until now up to the present just still

Contoh: Umar has almost finished the work. She has just gone away. d) Sering digunakan keterangan waktu sebagai berikut: Recently Lately Not-----yet = baru-baru ini = akhir-akhir ini = belum

Contoh: What have you read recently? She hasnt finished the work yet. Exercise 7 Look at the words are on the brackets and use them to fill the blanks below using Present Perfect tense. 1. 2. 3. I __ that movie twenty times. ( see ) him once before. ( meet ) many earthquakes in California. ( are )

I think I ___ There __

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

People People __

__ __ you __

to the Moon. ( travel ) to Mars. ( no travel ) the book yet? ( read ) ever ____ that mountain ( climb )

Nobody ____ _ ___

you _______ to Mexico in the last year? ( been )

I __________ that movie six times in the last month. ( see ) ___ three tests in the last week.( have )

10. They Exercise 8

Fill and write your daily activities and make it in a good story of your life. This checklist will help you. Checklist of Activities of Daily Living Check the level of function of each activity of daily living below. This will help you determine how much assistance an elder needs. Function Bathing Dressing Grooming Oral Care Toileting Walking Eating Shopping Cooking Managing Medications Using the Phone Housework Doing Laundry Managing Finances Independent Needs Help Dependent Does Not Do

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Present Perfect Continuous Tense Pola Kalimat ( + ) S + has/have + been + V1-ing + O ( - ) S + has/have + not + been + V1-ing ( + ) Has/have + S + been + V1-ing

a.

Bentuk kata kerja yang menyatakan bahwa pekerjannya telah dimulai pada waktu yang lalu, entah kapan dan masih berlangsung terus pada saat diucapkan entah sampai kapan.

b.

Bila diikuti keteranganfor. atau since. Bisa juga pengertian bahwa pekerjannya masih berlangsung terus pada saat kalimatnya diucapkan Contoh: I have been studying English for two months. (Saya telah belajar bahasa Inggris selalama 2 bulan: ....dan sekarang masih belajar) Joni has not been reading your book for a week. (Joni belum selesai membaca buku dan sampai sekarang belum selesai) Have they been walking for an hour? (apakah mereka sudah selesai berjalan? dan apakah sekarang juga belum selesai?)

Exercise 9 What have these people been doing and what has been happening?

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Past Continuous Tense/ Progressive Tense Pola Kalimat ( + ) S + was/were + V1-ing ( - ) S + was/were not + V1-ing ( ? ) Was/were + S + V1-ing

a.

Untuk menyatakan peristiwa, kegiatan atau tindakan yang sedang terjadi di masa lampau. Contoh: I was working hard all day yesterday She was not walking last night Was she walking?

b.

Digunakan untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang sedang terjadi pada waktu lampau ketika perbuatan lain terjadi. Contoh: My mother was cooking when it began to rain. When the teacher came, the boys were playing chess.

c.

Mnunjukan suatu perkembangan secara perlahan-lahan. Contoh: It was getting sick. The sun was rising.

Exercise 10 Put the verb into the correct form, past continuous or past simple.

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Past Perfect Tense Pola Kalimat ( + ) S + had + been + adj/adv/N ( - ) S + Had not + been + Adj/Adv/N ( ? ) Had + S + been + Adj/Adv/N

a.

Untuk menyatakan peristiwa, kegiatan atau tindakan yang telah selesai dilakukan di waktu lampau sebelum peristiwa lain terjadi. Contoh: She had been ill She had not been ill Had she been ill?

b.

Atau digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi sebelum saat tertentu pada waktu lampau, biasanya diikuti oleh kejadian lain. Contoh: When I reached the station, the train had left. Before the doctor came, the nurse had checked him.

c.

Keterangan waktu yang biasanya dipakai: After As soon as Until/till = setelah = segera setelah = hingga Before When = sebelum = ketika

Exercise 11 Fill in past simple or past perfect simple. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. After they (see) the Tower they .(go) to Westminster Abbey. He .(ask) me which animals I .(hunt) in Africa. After Columbus (discover) America he ..(return) to Spain. Before they ..(move) to Liverpool they .(sell) everything. After he (work) very hard he .(fall) ill. She .(open) the box after she .(find) the key. They (go) to a restaurant after they ..(sail). Before they (start) the party they .(.invite) some friends. After she .(wash) the curtains she (clean) the windows.

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10. They (go) for a sightseeing tour after the bus ..(arrive). Exercise 12 You are in ICU room. The doctor asks you to write instruction for the visitors how to wear sterilized clothes. Write a dialogue between you and the doctor.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense Pola Kalimat : ( + ) S + had + been + V1-ing ( - ) S + had not + been + V1-ing ( ? ) Had + S + been + V1-ing

a.

