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Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son: 14 / 8 / 2010 Ngy dy : 16 / 8 / 2010

Tit 1 :

n tp u

nm

Nhng khi nim m u- tnh cht chung ca kim loi v phi kim A. Mc tiu bi hc 1. Cng c kin thc: - HS nm li 1 s khi nim ho hc c bn: mol, nng %, nng mol, khi lng ring, kim loi , phi kim. - Nh li tnh cht chung ca kim loi, phi kim 2. Rn k nng: -Rn luyn k nng tnh s mol ca cc cht, tnh nng %, nng mol.... -Rn luyn k nng vit phng trnh phn ng b. chun b GV: H thng cu hi v bi tp C. kim tra bi c Kt hp vi luyn tp d. tin trnh ging dy 1. n nh t chc. 2. Bi mi. Cng vic ca thy tr Ni dung I.Mt s khi nim v cng thc c bn 1. Nng phn trm (C%) * nh ngha: Nng phn trm l lng cht tan cha trong 100 g dung dch. * Biu thc : mct A C%dd A = 100 mdd A mct A C%dd A sp = 1

Hot ng 1: 15 pht GV: a ra phiu hc tp 1 gm cu hi sau: Cu 1: Th no l nng % ? Vit biu thc tnh nng %? Cu 2: Hy rt ra cng thc tnh mctA . Xc nh cc tnh Khi lng dung dch sau phn ng (sp)? HS: Tho lun nhm nh ri a ra kt lun

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

100 Trong md d sp m( m ) mdd A sp = m1 + m2 -

Hot ng 2:15 pht GV: a ra phiu hc tp 2 gm cu hi: Cu 1: Hy nh ngha v nng mol, Vit cng thc tnh nng mol Cu 2: Vit cc cng thc tnh s mol, i vi cht kh khng o ktc c tnh nh th no? Cu 3: Vit cng thc tnh khi lng ring? HS: Tho lun nhm nh, tng HS trnh by cc ni dung thu c:

2. Nng mol (CM) * nh ngha : L s mol cht tan c cha trong 1 lt dung dch * Biu thc : nA + CM dd A = ( mol/l ) Vd d 10 D + CM = C% MA Trong D l khi lng ring (g/l) 3. S mol ( nA ). mA nA = MA n A = C M Vd d Vkh A (lt) ( mol )

Hot ng 3: p dng lm cc v d: Gi tng hc sinh trnh by cc

nA(kh) = ( mol ) o ktc 22,4 Cht kh khng iu kin tiu chun PV P: p sut ( atm) n= V: Th tch ( l) RT T = t0c + 273 R = 0.082 i: 760 mmHg = 1atm 4. Khi lng ring ( D ). md d D= ( g/ ml ) Vd d 2

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

tnh s mol? nu cc cng thc tnh.

i vi cht kh o ktc: MA D = ( g/l ) 22,4 VD 1: Tnh s mol trong cc trng hp sau: a. 4.48l kh CO2 ktc b. 1.68 l kh O2 27.3oc v 0.6 atm c. 40ml dung dch NaOH 20% c D = 1.28g/ml II Tnh cht ho hc chung ca kim loi , phi kim 1. Tnh cht ho hc chung ca kim loi Tc dng vi phi kim Tc dng vi o xi kim loi ng trc hir p vi a xt 1 s kim loi p vi H2O : Na, K, Ca 2. Tnh cht ho hc ca phi kim. Tc dng vi kim loi Tc dng vi o xi Tc dng vi H2

Hot ng 4: 10 pht GV gi 2 hc sinh ln bng tr li cc cu hi: HS di lp tr li vo dy nhp ? Hy nu tnh cht ho hc ca kim loi v vit ptp minh ho? ?Hy nu tnh cht ho hc ca phi kim? vit ptp?

Hot ng 5: Cng c (5 pht ) Bi 1: Hon thnh cc ptp sau: a. Na + H2SO4 ? b. S + H2 ? c. K + H2O ? d. Ca + Cl2 ? Bi tp 2: Tnh nng mol ca cc cht trong cc trng hp sau: 0,5 lt dung dch cha 0.25 mol HCl 200 ml dung dch c cha 9,8 gam H2SO4 E. V nh: Cu 1: Nu nh ngha, cch c tn v tnh cht ho hc ca oxit, axit, baz, mui. Ly v d minh ho? Cu 2 : Trn ln 800g dung dch NaOH 2% vi 2 l dung dch H2SO4 0.2M ( D = 1.2 ).Tnh C% cc cht trong dung dch thu c: 3

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son: 14/ 8/ 2010 Ngy dy : 18/ 8/ 2010

Tit 2 : n tp u nm Tnh cht chung ca cc hp cht v c


A. Mc tiu bi hc 1. Cng c kin thc: - Nm c cng thc , tn gi mt s hp cht v c ( o xt , a xt, ba z, mui ) - Nh li tnh cht ho hc chung ca cc hp cht trn. 2. Rn k nng: -Rn luyn k nng vit cng thc ho hc, c tn cc cht -Rn luyn k nng Vit cc phng trnh phn ng v iu kin p, bit cch cn bng p b. chun b GV: H thng cu hi v bi tp C. kim tra bi c Kt hp vi luyn tp d. tin trnh ging dy 1. n nh t chc. ( 2 Pht) 2. Bi mi. Cng vic ca thy v tr Ni dung I. xt 1. Khi nim: L hp cht ca oxi vi mt nguyn t ho hc khc 2. c tn: Tn nguyn t + Ha tr + Oxit VD: FeO, Fe2O3, SO2, NO Ngoi ra cn c mt s oxit c tn NO: Nit mono oxit SO2: Lu hunh di oxit 3. Tnh cht ho hc a. xt a xt ( SO2, SO3 , CO2 ) * Tc dng vi dung dch ba z CO2 + NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O Hoc CO2 + NaOH NaHCO3 4

Hot ng 1: ( 5 Pht) Chia lp thnh 4 nhm, mi nhm hot ng tng ni dung v ghi vo bng ph.

Nhm 1: Nu khi nim, cch c tn v tnh cht ho hc ca oxit,

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

ly v d minh ho?

+ H2O * Tc dng vi xt ba z ( Mt trong 2 oxit phi l oxit mnh) SO2 + CaO CaSO3 * Tc dng vi H2O SO3 + H2O H2SO4 b. O xt ba z * Tc dng vi o xt a xt * Tc dng vi a xt CuO + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O * Tc dng vi H2O to ba z tng ng CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 II. A xt 1. nh ngha: Axit l nhng cht trong phn t c 1 hay nhiu nguyn t hidro lin kt vi gc axit. 2. c tn: - axit c oxi: Axit + Tn nguyn t + ic - axit khng c oxi: Axit + tn nguyn t + Hiric * Tn ca cc gc axit : Hiric ua ic rat rit 3. Tnh cht ho hc - Lm i mu qu tm chuyn sang - Tc dng vi kim loi ng trc hi r - Tc dng vi ba z , vi o xt ba z to mui v nc -Tc dng vi mui to mui mi v a xt mi H2SO4 + BaCl2 BaSO4 + 2 HCl III. Ba z 1. nh ngha: L hp cht m phn t c 1 nguyn t khim loi lin k vi 1 hay nhiu nhm hirit ( OH ) 2. c tn: Tn kim loi + Ho tr ( Nu c) + 5

Nhm 2: Nu khi nim, cch c tn v tnh cht ho hc ca axit, ly v d minh ho?

Nhm 3: Nu khi nim, cch c tn v tnh cht ho hc ca Baz, ly v d minh ho?

Nhm 4: Nu khi nim, cch c tn v tnh cht ho hc ca mui, ly v d minh ho?

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hroxit VD: KOH, Fe(OH)2 3. Tnh cht ho hc: - Lm i mu qu tmchuyn sang xanh - Tc dng vi dung dch axit - Tc dng vi oxit axit Hot ng 2: Hc sinh tho lun - Tc dng vi dung dch mui to mui theo tng nhm ( 10 Pht) mi ( ) hoc baz mi ( ) VD : Hot ng 3: Tng nhm ln bng 2 NaOH + CuCl2 Cu(OH)2 + trnh by ni dung tho lun ca 2 NaCl mnh, cc nhm khc nhn xt IV. Mui ( 15 pht) 1. Khi nim : Mui l hp cht m phn t gm nguyn t kim loi lin kt vi gc axit 2. c tn Tn kim loi + Ho tr ( nu c) + tn gc axit VD : K2CO3, NaHSO4, Ca(HCO3)2, NaH2PO4 3. Tnh cht ho hc : - Tc dng vi axit - Dung dch mui tc dng vi dung dch baz - Dung dch mui tc dng vi kim loi - Dung dch mui tc dng vi dd mui

Hot ng 4 : Lm bi tp Cng c Cu 1: Vit cng thc ho hc ca cc cht c tn gi sau : Nhm clrua Axit phtphoric Natri sunfat Nhm hiroxit Caxi cacbonat Bari hirocacbonat St nitrat km bromua Kali hiro sunfat Bac nitrat Cu 2 : Hon thnh cc phng trnh phn ng sau : 1. Axit sunfuric + Nhm oxit 2. St (III) sunfat + Bari clorua 3. Caxi cacbonat + Axit clohiric 4. Bc nitrat + Canxi clorua 5. St (II) sunfua + Axit sunfuric 6