Untuk menyatakan peristiwa, kegiatan atau tindakan yang sedang berlangsung terus di masa lampau, biasanya dalam jangka waktu tertentu. Contoh: I had been sleeping She had not been sleeping Had you been sleeping?

b.

Digunakan untuk menyatakan peristiwa pada masa lampau dan peristiwa itu masih berlangsung ketika peristiwa lain terjadi. Contoh: While I had been studying English for an hour, he came to see me yesterday. When she arrived, I had been waiting for two hours.

Exercise 13 Make 10 sentences using Past Perfect Continuous tense.

Present Future Tense (Future Indefinite Tense) Pola Kalimat ( + ) S + shall/will + be + V1-ing ( - ) S + shall/will + not + have + been + adj/adv/N

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( ? ) Shall/will + S + be + Adj/Adv/N

a.

Untuk menyatakan peristiwa, kegiatan atau tindakan yang akan terjadi di masa depan. Contoh: I will be hungry, I am going to go home tomorrow I will not be hungry; I am going to go home. Will she be hungry? ; Wont you be hungry? ; Are you going home?

b.

Digunakan untuk conditional sentence (kalimat bersyarat) jenis I (pertama) hanya untuk will/shall. Contoh: If you go out, I shall go out. He will help you if you ask him politely.

Exercise 14 Make a story about what is a man doing below. Make in paragraphs.

AUXILIARY Auxiliary atau helping verb digunakan bersama-sama dengan verb lainnya untuk membantu mengekpresikan arti, atau khususnya mempunyai fungsi grammatical. Penggunaan Modal Auxiliary Peringatan! 1. 2. Dalam sebuah kalimat tidak boleh ada dua buah modal auxiliary. Verb sesudah modal selalu dalam bentuk asal.

I. CAN a. Dipakai untuk menyatakan kesangguapan atau kemahiran seseorang. Contoh: She can sing beautifully.

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b. Minta izin Contoh: Can I come to your house? c. Kemungkinan Contoh: She can be at home at noon. II. COULD Adalah bentuk past tense dari CAN dan bentuknya sama untuk semua subject. Namun dalam penggunaanya tidak selamanya berarti past time (masa lalu). COULD dipakai untuk menyatakan: 1. Bentuk lampau dari CAN Contoh: She could not come here yesterday because she was ill. 2. Perminntaan dengan sopan. Contoh: Could you take that book for me? 3. Kemungkinan Contoh: She could be at home now, but she usually plays volleyball. III. SHALL Digunakan untuk menyatakan: a. Berarti akan dalam bentuk future tense. Contoh: I shall go to London next week. Catatan: dalam British English, untuk Subject I dan We dipakai SHALL, dan untuk selainnya yaitu You, She, He, dan They digunakan WILL. b. Menawarkan bantuan Contoh: Shall I open the window? c. Janji Contoh: I shall meet her tomorrow. IV. SHOULD Digunakan untuk menyatakan: 1. Bentuk lampau dari Shall Contoh: I should visit to your house before you came to my house. 2. Anjuran-sebaiknya Contoh: You are ill, you should go to the doctor soon.

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3. Keharusan yang seharusnya dilakukan Dalm hal ini SHOULD = OUGHT TO Contoh: You should (ought to) study hard. V. WILL Digunakan untuk menyatakan: a. Berarti akan dalam bentuk future simple tense, dan sama dengan to be going to. Contoh: I will go to Jakarta next week. b. Permintaan dengan sopan atau menawarkan. Contoh: will you go with me? VI. WOULD Digunakan untuk menyatakan: 1. Bentuk lampau dari WILL yang berarti akan. Contoh: She knew that it would be pleasant in Bali. 2. Suatu permohonan/permintaan dengan sopan. Contoh: Would you please help me? 3. Jika digabung dengan LIKE menjadi hasrat atau keinginan. Contoh: I would like to eat. 4. Jika digabung dengan kata rather menunjukan arti lebih suka (prefer) Contoh: I would rather be a doctor than a president. VII. MAY Adalah kata kerja bantu yang berarti boleh/mungkin yang digunakan untuk menyatakan: a. Permohonana izin Contoh: May I borrow your car? b. Permohonan atau harapan Contoh: May God bless you. VIII. MIGHT Adalah bentuk lampau dari MAY namun pemakaiannya juga bisa untuk masa kini atau masa datang. Contoh: I told him that he might go home.