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

6. Natri hirocacbonat + Axit clohiric 7. Natri hiroxit + Nhm sunfat 8. Canxi oxit + kh Cacbonic 9. kh Cacbonic + Natri hiroxit 10. Nhm hiroxit + Natri hiroxit E. Bi tp v nh - dn d Cu 1 : Hon thnh dy bin ho FCl2 Fe FeCl3 Fe(NO3)3 Cu 2 : Nguyn t l g ? Nu thnh phn cu to nguyn t ? Ngy son : 20/ 8/ 2010 Ngy dy : Fe(OH)3 Fe2O3 Fe2(SO4)3 FeCl3 Fe(OH)2 FeO Fe

Chng 1 :Nguyn t
Tit 3 :
A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc HS Bit c: - Nguyn t gm ht nhn mang in tch dng v v electron ca nguyn t mang in tch m; kch thc, khi lng ca nguyn t. - Ht nhn gm cc ht proton v ntron. - K hiu, khi lng v in tch ca electron, proton v ntron. 2. K nng - Hc sinh tp nhn xt v rt ra cc kt lun t cc th nghim vit trong sch gio khoa. - So snh khi lng ca electron vi proton v ntron. - So snh kch thc ca ht nhn vi electron v vi nguyn t. B. Chun b - Gio vin chun b tranh v phng to ca 2 th nghim : s tm ra electron, m hnh th nghim khm ph ra ht nhn nguyn t (nu c). - HS chun b ni dung: Nguyn t l g? thnh phn cu co ca nguyn t? C. Phng php dy hc ch yu 7

Thnh phn nguyn t

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Phng php m thoi gi m kt hp vi vic s dng cc dng dy dc trc quan. D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh hc bi mi 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc Hot ng 1: Vo bi. GV gii thiu vo bi: T thi c Hi Lp vo khong nm 440 trc cng nguyn, cc nh trit hc theo trng phi -m-crit cho rng cc cht u cu to t nhng phn t rt nh c gi l Atomos, ngha l khng th phn chia c- l cc nguyn t. Vy nguyn t c kch thc, khi lng v thnh phn cu to nh th no? Kch thc, khi lng v in tch ca cc ht to nn nguyn t l bao nhiu? Bi hc hm nay s gii p c nhng cu hi . Hot ng ca thy v tr Ni dung bi hc Hot ng 2 : 15 pht I. thnh phn cu to ca nguyn t GV: lp 8 chng ta bit khi nim nguyn t, hy nhc li khi nim nguyn t l g ? Nguyn t c to thnh t nhng ht no? HS: Nguyn t l ht v cng nh trung ho v in, nguyn t gm ht nhn mang in tch dng v v to bi 1 hay nhiu electron mang in tch m. 1. Electron - Nguyn t c to thnh t a) S tm ra electron: m t th nghim (SGK) 3 loi ht : Ht protron, hat ntron, ht electron. GV: Nu HS nu cha y GV b sung thm. GV: Vy ai l ngi pht hin ra cc loi ht ? n c khi lng l bao nhiu? chng ta ln lt nghin - Tia m cc truyn thng khi cu tng loi ht trn? khng c in trng v b lch v pha cc dng trong in trng. GV: Treo s TN tm ra tia - Tia m cc l chm ht mang in tch m, mi ht c khi kng rt m cc (H1.3) 8

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

GV: Nm 1897, nh bc hc TmSn ngi Anh cho phng in vi hiu in th 15000 vn qua hai in cc gn vo u ca mt ng kn rt gn ht khng kh (P=0,001 mmHg) th thy mn hunh quang trong ng thu tinh pht sng. Ti sao mn hunh quang trong ng thu tinh pht sng ? HS: Mn hunh quang trong ng thu tinh pht sng l do s xut hin cc tia khng nhn thy i t cc m sang cc dng. Tia ny c gi l tia m cc. GV: Tia m cc l mt trong s cc chng c chng t nguyn t c cu to phc tp. GV: Trn ng i ca tia m cc ta t mt chong chng nh th chong chng quay? Vy tia m cc c phi l vt cht c thc khng? HS: iu chng t tia m cc l chm ht vt cht c thc v chuyn ng vi tc rt ln. GV m t th nghim tip. - Khi khng c in trng, t trng tia m cc truyn thng. - Khi c in trng, tia m cc b lch v pha cc dng. Vy tia m cc l c c im g? (l chm ht mang in tch g? HS: Tia m cc l chm ht mang in m GV thng bo: Bng th nghim ngi ta xc nh c chnh xc khi lng v in tch ca electron.

nh c gi l cc electron, k hiu l e.

b) Khi lng v in tch electron : Khi lng: me = 9,1095. 10 31 kg. in tch: qe = 1,602. 10 19 C (culng) (quy c l 1 )

2. S tm ra ht nhn nguyn t

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hot ng 3: S tm ra ht nhn nguyn t GV: treo s hnh 1.3- TN chng minh s tn ti ca ht nhn nguyn t v
m t th nghim

Em no c th gii thch c kt qu th nghim trn? HS: - Hu ht ht u xuyn thng qua l vng chng t 3. Cu to ca ht nhn nguyn t : nguyn t c cu to rng (ht a) S tm ra proton : ht nhn ca nguyn t Heli). Ht Proton l mt thnh phn cu to - Hin tng mt s rt t i ca nguyn t mang in tch dlch hng ban u hoc b bt ng k hiu l p. -27 ra pha sau chng t tm ca mp = 1,6726.10 kg qp = 1+ nguyn t c ht nhn mang in tch dng. GV b xung gii thch v rt ra kt lun Hot ng 4: Cu to ca ht nhn nguyn t : GV : yu cu HS c SGK tm cc thng tin tr li cu hi trong phiu hc tp s 1. b) S tm ra ntron - Ht c khi lng xp x khi lng ca proton nhng khng mang in , c gi l ntron (c k hiu l n). Ht Proton l mt thnh phn cu to ca ht nhn nguyn t Lu : in tch ca electron v ca proton l cc in tch nh nht nn 1.T th nghim R-d-pho thng ly lm n v in tch pht hin ht no? Khi lng v nguyn t k hiu l -e0, v e0. in tch l bao nhiu? Tn gi v k hiu ca ht ? Bng 1 2. T th nghim Chat-uch c tnh ca cc ht cu to nn nguyn t pht hin ht no, c khi lng, c V e Ht nhn in tch l bao nhiu? Tn gi tnh e p n v k hiu ca loi ht . ht 3. T 2 th nghim trn rt ra kt in lun v thnh phn cu to tch Khi lnguyn t? ng 10

T th nghim chng minh s tn ti ca HNNT rt ra : - Nguyn t c cu to rng - Ht nhn ca nguyn t ( mang in tch dng) nm tm ca nguyn t. - Lp v ca nguyn t (mang in tch m) gm cc electron chuyn ng xung quanh ht nhn.

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

c) Cu to ca ht nhn nguyn t: - Ht nhn nm tm nguyn t gm cc ht proton v ntron. - V ca nguyn t gm cc electron chuyn ng xung quanh ht nhn. HS: Ngin cu v in cc thng - Khi lng ca nguyn t hu ht tin trong bng 1? tp trung ht nhn, khi lng ca cc electron khng ng k. mnt = me + mp + mn mp + mn - Nguyn t trung ho v in nn s electron = s proton. GV :T cc TN ni trn, cho bit nguyn t c cu to my II. kch thc v khi lng ca nguyn phn ? cc ht cu to nn mi t phn c khi lng v in 1. Kch thc: - Nguyn t c kch thc rt nh, thtch ra sao? HS : l electron (mang in ng dng n v o di l tch m), proton (mang in nanomet (nm) 0 1nm =10-9 m ; 1 A = 10-10 m ; 1nm tch dng) v ntron (khng 0 mang in tch). =10 A . GV : Hy so snh khi lng ca (nguyn t nh nht l nguyn t proton hoc ntron so vi khi l- hidro c bn knh khong 0,053 nm) ng ca electron? Rt ra kt lun - Cc nguyn t khc nhau c kch khi lng nguyn t hu nh tp thc khc nhau. trung u? HS: Do mp v mn ln hn me rt nhiu (khong 1836 ln) nn ng knh So snh Khi lng ca khi lng ca 4 10-10m = dnt = 105 = 104 nguyn t hu ht tp trung ht Nguyn dhn 10 t nhn. 10-1n.m Hot ng 5. Kch thc nguyn t GV: yu cu HS nghin cu SGK v tr li cu hi trong phiu hc tp s 2. HS: in cc thng tin vo phiu hc tp 1. n t:? Ht nhn 10-5n.m nguyn t Ht 10-8n.m electron v prton
dnt 101 = = 107 d( e,p) 108

dnt 105 = = 103 d( e,p) 108

v kch thc nguyn 2. Khi lng: - biu th khi lng, ngi ta dng n v khi lng nguyn t, k hiu 11

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

2. ng knh ca nguyn t, l u (cn c gi l vC) 1 ca ht nhn nguyn t, ca 1u l khi lng ca mt nguyn t 12 ca e, p l khong bao nhiu? ng v cacbon 12. 4. So snh ng knh ca (nguyn t ny c khi lng -27 nguyn t vi ht nhn nguyn 19,9206.10 kg) 19,9206.10 27 kg t, ht e v p ca = 1,66005.10 27 kg 1u = HS:
12

- ng knh ca nguyn t ln theo u bit hn ng knh ca ht nhn104 VD: Tnh KLNT ca hiro-27 KLNT ca n l 1,6725.10 kg. ln. Tr li: KLNT ca hiro theo vC l: - ng knh ca nguyn t ln 1,6725.10 27 = 1,08 (vC) 1.66005.10 27 hn ng knh ca electron v proton l 107 ln. - ng knh ca ht nhn ln hn ng knh ca electron v proton l 103 ln. Hot ng 6: Khi lng. GV : biu th khi lng ca nguyn t, phn t v cc ht prton, ntron v electron ngi ta dng n v khi lng nguyn t k hiu l u cn gi l vC. Vy u l g? HS: 1 u l
1 khi lng ca mt 12

nguyn t ng v cc bon 12.