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Please take an umbrella with you. It might rain. IX. MUST Adalah kata kerja bantu yang berarti harus atau wajib, digunakna untuk menyatakan: 1. Keharusan/mesti Contoh: You must go now. 2. Must = have to/has to berarti harus Contoh: You must (have to) read this book. I had to meet my sister yesterday. X. OUGHT TO = SHOULD Adalah kata kerja bantu yang artinya sebaiknya, seyogyanya, sewajarnya Contoh: - She asked me what ought to be typed. - Ought she to come here again? Exercise 15 Please change each phrase in italic into the correct modal. 1. Nakula and Sadewa are going to buy a book tomorrow. ____________________________________________________________ 2. I have to go sleep at 9 p.m. tonight. ____________________________________________________________ It is possible that Seruni will come back to Purwpkerto. ____________________________________________________________ The children have permission to play drama in a classroom. ____________________________________________________________ Abimayu is able to speak English very well. ____________________________________________________________

3.

4.

5.

Exercise 16 Write an essay about How many ways to be a professional nurse. Use some expessions showing suggestions and possibility.

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Possessive Case/Genetive Adalah noun yang menunjukan pemilik sesuatu. Adapun cara membuatnya adalah dengan menambah apostrophe () dan s di akhir noun. Example: Ahmads book Karims shop The cats tail buku milik Ahmad toko milik Karim ekor milik kucing itu

Jika tidak memakai apostrophe () dan s maka noun berarti bukan pemiliknya. Example: Karim shop School book Beberapa ketentuan membuat possessive: 1. Noun singular (kata benda tunggal) ditambah dengan apostrophe + s (s) Example: lady father 2. ladys bag fathers cat toko bernama Karim buku pelajaran

Jika noun plural dan berakhir dengan huruf s, maka tambah apostrophe setelah s (s) Example: ladies boys ladies bag boys cats

3.

Jika noun plural tidak berakhir dengan huruf s, maka tetap ditambah apostrophe dengan s (s). Example: child man children men childrens pencils mens jobs

4.

Compound Noun dengan menambah apostrophe dan s pada elemen terakhir kata itu. Example: step mother editor in chief step mothers house editor in chiefs voice

5.

Bila huruf akhir suku kata benda itu dimulai dengan s tidaklah memakai apostrophe dan s, tetapi cukup ditambah dengan apostrophe saja pada akhiran tersebut. Example: Lesus Moses Lesus mother Moses book

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6.

Apabila noun berakhiran s, tetapi huruf pertama akhir suku kata tidak berawalan s, maka tetap ditanbah apostrophe dan s (s). Example: Abbas Annis Abbass book Anniss bag

Exercise 17 Make 10 sentences use possessive case!

PASSIVE VOICE 1. Definition (Pengertian) Kalimat Pasif yaitu kalimat yang subjek-nya dikenai pekerjaan. Kalimat ini biasanya kata kerjanya diartikan di atau ter. Contoh : Aktif : Ahmad cleans the room everyday. (Ahmad membersihkan ruangan itu setiap hari) Pasif : The room is cleaned by Ahmad everyday (Ruangan itu dibersihkan Ahmad setiap hari. 2. Basic pattern (Pola dasar) Subject + to be + V3 Bentuk to be tergantung pada Tenses dan Subjek. Bentuk to be: Present Past Cont. Perfect : is, am, are : was, were : being : been

Future/modal : be Contoh: Aktif (me/ber) 1. They clean the room everyday Pasif (di/ter) 1. The room is cleaned by them everyday

2. They cleaned the room yesterday 2. The room was cleaned by them yesterday 3. They are cleaning the room now 3. The room is being cleaned by them now 4. They have cleaned the room 4. The room has been cleaned by them

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5. They will clean the room tomorrow 6. They must clean the room

5. The room will be cleaned by them tomorrow 6. The room must be cleaned by them

Exercise 18 Change each sentence into passive voice 1. My father has already checked to the docter. ____________________________________________________________ 2. The men are repairing the laboratorium. ____________________________________________________________ 3. The medicine will throw away disease. ____________________________________________________________ 4. People usually eat rice in Singapore. ____________________________________________________________ 5. We make butter from milk. ___________________________________________________________ 6. The security will close the gate at twelve. ___________________________________________________________ 7. The nurses have warned them on several occasions. ___________________________________________________________ 8. Blood absorbs grugs through its cells. ___________________________________________________________ 9. Singapore has attracted many patients around the world. _________________________________ 10. The principal will hold the meeting tomorrow. ___________________________________________________________ Exercise 19 Youve been invited by your friends to discuss a lesson. You are discussing about a home work from your lecturer. There are some ideas to finish the

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home work. Write an imaginary dialogue of the discussion using appropriate expression.