HS: Lm v d tn E. Cng c 1. Nguyn t c cu to bi cc loi ht c bn no? c tnh ca cc ht ? 12

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

2. Th nghim no chng minh s tn ti ca ht nhn nguyn t v nguyn t c cu to rng. 3. Bi tp ti lp 1,2 SGK F. Bi tp v nh- dn d BTVN 3,4,5 SGK , 1.12 n 1.17 SBT Phiu hc tp s 1 Hy c cc thng tin trong SGK (tr4) cho bit: 1. T th nghim R-d-pho pht hin c loi ht no? Khi lng v in tch l bao nhiu? Tn gi v k hiu ca ht ? 2. T th nghim Cht-Uch pht hin c loi ht no? Khi lng v in tch l bao nhiu? Tn gi v k hiu ca ht ? 3. T 2 th nghim trn rt ra kt lun v thnh phn cu to ca nguyn t. Phiu hc tp s 2 Hy c cc thng tin trong SGK (tr 7) v in vo bng di y: 1. n v kch thc nguyn t.. Cc n v o :.. ng knh Nguyn t Nguyn t hir Ht nhn nguyn t Ht electron prton v dnt d( e,p) dnt d( e,p) So snh dnt dhn K hiu..

T bng trn rt ra nhn xt so snh kch thc, ng knh ca nguyn t vi ht nhn, ca nguyn t vi ht e v p ? Ca ht nhn vi ht e, p.

13

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son : 22/ 8 /2010 Ngy dy :

Tit 4 :
A. Mc tiu bi dy:

Ht nhn nguyn t. nguyn t ho hc ng v

1. Kin thc HS Hiu c: - in tch ca ht nhn, s khi ca ht nhn nguyn t l g - Th no nguyn t khi, cch tnh nguyn t khi. nh ngha ng v. Cch tnh nguyn t khi trung bng ca cc nguyn t - S lin quan gia in tch ht nhn, s p v s e. - Khi nim nguyn t ho hc trn c s in tch ht nhn + Th no l S hiu nguyn t (Z) K hiu nguyn t cho ta bit iu g 2. K nng - Xc nh c s electron, s proton, s ntron khi bit k hiu nguyn t v s khi ca nguyn t v ngc li. - Rn luyn k nng gii cc bi tp c lin quan n in tch ht nhn, k hiu nguyn t, ng v, nguyn t khi trung bnh ca cc nguyn t. B. Chun b Hc sinh: Nm vng c im cc ht cu to nn nguyn t. Gio vin: Cc phiu hc tp C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m kt hp vi vic s dng cc dng dy dc trc quan. D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu 1: Nu cu to ca nguyn t? Hy nu c tnh ca cc ht cu to nn nguyn t Cu 2 : 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc 14

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hot ng ca thy v tr

Ni dung bi hc
I. ht nhn nguyn t

Hot ng 1: GV : S dng ngay kt qu ca cu 1 phn kim tra bi c. T rt ra kt lun in tch ca ht nhn do in tch ca loi ht no quyt nh?

1. in tch ht nhn in tch ht nhn l do in tch ca p quyt nh

HS : Ht nhn gm c ht proton v ntron, nn in tch ht nhn l do in tch ca p quyt nh GV : Nu nguyn t c Z proton, th s n v in tch ht Nu nguyn t c Z proton, th s nhn l bao nhiu v in tch n v in tch ht nhn l Z, in tch ht nhn l Z+. ht nhn l ? S n v in tch ht nhn Z = s proton = s ntron VD: Nguyn t Oxi c 8 proton, s n v in tch ht nhn ca nguyn t O l 8, in tch ht GV cho VD. Phiu hc tp s 1 nhn l 8+.V electron ca nguyn 1. Nguyn t O c 8 proton, t c 8 electron. nguyn t Clo c 17 proton, hy cho bit s n v in tch ht HS lm phiu hc tp s 1 vo v. nhn, s in tch ht nhn v s electron trong mt nguyn t ? 2. Nguyn t nit c 7 electron lp v, cho bit in tch ht nhn, s proton ca nguyn t nit. 2. S khi (k hiu l A) S khi ca ht nhn bng tng s proton (Z) v s ntron (N). Hot ng 2: S khi A=Z+N Phiu hc tp s 2. a.Tm hiu SGK, hy cho bit s Lm bi tp phiu hc tp 2 vo khi l g ? b) Ht nhn nguyn t Natri c 11 v proton v 12 ntron, s khi ca b. S khi ca nguyn t Natri bng 15

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

ng.t Natri l bao nhiu ? 11 + 12 = 23 c) Nguyn t Clo c in tch ht c) S proton = s in tch ht nhn l 17+; S khi ca nhn = 17 s ntron trong ht nguynt Clo l 35, ht nhn nhn nguyn t Clo l: 35 17 = 18 nguyn t ny c bao nhiu ntron ? d. A = 23 = N + Z = 12 + Z Z = 23 12 = 11 d. S khi ca nguyn t Na l 23. S n v in tch ca nguyn Bit rng ht nhn ca nguyn t t Na l 11 Na c 12 ntron. Hy cho bit s in tch ht nhn l 11+ n v in tch ht nhn, in tch ht nhn v s electron ca ng t Na? + i vi cc nguyn t c Z < 20 + i vi cc nguyn t c 20 < < 82 GV thng bo: S khi A v s in tch ht nhn Z l nhng s rt quan trng ca nguyn t, da vo nhng s ny ta bit c cu to nguyn t. Z

Ch : *S in tch ht nhn Z v s khi A c coi l nhng s c trng ca nguyn t hay ca ht nhn. (Da vo nhng s ny ta bit c cu to nguyn t)

II. Nguyn t ho hc Hot ng 3: nh ngha Nguyn 1. nh ngha Nguyn t ho hc l nhng t ho hc nguyn t c cng in tch ht nhn. GV: gii thch Nhng nguyn t c cng s n GV : Hy phn bit khi nim v in tch ht nhn Z u c TCHH ging nhau. nguyn t v nguyn t ?. HS : Ni nguyn t l ni n mt loi ht vi m gm cc ht nhn v VD : cc nguyn t c cng in lp v, cn ni nguyn t l ni tch ht nhn l 8 u thuc n tp hp cc nguyn t c cng nguyn t O v chng u c 8 proton v 8 electron. in tch ht nhn nh nhau. Hot ng 4 : S hiu ngun t GV : hy c SGK v cho bit s 16

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

hiu nguyn t l g? S hiu 2. S hiu nguyn t nguyn t cho bit iu g? S hiu nguyn t c k hiu l HS : Tr li cu hi trn , nu cha Z, bng s n v in tch ht nhn v bng s electron c trong ng gv b sung thm nguyn t ca nguyn t. S hiu nguyn t cho bit: - S proton trong ht nhn nt. HS lm vd : S hiu nguyn t ca - S n v in tch ht Ca l 20, xc nh v tr ca Ca nhn nt. trong bng TH, s p, s n, n v - S electron trong nguyn t. in tch ? - S th t ca nt trong BTH. VD: S hiu nguyn t ca Ca l 20. Nguyn t Fe ng th 20 trong bng tun hon, c 20 proton trong ht nhn, c 20 electron trong v Hot ng 5 : K hiu nguyn t GV yu cu HS : c SGK v gii ca nguyn t, c s n v in tch ht nhn l 20. thch k hiu nguyn t . V s in tch ht nhn Z v s khi A c coi l nhng s c trng c bn nht ca 3. K hiu nguyn t A nguyn t nn ki hiu K hiu nguyn t : Z X nguyn t, ngi ta thng t k 23 hiu cc ch s c trng bn VD: 11 Na , nguyn t natri c s khi tri k hiu nt X vi s khi A l 23, s n v in tch ht pha trn, s n v in tch nhn l 11. ht nhn Z pha di. HS Lm phiu hc tp s 3: Hy cho bit s n v in tch ht nhn, s proton, s ntron, s electron, s khi, nguyn t khi, in tch ht nhn ca cc nguyn t c k HS lm VD vo v 7 N ; 195 hiu sau: 14 14 78 Pt N
7

A = 14 Z=7 e=Z=7 N = A Z = 14 7 = 7 in tch ht nhn l 7+ E. Cng c Kin thc cn nm c: - S lin quan gia in tch ht nhn vi s proton v s electron. Cch tnh s khi ca ht nhn. Khi nim nguyn t ho hc. 17