COMPARISON We use the comparative and superlative form to compare and contrast different objects in English. The comparative form is used to show the difference between two objects. While we use the superlative form when we speak about three or more objects to show which object is the most of something. There are some rules to help you make comparisons in English. 1. If the adjective (describing word) is one syllable, you can add er. For example: small smaller, big bigger, nice nicer. 2. If the adjective has two syllables, but end in y, you can change the end to ier. For example: lucky luckier, happy happier. 3. If other adjectives have two syllables and more, you cannot change their endings. Instead, you should use more + adjective. For example: handsome more handsome, beautiful more beautiful. 4. When you compare two things, use than. For example: She is younger than me The exercise is more difficult than the last one 5. When you want to say something is similar, use as as. For example: She is as tall as her brother. It is as nice today as it was yesterday. 6. When you want to say one thing is less than another, you can either use less than or not as as For example: This program is less interesting than I thought or This program is not as interesting as I thought. 7. Remember that some adjectives are irregular and change form when you make comparisons. For example: good better, bad worse, far farther. These are some rules to help you to make superlative in English.

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1.

If the adjective is one syllable, you can place the before the adjective and add -est to and of the adjective. For example: cheap the cheapest, hot the hottest.

2.

If the adjective is two, three or more syllable adjectives, you should place the most before the adjective. For example: interesting the most interesting, difficult the most difficult.

3.

If the adjective is two syllable adjectives ending in y, you can put the before the adjective and remove the y from the adjective and add -iest. For example: happy happiest, funny funniest.

4.

Remember that some adjectives are irregular and change form when you make superlative. For example: good better the best, bad worse the worst.

Exercise 20 Look the data below and then complete the following paragraph with the correct adjectives in degrees of comparisons based on the table below! The adjectives below can help you: Young Old Name : Ratih Age : 24 years old short tall Name : Riko Age : 19 years old heavy light Name : Listy Age : 24 years old

Weight: 50 kg Height : 150 cm

Weight: 40 kg Height : 155 cm

Weight: 40 kg Height : 150 cm

I have many friends in my Campus of Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto. Some of them are Ratih, Riko, and Listy. Ratih is as (1) ________ as Listy but Ratih is (2) ______ than Listy. Riko is as (3) _____ as Listy but he is (4) _____ than Listy although they are the same weight.. Riko is the (5) ______ among them and Ratih is the... (6)... all of them.

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Question Tags Question tag adalah suatu kata atau ungkapan yang digunakan oleh sesorang untuk memberikan pernyataan dan meminta orang lain yang diajak berbicara, setuju atau menyetujui dengan pendapatnya. Dalam bahasa Indonesia, mirip dengan kata bukan dalam suatu kalimat. Contohnya: Semarang ibu kota Jawa Tengah, bukan? Perawat itu baik, bukan? Beberapa Pedoman Membuat Question Tags 1. Apabila pernyataan positif, maka question tagnya negatif. Contoh: We shall be late, shant we? Maryam comes late, doesnt she? 2. Apabila pernyataan negatif, maka question tagnya positif. Contoh: Susi cant speak English, can she? We are not sick, are we? 3. Kata yang dapat digunakan dalam questin tags hanyalah I, You, She, He, It, We, They, dan There. It biasanya digunakan dalam question tags untuk menunjuk pada kata-kata berikut: Everything This.... His.... Contoh: This film is good, isnt it? Everything is ready, isnt it? 4. They biasanya digunakan dalam question tags untuk menunjuk pada katakata berikut: Everyone Somebody Nobody Contoh: Nobody called me on phone, did they? There are two nurses in the hospital, arent they? 5. Dalam pernyataan I am question tagnya adalah Arent I?, bukan Am not I?. Sedangkan untuk pertanyaan I am not question tagnya Am I. Someone No one Nothing That.... Your....

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Contoh: I am a student, arent I? I am working hard, arent I? I am not a doctor, am I? I am not ill, am I? 6. Kata-kata yang mengandung makna negatif atau setengah negatif, question tagnya selalu positif. Beberapa diantaranya ialah: Never Hardly ever No/none = tidak pernah = hampir tidak = tidak ada Seldom Few = jarang = sedikit

Contoh: She never goes to to the campus, does she? Few students spoke English well, did they? 7. Bentuk question tags khusus yang digunakan untuk menyatakan perintah, baik positif maupun negatif (melarang), question tagnya adalah will you? Contoh: Stop that noise, will you? Take my bag please, will you? 8. Ajakan dengan lets, question tagnya adalah: shall we? Contoh: Lets go for a walk, shall we? Lets visit Umar tonight, shall we?