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- Mi lin h gia s p, s n v in tch ht nhn v s electron trong mt nguyn t. Hot ng 6: Cng c bi bng cu hi v bi tp di y: Cu 1: Hy cho bit mi lin h gia s proton, s n v in tch ht nhn v s electron trong mt nguyn t. Gii thch v cho v d. Cu 2: HS cha bi 1, 2, 3, 4 (SGK) F. Bi tp v nh- dn d BTVN: 3,5 (SGK); 1.18 n 1.24 (SBT) Bi 1: Tng s cc ht trong mt nguyn t nguyn t X l 48. xc nh s p. e, n v s khi A ca nguyn t nguyn t . Bi 2: Tng s cc ht trong mt nguyn t nguyn t X l 40. Trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 12. Xc nh s p. e, n v s khi A ca nguyn t nguyn t . Phiu hc tp s 1 1. Nguyn t O c 8 proton, nguyn t Clo c 17 proton, hy cho bit s n v in tch ht nhn, s in tch ht nhn v s electron trong mt nguyn t ? 2. Nguyn t nit c 7 electron lp v, cho bit in tch ht nhn, s proton ca nguyn t nit. Phiu hc tp s 2. a.Tm hiu SGK, hy cho bit s khi l g ? b) Ht nhn nguyn t Natri c 11 proton v 12 ntron, s khi ca ng.t Natri l bao nhiu ? c) Nguyn t Clo c in tch ht nhn l 17+; S khi ca nguynt Clo l 35, ht nhn nguyn t ny c bao nhiu ntron ? d. S khi ca nguyn t Na l 23. Bit rng ht nhn ca nguyn t Na c 12 ntron. Hy cho bit s n v in tch ht nhn, in tch h t nhn v s electron ca ng t Na? Phiu hc tp s 3: Hy cho bit s n v in tch ht nhn, s proton, s ntron, s electron, s khi, nguyn t khi, in tch ht nhn ca cc nguyn t c 195 k hiu sau: 14 7 N , 78 Pt Phiu hc tp s 1 1. Nguyn t O c 8 proton, nguyn t Clo c 17 proton, hy cho bit s n v in tch ht nhn, s in tch ht nhn v s electron trong mt nguyn t ? 18

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

2. Nguyn t nit c 7 electron lp v, cho bit in tch ht nhn, s proton ca nguyn t nit. Phiu hc tp s 2. a.Tm hiu SGK, hy cho bit s khi l g ? b) Ht nhn nguyn t Natri c 11 proton v 12 ntron, s khi ca ng.t Natri l bao nhiu ? c) Nguyn t Clo c in tch ht nhn l 17+; S khi ca nguynt Clo l 35, ht nhn nguyn t ny c bao nhiu ntron ? d. S khi ca nguyn t Na l 23. Bit rng ht nhn ca nguyn t Na c 12 ntron. Hy cho bit s n v in tch ht nhn, in tch h t nhn v s electron ca ng t Na? Phiu hc tp s 3: Hy cho bit s n v in tch ht nhn, s proton, s ntron, s electron, s khi, nguyn t khi, in tch ht nhn ca cc nguyn t c 195 k hiu sau: 14 7 N , 78 Pt

Ngy son :9 / 9 /2008 Ngy dy : 10 /9 /2008

Tit 5
1. Kin thc HS bit c:

bi 2 :

Ht nhn nguyn t. nguyn t ho hc ng v ( Tit 2)

A. Mc tiu bi dy:

19

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Khi nim ng v, nguyn t khi v nguyn t khi trung bnh ca mt nguyn t. Cch tnh khi lng trng bnh ca mt nguyn t 2. K nng Gii c bi tp: tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca nguyn t c nhiu ng v, tnh t l % khi lng mi ng v v mt s bi tp khc lin quan. B. Chun b Hc sinh: Nm vng c im cc ht cu to nn nguyn t., Cch xc nh s ht p, n, e, in tch ht nhn ca mt nguyn Gio vin: Tranh v cc ng v ca hiro, cc phiu hc tp. C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m kt hp vi vic s dng cc dng dy hc trc quan v cc phiu hc tp D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu 1: Lm bi tp 4 ( SGK) Cu 2 : Lm bi tp ( sbt) Cu 3 : Tng s cc ht trong mt nguyn t nguyn t X l 40. Trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 12. Xc nh s p. e, n v s khi A ca nguyn t nguyn t . 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc
Hot ng ca thy v tr

Ni dung bi hc

i. ng v Hot ng 1: S dng phiu hc tp s 1: Cho cc nguyn t c k hiu sau: A 12 1 2 13 14 3 H ;1 6 C ; 6 C ; 6 C ;1 H ;1 H 12 12 6 C a. Tnh s proton, s ntron, s 13 electron, v s khi ca mi 13 6 C 14 nguyn t. 14 6 C b. C nhn xt g v nhng 1 1H 1 nguyn t ca cng mt nguyn 2 1H 2 t? 3 c. c SGK v nu N ng v. 3 1H

P 6 6 6 1 1 1

e 6 6 6 1 1 1

n 6 7 8 0 1 2

Cc nguyn t ca cng 1 nguyn t Hiro, cacbon c cng s 20

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

GV : da vo cu (b) dn HS proton nhng c s khi khc nhau l nh ngha ng v l nhng do s ntron khc nhau. nguyn t c cng s proton nhng c s khi A khc nhau. Gv : S dng phiu hc tp s 2. Cho cc nguyn t:
10 5 40 19 40 18

nh ngha: Cc ng v ca cng nguyn t c cng s proton nhng khc nhau v s ntron, do s khi A ca chng khc nhau.

khc nhau v s ntron, do mt nguyn t ho hc l nhng

A, E L,

64 29

B,

84 36

C,

11 5

D,

109 47

G,

63 29

H,

54 24

M,

106 47

? Cc nguyn t no l ng v ca nhau: GV : treo tranh v cc ng v ca hiro v gii thch trng hp c bit ng v 1 1 H l trng 3 hp duy nht c n = 0 v 1 H c s ntron gp i s proton Gv : Hu ht cc nguyn t ho hc l hn hp ca nhiu ng v. Ch c mt s nguyn t nh Al, F khng c ng v. Ngoi khong 300 ng v tn ti trong t nhin, ngi ta cn iu ch c khong 1000 ng v - Cc ng v ca cng mt nguyn nhn to.
37 Cl c t Gv :Ti sao ng v 17 khi ln, c nhit nng chy, nhit si cao hn ng v 35 cao hn 17 Cl Hs : Do in tch ht nhn quyt nh tnh cht nguyn t nn cc ng v c cng s proton ngha l c cng in tch ht nhn th c TCHH ging nhau. Tuy nhin do cc ng v ca

t ho hc th c TCHH ging nhau. - Do c s khc nhau v s ntron nn tnh cht vt l ca cc ng v l khc nhau II Nguyn t khi v Nguyn t khi trung bnh. 21

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

cng mt nguyn t ho hc c s 1) Nguyn t khi ntron trong ht nhn khc nhau, Nguyn t khi l khi lng ca nn c mt s TCVL khc nhau. mt nguyn t tnh ra u. (n cho bit khi lng Hot ng 2 : Dng phng php m thoi hs hiu c nguyn t khi Gv : n v khi lng l g ? Hs : u Gv : Nguyn t X c khi lng 40 u nng gp bao nhiu ln n v khi lng nguyn t? HS: 40 ln Gv :Gi 40 u l nguyn t khi. Vy nguyn t khi l g ? ca nguyn t nng gp bao nhiu ln n v khi lng nguyn t)

KLNT = tng lng (p + e + n)

GV : Khi lng nguyn t c tnh Do khi lng electron rt nh so vi khi lng ca p, n nn coi Nguyn t nh th no ? Gs : KLNT = tng lng (p + e + n) khi S khi ht nhn Gv : Khi lng nguyn t c c coi nh lo s khi khng ? Ti sao Hs : Do khi lng electron rt nh 2) Nguyn t khi trung bnh so vi khi lng ca p, n nn coi Nguyn t khi ca mt nguyn t Nguyn t khi S khi ht nhn ho hc l nguyn t khi trung bnh ca hn hp cc ng v, c tnh n t l % s nguyn t ca Hot ng 3: Nguyn t khi TB GV s dng phiu hc tp s 3: a. Cho bit nguyn t khi trung bnh l g ? cng thc tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca mt nguyn t b. Tnh KL nguyn t trung bnh 35 ca Clo bit Clo c 2 n v: 17 37 Cl chim 75,33%; 17 Cl chim mi ng v. Cng thc tnh: aA + bB + A = 100 Trong : A l ng.t khi trung bnh A, Bl ng.t khi ca mi n v a,b l t l % mi ng v. VD: Clo c 2 n v: 22
35 17

Cl chim

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

24,47%.

75,33%; 17 Cl chim 24,47%. KL nguyn t trung bnh ca Clo l


35.75,53 + 37.24,47

37

Hs : Hot ng nhm nh. Hs : Ln bng trnh by, cc A = nhm khc nhn xt

100

35,5 vc

E. Cng c Hot ng 4: Phiu hc tp s 4 c 2 bi tp: 1. Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Ni bit rng trong t nhin cc ng v ca Ni tn ti theo t l:
58 28

Ni

60 28

Ni

61 28

Ni

62 28

Ni

67,76%

26,16%

2,42%

3,66%

58.67,76 + 60.26,16 + 61.2,42 + 62.3,66

100

ANi = 58,74 2. Tnh % ca mi loi n v ca nguyn t Cu bit ng c Cu; Acu = 63,546 Hng dn gii Gi a l % ng v -> % ng v
65 29 63 29 63 29

Cu v

65 29

Cu

Cu l (100-a)

Da vo cng thc

63a + 65 (100 63,54 = a) 100

Gii tm a = 73%. F. Bi tp v nh- dn d Bi sgk: Bi sbt: c sch gio kho v lm ton b cc bi tp trong bi luyn tp 1 13 14 Phiu hc tp s 1: Cho cc nguyn t c k hiu sau: 12 6 C ; 6 C ; 6 C ;1 H ; 2 3 H ;1 1H a. Tnh s proton, s ntron, s electron, v s khi ca mi nguyn t. b. C nhn xt g v nhng nguyn t ca cng mt nguyn t? c. c SGK v nu N ng v. 23

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

phiu hc tp s 2. Cho cc nguyn t:


10 5

A,

64 29

B,

84 36

C,

11 5

D,

109 47

G,

63 29

H,

40 19

40 18

L,

54 24

M,

106 47

? Cc nguyn t no l ng v ca nhau: phiu hc tp s 3: a. Cho bit nguyn t khi trung bnh l g ? cng thc tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca mt nguyn t 35 b. Tnh KL nguyn t trung bnh ca Clo bit Clo c 2 n v: 17 Cl 37 chim 75,33%; 17 Cl chim 24,47%. Bi 1. Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Ni bit rng trong t nhin cc ng v ca Ni tn ti theo t l:
58 28

Ni

60 28

Ni

61 28

Ni

62 28

Ni

67,76% 26,16% 2,42% 3,66% 63 Bi 2. Tnh % ca mi loi n v ca nguyn t Cu bit ng c 29 Cu v 65 29 Cu; A=63,5 12 1 13 14 Phiu hc tp s 1: Cho cc nguyn t c k hiu sau: 6 C ; 6 C ; 6 C ; 1 H ; 2 3 1H ; 1H a. Tnh s proton, s ntron, s electron, v s khi ca mi nguyn t. b. C nhn xt g v nhng nguyn t ca cng mt nguyn t? c. c SGK v nu N ng v. phiu hc tp s 2. Cho cc nguyn t:
10 5

A,

64 29

B,

84 36

C,

11 5

D,

109 47

G,

63 29

H,

40 19

40 18

L,

54 24

M,

106 47

? Cc nguyn t no l ng v ca nhau: phiu hc tp s 3: a. Cho bit nguyn t khi trung bnh l g ? cng thc tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca mt nguyn t 35 b. Tnh KL nguyn t trung bnh ca Clo bit Clo c 2 n v: 17 Cl 37 chim 75,33%; 17 Cl chim 24,47%. Bi 1. Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Ni bit rng trong t nhin cc ng v ca Ni tn ti theo t l:
58 28

Ni

60 28

Ni

61 28

Ni

62 28

Ni

67,76%

26,16%

2,42%

3,66%
63 29

Bi 2. Tnh % ca mi loi ng v ca nguyn t Cu bit ng c 65 v 29 Cu; Acu = 63,546

Cu

24

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son : 12/ 9 / 2008

Ngy dy :13/9 /2008

Tit 6 :
A. Mc tiu bi dy:

Luyn tp : Thnh phn nguyn t

1. Kin thc HS hiu v vn dng c cc kin thc: -Thnh phn cu to nguyn t -S khi, nguyn t khi, nguyn t ho hc, s hiu nguyn t, k hiu nguyn t, ng v, nguyn t khi trung bnh 2. K nng -Xc nh s e, p, n v nguyn t khi khi bit k hiu nguyn t -Gii c bi tp: tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca nguyn t c nhiu ng v, tnh t l % khi lng mi ng v v mt s bi tp lin quan n hte, p, n B. Chun b 25

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hc sinh: n li cc kin thc trng tm ca 3 bi hc trc, chun b kin thc bi luyn tp v lm cc bi tp trc nh Gio vin: Chun b cc dng bi tp C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc Hot ng ca thy v tr Ni dung bi hc A. Kin thc cn nm vng

Ngy son :14/9 /2007 Ngy dy : 18 / 9 /2007

Tit 5 :

Ht nhn nguyn t. nguyn t ho hc ng v ( Tit 2)

A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc HS bit c: Khi nim ng v, nguyn t khi v nguyn t khi trung bnh ca mt nguyn t. Cch tnh khi lng trng bnh ca mt nguyn t 2. K nng 26

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Gii c bi tp: tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca nguyn t c nhiu ng v, tnh t l % khi lng mi ng v v mt s bi tp khc lin quan. B. Chun b Hc sinh: Nm vng c im cc ht cu to nn nguyn t., Cch xc nh s ht p, n, e, in tch ht nhn ca mt nguyn Gio vin: Tranh v cc ng v ca hiro, cc phiu hc tp. C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m kt hp vi vic s dng cc dng dy hc trc quan v cc phiu hc tp D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu 1: Lm bi tp 4 ( SGK) Cu 2 : Lm bi tp ( sbt) Cu 3 : Tng s cc ht trong mt nguyn t nguyn t X l 40. Trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 12. Xc nh s p. e, n v s khi A ca nguyn t nguyn t . 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc

Hot ng ca thy v tr

Ni dung bi hc

i. ng v Hot ng 1: S dng phiu hc tp s 1: Cho cc nguyn t c k hiu sau: A 12 1 2 13 14 3 H ;1 6 C ; 6 C ; 6 C ;1 H ;1 H 12 12 6 C a. Tnh s proton, s ntron, s 13 electron, v s khi ca mi 13 6 C 14 nguyn t. 14 6 C b. C nhn xt g v nhng 1 1H 1 nguyn t ca cng mt nguyn 27

P 6 6 6 1

e 6 6 6 1

n 6 7 8 0

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

t? c. c SGK v nu N ng v.

2 1

3 1

2 3

1 1

1 1

1 2

Cc nguyn t ca cng 1 GV : da vo cu (b) dn HS nh ngha ng v l nhng nguyn t c cng s proton nhng khc nhau v s ntron, do c s khi A khc nhau. Gv : S dng phiu hc tp s 2. Cho cc nguyn t:
10 5 40 19 40 18

nguyn t Hiro, cacbon c cng s proton nhng c s khi khc nhau l do s ntron khc nhau. nh ngha: Cc ng v ca cng mt nguyn t ho hc l nhng nguyn t c cng s proton nhng khc nhau v s ntron, do s khi A ca chng khc nhau.

A, E L,

64 29

B,

84 36

C,

11 5

D,

109 47

G,

63 29

H,

54 24

M,

106 47

? Cc nguyn t no l ng v ca nhau: GV : treo tranh v cc ng v ca hiro v gii thch trng hp c bit ng v 1 1 H l trng 3 hp duy nht c n = 0 v 1 H c s ntron gp i s proton Gv : Hu ht cc nguyn t ho hc l hn hp ca nhiu ng v. Ch c mt s nguyn t nh Al, F khng c ng v. Ngoi khong 300 ng v tn ti - Cc ng v ca cng mt nguyn trong t nhin, ngi ta cn iu ch c khong 1000 ng v t ho hc th c TCHH ging nhau. nhn to. - Do c s khc nhau v s ntron
37 Gv :Ti sao ng v 17 Cl c t nn tnh cht vt l ca cc ng khi ln, c nhit nng chy, v l khc nhau nhit si cao hn ng v 35 cao hn 17 Cl

28

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hs : Do in tch ht nhn quyt nh tnh cht nguyn t nn cc ng v c cng s proton ngha l c cng in tch ht nhn th c TCHH ging nhau. Tuy nhin do cc ng v ca cng mt nguyn t ho hc c s ntron trong ht nhn khc nhau, nn c mt s TCVL khc nhau.

II Nguyn t khi v Nguyn t khi trung bnh. 1) Nguyn t khi

Nguyn t khi l khi lng ca mt nguyn t tnh ra u. (n cho bit khi lng ca nguyn t nng gp bao nhiu ln n v Hot ng 2 : Dng phng php khi lng nguyn t) m thoi hs hiu c nguyn t khi Gv : n v khi lng l g ? Hs : u Gv : Nguyn t X c khi lng 40 u nng gp bao nhiu ln n v khi lng nguyn t? KLNT = tng lng (p + e + n) HS: 40 ln Gv :Gi 40 u l nguyn t khi. Do khi lng electron rt nh so vi Vy nguyn t khi l g ? khi lng ca p, n nn coi Nguyn t

khi S khi ht nhn GV : Khi lng nguyn t c tnh nh th no ? 2) Nguyn t khi trung bnh Gs : KLNT = tng lng (p + e + n) Nguyn t khi ca mt nguyn t Gv : Khi lng nguyn t c c coi ho hc l nguyn t khi trung nh lo s khi khng ? Ti sao bnh ca hn hp cc ng v, c Hs : Do khi lng electron rt nh tnh n t l % s nguyn t ca so vi khi lng ca p, n nn coi Nguyn t khi S khi ht nhn mi ng v. Hot ng 3: Nguyn t khi TB Cng thc tnh: GV s dng phiu hc tp s 3: aA + bB + A = 100 a. Cho bit nguyn t khi trung bnh l g ? cng thc tnh Trong : nguyn t khi trung bnh ca A l ng.t khi trung bnh mt nguyn t A, Bl ng.t khi ca mi n v b. Tnh KL nguyn t trung bnh a,b l t l % mi ng v. 35 ca Clo bit Clo c 2 n v: 17 35 37 VD: Clo c 2 n v: 17 Cl chim Cl chim 75,33%; 17 Cl chim 37 75,33%; 17 Cl chim 24,47%. 24,47%. 29

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

KL nguyn t trung bnh ca Clo l Hs : Hot ng nhm nh. Hs : Ln bng trnh by, cc A = nhm khc nhn xt
35.75,53 + 37.24,47