Prepositions 1. Deskripsi Preposition adalah kata yang menunjukan pertalian antara noun, pronoun, dan kata-kata lainnya dalam kalimat. Kata depan atau preposisi diletakan sebelum kata benda untuk menerangkan posisi atau letak dari benda lain yang kita maksudkan. Contoh: My book is under the table. He comes here before them. 2. Kinds of Preposition Kata depan dapat dibedakan dari dibedakan dari banyaknya suku katanya menjadi 2 macam, yaitu: a. Kata depan yang terdiri dari satu suku kata:

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At About After Around Away Back Before Beneath Beyond Backward Down Downwards From In Inside On Off Onward Round Side To Till Up Until Upwards Via Within

= di = tentang = setelah = di sekeliling = menjauh = kembali = sebelum = di bawah = di luar = mundur = bawah = ke bawah = dar = di/pada = di dalam = pada = lepas = maju = sekeliling = samping = kepada = sampai/hingga = atas = sampai = keaarah atas = melakukan = dalam

Ahead Across Above Among Against Behind Below Beside Between By During For Front Into Near Of Out Over Since Sidewards Towards Through Upto Upon Under With Without

= ke depan = seberang = di atas = diantara = terhadap = di belakang = di bawah = disamping = diantara = dengan = selama = untuk = depan = ke dalam = dekat = dari = luar = diatas = sejak = ke arah samping = kearah = melalui = sampai = pada = di bawah = dengan = tanpa

b. Kata depan yang terdiri dari dua suku kata atu lebih: According to Next to Upside down Instead of Through out Outside of

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Exercise 21 Put in the correct prepositions. 1. 2. The letter I wrote was full _______ mistakes. My home town is not an especially interesting place. Its not famous ____ anything. 3. 4. 5. I know who she is, but Ive never spoken ______ her. I like to listen ____ the radio while Im having breakfast. Im not going out yet. Im waiting ____ the rain to stop.

Exercise 22 Write two paragraphs in which you describe a character from a book you have read. In first paragraph, create a dominant impression and support it by discussing the physical appearance of the character. In the other paragraph, describe some quality of the character, or explain how you feel about the character. Again, establish a dominant impression and support it with details. Affirmatives The following are examples of affirmative contractions: am are is I am You are He is She is It is We are They are shall, will I shall/will = Ill = Im = youre = Hes = Shes = Its = Were = theyre have, has I have He has She has They have = Ive = Hes = Shes = Theyve

should, would, had I He She You had = Id

should = Hed would = Shes = Youd

He shall/will = Hell She shall/will = Shell We shall/will = Well should= Id

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Exercise 23 Look at the ten sentences below. Fill the blanks with correct 1. ____ sitting on the floor. (she/is) 2. ____ like her father. (she/do/not) 3. ____ want the books. (they/do/not) 4. ____ walked every day. (she/has) 5. ____ want the books. (they/will/not) 6. ____ finish it later. (he/will) 7. ____ glass. (it/was/not) 8. ____ received the money. (he/had/not) 9. ____ buy it for you. (I/would) 10. ____ washing up. (he/was/not)

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DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Darmawan, Iyan. (1994). English for Nurses. Jakarta: Kesaint Blanc. Hartiningsih, Sri, dkk (2005). English for Nursing: Book 2. Malang: UMM Press. Machfoed, Ircham, dkk. (2007). Bahasa Inggris. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Fitramaya. Murphy, Ramond. (2004). English Grammar in Use 3rd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oxford Learners Dictionary. (1991). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Susilowati, Endang. (2007). General English Materials for Health Students. Jakarta: EGC Wishon, George. Lets Write English. the United States: Litton Educational Publishing International. Yasik, Nur, dkk. (2004). English for Nursing: Book 1. Malang: UMM Press.

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CURICULUM VITAE

Nama Lengkap & Gelar Bidang Keahlian Alamat

: Fitri Rakhmawati, S.S. : Bahasa Inggris : Puri Rejasari, Jl. H. Mashuri RT 02 RW 01, Purwokerto Barat, Banyumas, Jawa Tengah

E-mail Pengalamam dalam penelitian

: fitri_rakhmawati@yahoo.com : Analisi Tentang Prinsip-prinsip Kesopanan Leech dalam Film Notting Hill (Tahun 2009) Motivasi Pemanfaatan Internet Sebagai Media Belajar Mahasiswa (Studi Kasus Pada Mahasiswa Program Studi Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan) (Tahun 2010)