100

35,5 vc

E. Cng c Hot ng 4: Phiu hc tp s 4 c 2 bi tp: 1. Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Ni bit rng trong t nhin cc ng v ca Ni tn ti theo t l:
58 28

Ni

60 28

Ni

61 28

Ni

62 28

Ni

67,76%

26,16%

2,42%

3,66%

58.67,76 + 60.26,16 + 61.2,42 + 62.3,66

100

ANi = 58,74 2. Tnh % ca mi loi n v ca nguyn t Cu bit ng c Cu; Acu = 63,546 Hng dn gii Gi a l % ng v -> % ng v
65 29 63 29 63 29

Cu v

65 29

Cu

Cu l (100-a)

Da vo cng thc

63a + 65 (100 63,54 = a) 100

Gii tm a = 73%. F. Bi tp v nh- dn d Bi sgk: Bi sbt: c sch gio kho v lm ton b cc bi tp trong bi luyn tp

30

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai


1 13 14 Phiu hc tp s 1: Cho cc nguyn t c k hiu sau: 12 6 C ; 6 C ; 6 C ;1 H ; 2 3 H ;1 1H a. Tnh s proton, s ntron, s electron, v s khi ca mi nguyn t. b. C nhn xt g v nhng nguyn t ca cng mt nguyn t? c. c SGK v nu N ng v. phiu hc tp s 2. Cho cc nguyn t:

10 5

A,

64 29

B,

84 36

C,

11 5

D,

109 47

G,

63 29

H,

40 19

40 18

L,

54 24

M,

106 47

? Cc nguyn t no l ng v ca nhau: phiu hc tp s 3: a. Cho bit nguyn t khi trung bnh l g ? cng thc tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca mt nguyn t 35 b. Tnh KL nguyn t trung bnh ca Clo bit Clo c 2 n v: 17 Cl 37 chim 75,33%; 17 Cl chim 24,47%. Bi 1. Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Ni bit rng trong t nhin cc ng v ca Ni tn ti theo t l:
58 28

Ni

60 28

Ni

61 28

Ni

62 28

Ni
63 29

67,76% 26,16% 2,42% 3,66% Bi 2. Tnh % ca mi loi n v ca nguyn t Cu bit ng c 65 29 Cu; Acu = 63,546

Cu v

1 13 14 Phiu hc tp s 1: Cho cc nguyn t c k hiu sau: 12 6 C ; 6 C ; 6 C ;1 H ; 2 3 H ;1 1H a. Tnh s proton, s ntron, s electron, v s khi ca mi nguyn t. b. C nhn xt g v nhng nguyn t ca cng mt nguyn t? c. c SGK v nu N ng v. phiu hc tp s 2. Cho cc nguyn t:

10 5

A,

64 29

B,

84 36

C,

11 5

D,

109 47

G,

63 29

H,

40 19

40 18

L,

54 24

M,

106 47

? Cc nguyn t no l ng v ca nhau: phiu hc tp s 3: a. Cho bit nguyn t khi trung bnh l g ? cng thc tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca mt nguyn t 35 b. Tnh KL nguyn t trung bnh ca Clo bit Clo c 2 n v: 17 Cl 37 chim 75,33%; 17 Cl chim 24,47%. Bi 1. Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Ni bit rng trong t nhin cc ng v ca Ni tn ti theo t l: 31

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai


58 28

Ni

60 28

Ni

61 28

Ni

62 28

Ni

67,76%

26,16%

2,42%

3,66%
63 29

Bi 2. Tnh % ca mi loi ng v ca nguyn t Cu bit ng c 65 v 29 Cu; Acu = 63,546 Ngy son : 11 /9 /2008 Ngy dy : 12 / 9 /2008

Cu

Tit 6 :

Luyn tp : Thnh phn nguyn t

A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc HS hiu v vn dng c cc kin thc: -Thnh phn cu to nguyn t -S khi, nguyn t khi, nguyn t ho hc, s hiu nguyn t, k hiu nguyn t, ng v, nguyn t khi trung bnh 2. K nng -Xc nh s e, p, n v nguyn t khi khi bit k hiu nguyn t -Gii c bi tp: tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca nguyn t c nhiu ng v, tnh t l % khi lng mi ng v v mt s bi tp lin quan n hte, p, n B. Chun b Hc sinh: n li cc kin thc trng tm ca 3 bi hc trc, chun b kin thc bi luyn tp v lm cc bi tp trc nh Gio vin: Chun b cc dng bi tp C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc Hot ng ca thy v tr Ni dung bi hc

Hot ng 1: Hot ng nhm A. Kin thc cn nm vng ( SGK) nh 1. Nguyn t c thnh phn cu 32

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

to nh th no v c im cc ht cu to nn nguyn t? 2. V sao A v Z c coi l nhng s c trng ca cc nguyn t. 3. Kch thc ht nhn v nguyn t ln hay nh? Ngi ta dng n v o l g? 4. Khi lng nguyn t hu nh tp trung u? ti sao? II. bI tp Bi 1 : Hy nh dy ng vo nhng cu phi biu sau : 1. Trong mt nguyn t lun lun s prton bng s electron bng s Hs : Chun b 3 pht Hs : Tr li 1. 2. S 3. S 4. 5. S in tch ht nhn Z 2. Tng s p v s e trong mt ht nhn c gi l s khi A 3. S khi A l khi lng tuyt i ca nguyn t 4. Ch c ht nhn nguyn t oxi mi c 8 e 5. Ch c ht nhn nguyn t oxi mi c 8 ntron Hs : Chun b 5 pht bng cch Bi 2: Bit rng nguyn t Fe c trao i nhm nh 26p, 30n, 26e. Hy: HS : Mt em ln bng lm - Tnh khi lng nguyn t tuyt i ca nguyn t Fe. - Tnh nguyn t khi ca Fe. :Hng dn gii: Tnh khi lng ca 26p, 26n, 26e mp = 26.1,6726.10-27 = 43,4876.1027

(kg). mn = 30.1,6748.10-27 =

50,244.10-27 (kg) 33

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Khi lng kg ca nguyn t Fe

27

KLNT

tuyt

i +

ca

st:

43,4876.10-27

50,244.10-

=93,7316.10-27 (kg) t khi ca Fe l:

Tnh nguyn t khi ca Fe

Nguyn

93,7316.10 27 = 56,4631 (u) 1,66005.10 27

1mol Fe = 56,4631kg

Bi 3: Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Hs : Chun b 5 pht bng cch argon v kali bit rng trong thin trao i nhm nh nhin : HS : Mt em ln bng lm Argon c 3 ng v: T kt qu trn hy gii thch ti sao Ar c s hiu nguyn t l 18(nh hn K) nhng li c nguyn t khi trung bnh ln hn K.
36 18 38 40 Ar (0,3%);18 Ar (0,06%);18 Ar (99,64%)

Kali c 3 ng v:
39 19 40 41 K (93,08%);19 K (0,012%);19 K (6,9%)

Hng dn gii: AK =
39.93,08 + 40.0,012 + 6,9.41 100 36.0,3 + 38.0,06 + 99,64.40 100

39,13484 HS : Chun b 5 pht HS : 1 em ln bng lm HS : Nhn xt GV : Cha bi AAr = =

39,9868 Bi 4: Mt nguyn t R c tng s ht cc loi bng 115. S ht mang in tch nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l l 25 ht. Tm s proton, s khi v tn ca R. p s: Br, A=80. Bi 5: Tnh bn knh gn ng ca nguyn t canxi bit th tch ca 1

GV : Trong tinh th canxi, thc t mol canxi tinh th bng 25,87cm3. 34

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

cc nguyn t canxi ch chim Bit trong tinh th, cc nguyn t 74% th tch cn li l khe trng. canxi ch chim 74% th tch, cn Vy th tch thc ca 1 mol nguyn t canxi l bao nhiu li l khe trng HS : tr li 25,87.0,74 = 19,15cm3 Hng dn gii: Trong tinh th canxi, thc t cc

GV :Th tch ca nguyn t canxi nguyn t canxi ch chim 74% l bao nhiu ? th tch cn li l khe trng. Vy iH : Tr li th tch thc ca 1 mol nguyn t GV : Nu coi nguyn t l mt canxi l qu cu th bn knh ca n l 25,87.0,74 = 19,15 cm3 bao nhiu ? HS : Tr li 1 mol nguyn t c 6,022.1023 nguyn t, nn Th tch ca nguyn t canxi l V =
19,15 6,022.1023

= 3.10-23 cm3

Nu coi nguyn t l mt qu cu th bn knh ca n l r=


3

3V 4

3.3.10 - 23 4.3,14

= 1,63.10-8

Bi 6 : Vit cng thc cc loi phn GV : Vit cng thc ng ( II) t ng ( II) oxit, bit rng ng oxit. Hy vit cng thc CuO vi v oxi c cc ng v sau : 63 29 Cu , 63 65 cc ng v 29 Cu , 29 Cu vi cc 65 16 17 18 17 18 ng v 16 29 Cu v 8 O, 8 O 8 O 8 O, 8 O 8 O Hs : Chun b 2 pht HS : Ln bng lm GV : Cng cc hs di lp cha li bi Hng dn gii
63 29 18 8

Cu 16 8 O,

63 29

Cu 17 8 O

63 29

Cu

O
65 29

Cu 16 8 O

65 29

Cu 18 8 O

65 29

Cu 17 8 O 35

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

E. Cng c : Nhc li kin thc ca bi , hng dn hc sinh bit cchs t duy, phn tch bi lm c bi tp F. Bi tp v nh- dn d Bi sbt: c sch gio kho v lm ton b cc bi tp trong bi luyn tp Bi thm : Magie c hai ng v X, Y. Nguyn t khi ca X bng 24. ng v Y hn X mt notron. S nguyn t ca X, Y t l 3 :2. Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca magie. p s : AMg = 24,4

36

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son : 15 /9 /2008 Ngy dy : 17 / 9 / 2008

Tit 7 :
A. Mc tiu bi dy:

Cu to v nguyn t ( Tit 1)

1. Kin thc HS hiu c: - Trong nguyn t, electron chuyn ng quanh ht nhn to nn c nguyn t. - Cu to v nguyn t. Lp, phn lp electron. S electron c trong mi lp, phn lp 2. K nng Hc sinh c rn luyn k nng gii cc bi tp c lin quan n cc kin thc sau: Phn bit lp electron v phn lp electron, s electron ti a trong mt phn lp, trong mt lp. Cch k hiu cc lp, phn lp. B. Chun b Hc sinh: Nm vng c im cc ht cu to nn nguyn t., c trc bi Gio vin: Chun b tranh v mu hnh tinh nguyn t ca R-d-pho v Bo., cc phiu hc tp. C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m kt hp vi vic s dng cc dng dy hc trc quan v cc phiu hc tp D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu 1: Nu thnh phn cu to nn nguyn t, cho bit loi ht, khi lng, in tch ca ht cu to nn lp v nguyn t Cu 2 : Lm bi tp c thm Cu 3 : Tng s cc ht trong mt nguyn t nguyn t X l 82. Trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 22. Xc nh s p. e, n v s khi A ca nguyn t nguyn t . 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc Hot ng 1: Vo bi Nh bit v electron ca nguyn t gm cc electron chuyn ng xung quanh ht nhn. Vy s chuyn ng ca electron trong nguyn t nh th no? trng thi chuyn ng ca electron c ging s chuyn ng ca cc vt th ln hay khng? 37

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung Hot ng 1: S chuyn ng I. s chuyn ng ca electron trong ca e nguyn t GV treo s mu hnh tinh nguyn t ca R-d-pho v Bo HS : Nghin cu sch gio khoa v rt ra c cc kt lun sau : - Mo hnh hnh tinh nguyn t ca R-d-pho v Bo c tc dng rt ln n s pht trin l thuyt cu to nguyn t, nhng khng y gii - Cc e chuyn ng rt nhanh xung thch mi tnh cht ca nguyn quanh ht nhn nguyn t khng t theo nhng qu o xc nh to - Ngy nay ngi ta bit cc e nn v e ca nguyn t. chuyn ng rt nhanh xung quanh ht nhn nguyn t khng theo nhng qu o xc nh to nn v e ca nguyn t. - S e v e ca nguyn t ca mt nguyn t ng bng s p - Obitan nguyn t l Khu vc khng ca ht nhn nguyn t v cng gian xung quanh ht nhn m bng s hiu nguyn t Z ca xc sut c mt e l ln nht khong nguyn t . 90% k hiu l AO. Mi AO cha m ti Gio vin : Khu vc khng gian a 2 e. xung quanh ht nhn m xc sut c mt e l ln nht II. Lp electron v phn lp electron khong 90% gi l obitan nguyn t, k hiu l AO. Mi I. Lp electron AO cha m ti a 2 e K n:L tp hp cc e c mc nng lng gn Bng nhau - Trong nguyn t cc electron c Hot ng 2: Lp electron sp xp thnh tng lp, t trong ra HS : Nghin cu sch gio khoa ngoi. GV : Hng dn hc sinh tm - Cc electron trn cng mt lp c ra nhng kt lun nng lng xp x nhau. 38

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- Trong nguyn t, mi electron c mt trng thi nng lng nng lng nht nh. VD nh mi ngi c mt trng thi sc kho khc nhau. Tu thuc vo trng thi nng lng ny, mi electron c khu vc u tin ring - Nguyn t gm c ht nhn mang in tch dng v electron mang in tch m. Nh vy ht nhn ht electron nh lc ht tnh in. Nhng electron lp trong b ht mnh hn, lin kt vi ht nhn cht ch hn. Ngi ta ni nhng electron gn nhn c nng lng thp. Ngc li, nhng electron xa ht nhn lin kt vi ht nhn yu, c nng lng cao. GV: S th t lp electron l nhng s nguyn n = 1,2,3,7 hoc k hiu l cc ch ci in hoa K,L,M.. ? Nu mt nguyn t c 5 lp electron th lp no lin kt vi ht nhn ct ch nht, lp no lin kt vi ht nhn yu nht? GV lu : Cc electron lp ngoi cng hu nh quyt nh TCHH ca mt nguyn t.

Cc lp c sp xp theo th t nng lng t thp n cao S th t lp electron l nhng s nguyn n = 1,2,3,7 hoc k hiu l cc ch ci in hoa: n = 1, 7 K hiu: K, 2, L, M, 3, N, 4, O, 5, P, 6, Q

Lp K l lp gn ht nhn nht, cc electron lp ny lin kt vi ht nhn cht ch nht v c mc nng lng thp nht.

II. phn lp electron

K n:l tp hp cc e c mc nng lng bng Nhau.

- Cc electron trn cng mt phn lp c nng lng bng nhau. - Cc phn lp k hiu bng ch ci thng: s, p, d, f. Ta ni phn lp s, Hot ng 3: Phn lp electron phn lp p Lp K (n=1) c 1 phn lp. K hiu 1s Hs: Nghin cu sch gio khoa Lp L (n=2) c 2 phn lp. K hiu 1s, GV: Hgn dn hs tm ra cc kin 2p Lp M(n=3) c 3 phn lp: 3s, 3p, 3d thc tr li: a. Th no l mt lp electron? Lp N(n=4) c 1 phn lp:4s, 4p, 4d b. Cc electron c nng lng nh v 4f th no th cng mt phn lp c. Cch k hiu phn lp, s Cc e phn lp s c gi l cc phn lp trong mi lp electron s, Cc e phn lp p c gi 39

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

l cc electron p *Obitan - Mt AO ch c th cha ti a 2 e c chiu quay ngc nhau Hot ng 4: *Obitan - Mt Ao c 2 e gi l cc e ghp i thng khng tham gia vo vic to kin kt ho hc

Gio vin gii thiu s e c trong mi AO, s AO trong mi phn - Mt Ao ch c 1 e gi l cc e c thn thng tham gia vo vic to kin lp, trong mi lp kt ho hc Phn lp s: ch c 1 obitan Phn lp p: c 3 obitan Phn lp d: c 5 obitan Phn lp f: : c 7 obitan E . Cng c : Gv yu cu hc sinh nm vng - Khi nim v k hiu lp , phn lp e - Khi nim AO v s lng AO trong mt phn lp Lm bi 1, 2 trong sch gio khoa F. Bi tp v nh- dn d Bi sbt: c sch gio kho v lm ton b cc bi tp trong bi luyn tp ngy son : 20 / 9 / 2008 Ngy dy : 21 / 9 / 2008

GV hng dn cch biu din s AO

Tit 8 :
A. Mc tiu bi dy:

Cu to v nguyn t ( Tit 2 )

1. Kin thc HS hiu c: -Tnh c s e ti a trong mt AO, trong mt phn lp, trong mt lp 2. K nng Hc sinh c rn luyn k nng gii cc bi tp c lin quan n cc kin thc sau: s electron ti a trong mt AO, mt phn lp, trong mt lp. Cch k hiu cc lp, phn lp. B. Chun b 40

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hc sinh: n li khi nim AO, lp, phn lp v k hiu Gio vin: Chun b bi, phng to hnh 1.7 trong sch gio khoa C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m kt hp vi vic s dng cc dng dy hc trc quan v cc phiu hc tp D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu 1: Bi 2, 3,4 sch gio khoa Cu 2 : Bi 28, 29, 30 sch bi tp Cu 3 : Cho bit s chuyn ng ca e trong nguyn t, Cc e nh th no c xp vo cun mt lp, mt phn lp. Kh hiu lp, phn lp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung III. S electron ti a trong mt lp, Hot ng 1: mt phn lp. S dng phiu hc tp 1: Cu 1: Cho bit s AO trong mt phn lp, s e ti a trong mt AO Cu 2: in cc gi tr v bng Phn s p d f sau: Phn s p d f lp S AO 1 3 5 7 lp S e ti 2 6 10 14 S AO a S e ti trong a mt AO trong mt AO HS: Hot ng theo nhm nh, ri 1 hs ln trnh by Gv cng HS khc nhn xt. GV: Cho bit s phn lp mi lp e trong nguyn t HS: Lp K (n=1) c 1 phn lp. K hiu 1s Lp L (n=2) c 2 phn lp. K hiu 1s, 2p Lp M(n=3) c 3 41

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

phn lp: 3s, 3p, 3d Lp N(n=4) c 1 phn lp:4s, 4p, 4d v 4f Phiu hc tp 2: Da vo s e ti a trong mt AO, in vo bng sau: Lp K n= Phn lp S AO S e ti a ca phn lp S e ti a ca lp
2 T kt qu ca bng trn c th s e ti a trong lp th n l 2n suy ra s e ti a trong lp th n l bo nhiu? HS: S e ti a ca lp n l 2n2

Lp

K n= 1 s 1 2

L n=2 s 1 2 p 3 6 s 1 2

M n=3 p 3 6 d 5 10

L n= 2 s

M n=3 d

Phn lp S AO S e ti a ca phn lp S e ti a ca lp

1 s

p s p

18

Gv: T cng thc hy suy ra s e ti a trong lp th t ( lp N ( n = 4) Hs: n = 4 s e ti a ca lp N * S phn b e trn cc phn lp l 2.42 = 32 e Hot ng 3: S phn b e trn cc pn lp Phiu hc tp s 3: Lp S e ti Phn b 1. Hy cho bit s phn b e a ca e trn trn cc phn lp lp cc 42

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Lp

S e ti Phn b a ca e trn lp cc phn lp

K ( n = 2 1) L ( n = 8 2) M (n = 3 10 )

phn lp 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p6 3d10

K ( n = 1) L ( n = 2) M (n = 3 ) 2. Xc nh s lp e ca cc nguyn t sau:
14 7

VD: s lp e ca cc nguyn t sau:


14 7

N,

24 12

Mg

N,

24 12

Mg

N c Z = 7, Ngyn t N c 7 e, 7 p v c 14 7 = 7 n
14 7

Gv: Gi 2 em hc sinh ln bng V nguyn t c 7 e c phn b nh lm sau: Gv cng cc hc sinh cn lo Trn lp K c 2 e v trn lp L c 5e cha bi Hng dn gc sinh cch t duy, suy lun. ? Hy cho bit trong nguyn t N c bao nhiu p, n, e. ? S phn b cc e trong lp v va nguyn t N ? V s phn b e trn cc lp ca nguyn t N

E . Cng c : Gv yu cu hc sinh nm vng Cch tnh s e ti a trong mt lp, trong mt phn lp F. Bi tp v nh- dn d Bi 3,4,5,6, SBT c sch gio kho v lm ton b cc bi tp trong bi luyn tp S dng phiu hc tp 1: Cu 1: Cho bit s AO trong mt phn lp, s e ti a trong mt AO Cu 2: in cc gi tr v bng sau: Phn lp S AO s p 43 d f

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

S e ti a trong AO Phiu hc tp 2: Da vo s e ti a trong mt AO, in vo bng sau: Lp Phn lp S AO S e ti a ca phn lp S e ti a ca lp Phiu hc tp s 3: 1. Hy cho bit s phn b e trn cc phn lp Lp S e ti Phn a lp K ( n = 1) L ( n = 2) M (n = 3 ) 2. Xc nh s lp e ca cc nguyn t sau:
14 7

mt

K n=1 s s

L n=2 p s

M n=3 p d

ca trn cc phn lp

N,

24 12

Mg

44

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son : 20 / 9 / 2008 Ngy dy : 24 / 9 / 2008

Tit 9 :
A. Mc tiu bi dy:

Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t

1. Kin thc HS Bit c: - Th t cc mc nng lng trong nguyn t. - Quy lut sp xp cc e trong v nguyn t ca cc nguyn t - S phn b electron trn cc phn lp, lp v cu hnh electron nguyn t ca 20 nguyn t u tin. - c im ca lp electron ngoi cng: 2. K nng - Vit c cu hnh electron ca mt s nguyn t ho hc. - Da vo cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t suy ra tnh cht ho hc c bn ca nguyn t tng ng. B. Chun b Hc sinh: n li khi nim AO, lp, phn lp v s phn b e trn cc phn lp Gio vin: Chun b bi, phng to s phn mc nng lng ca cc lp v cac phn lp. Bng cu hnh e nguyn t ca 20 nguyn t u. 45

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, cc phiu hc tp. Hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu 1: Khi nim lp v phn lp e. Cch k hiu cc phn lp, lp e. S phn lp trong mi lp Cu 2 : S e ti a trong mi phn lp, mi lp. Cu 3 : Bi 6 sch bi tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc Hot ng ca c v tr Hot ng 1: Hot ng theo nhm nh HS: Nghin cu H.1.9 SGK -Tr23 v trnh by s phn b mc nng lng ca cc phn lp v cc lp? cho bit Th t sp xp cc phn lp theo chiu tng ca nng lng ni dung I. Th t cc mc nng lng trong nguyn t

GV: Gi Hs ng ln trnh by v cc e trong nguyn t ln lt chim cc mc nng lng nh th no?: HS:

Th t sp xp cc phn lp theo chiu tng ca nng lng 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p...

Khi in tch ht nhn tng c s chn mc nng lng nn lm cho phn - Cc e trong nguyn t trng thi lp 3d> 4s, 5d> 4s. c bn ln lt chim cc mc nng lng t thp n cao. - Mc nng lng ca cc lp tng theo th t t 1 n 7 k t gn II. Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t ht nhn nht v cc phn lp 1. Cu hnh e ca nguyn t tng theo th t s, p, d, f.Hot 46

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

ng 2: Tm hiu cu hnh electron ca nguyn t. HS: Nghin cu th d SGK v cho bit cch biu din cu hnh electron ca nguyn t hiro (H), heli (He) , liti (Li)? Xc nh e cui cng in phn lp no: HS: ln bng tr li v lm v d GV: T cho bit cc quy c vit cu hnh e. HS: Tr li 3 quy c vit cu hnh e.

H (Z=1) c 1 electron: 1s1 He (Z=2) c 2 electron. 1s2 Li ((Z=3) c 3 electron. 1s22s1 Li l nguyn t h s Cc quy c vit cu hnh e. ( SGK) S th t lp electron c ghi bng ch s (1,2,3...). Phn lp c ghi bng cc ch ci thng (s,p,d,f). S electron c ghi bng s pha trn bn phi ca phn lp (s2, p6).

Cl ( Z = 17 ) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p5 hoc vit gn: Clo l nguyn t h p Ca (Z=20) : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p64s2 St l nguyn t h d HS: Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t Cl ( Z = 17 ), Ca ( Z = 20). Xc nh xem cc nguyn t thuc nguyn t s, p, d GV: T v d trn hy nu cc bc vit cu hnh e GV: Hy vit cu hnh e ca Fe? xc nh xem nguyn t Fe l nguyn t no? GV: T cc v d trn hy cho bit th no l cc nguyn t s, nguyn t p, nguyn t d, nguyn t f. Hot ng : Chia nhm hc sinh: GV: Mi nhm vit cu hnh e 47 * Cc bc vit cu hnh e: SGK VD: Fe (Z=26)c 26 e: Th t mc nng lng: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p64s23d6 Cu hnh e: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p63d64s2 Hoc vit gn: [ Ar ] 3d64s2 Fe l nguyn t d. * Cc nguyn t s, p, d, f: (SKG )

2. Cu hnh e nguyn t ca 20 nguyn t u. Bng trong sch gio khoa: Cu hnh e nguyn t ca 20 nguyn t u.

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

ca 10 nguyn t c z = 1 20 vit cu hnh vo bng ph GV: Mi 2 nhm ln trnh by, gio vin cng cc nhm khc nhn xt. Hot ng: Hot ng : S dng phiu hc tp: 1. Nghin cu sgk v cho bit nguyn t ch c th c ti a bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng: 2. Hy vit cu hnh e ca cc nguyn t kim loi Na, Al, Ca. T cho bit c bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng? 3. Hy vit cu hnh e ca cc nguyn t phi kim O, P, Cl. T cho bit c bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng? 4. Rt ra c kt lun v c im ca lp e ngoi cng HS tr li: - i vi cc nguyn t ca tt c cc nguyn t lp ngoi cng nhiu nht l 8 e. GV b xung: Cc nguyn t c 8 e lp ngoi cng ( ns2np6) u rt bn vng, chng khng tham gia vo cc phn ng ho hc ( tr mt s trng hp c bit) . l kh him. Na (Z=11) : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1

3, c im ca lp e ngoi cng:

Trong nguyn t: - Lp ngoi cng c ti a 8 electron. - Nguyn t c 8 electron lp ngoi cng (tr He c 2) u rt bn vng, l nguyn t ca nguyn t kh him.

- Nguyn t c 1, 2, 3 electron lp ngoi cng (tr B) l nguyn t ca nguyn t kim loi.

- Nguyn t c 5, 6, 7 electron lp ngoi cng l nguyn t ca nt phi kim. - Nguyn t c 4 electron lp ngoi cng l nguyn t ca nguyn t phi kim (nu nt chu k nh); l kim loi (nu nt chu k ln).

48

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Al(Z=13) : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p3 Ca (Z=20) : 1s2 2s2 2p6 Cc electron lp ngoi cng rt quan 3s23p64s2 trng, c kh nng quyt nh TCHH O (Z=8) : 1s2 2s2 2p4 ca mt nguyn t. P (Z=15) : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p3 2 2 6 2 5 Cl (Z=17) : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p GV b xung Nguyn t c 4 electron lp ngoi cng l nguyn t ca nguyn t phi kim (nu nt chu k nh); l kim loi (nu nt chu k ln). GV: Hng dn hc sinh rt ra c kt lun. E . Cng c : Bi 1: Vit cu hnh electron nguyn t ca cc nguyn t sau bng hai cch: He (Z = 2); N (Z = 7); Mg (Z=12); Ca (Z = 20); Fe (Z=26); Br (Z= 35) Nguyn t no l kim loi l phi kim l kh him? Bi 2: lm cc bi tp sch gio khoa: Bi 1, bi 2, bi 3: F. Bi tp v nh- dn d Bi sbt: c sch gio khoa v lm ton b cc bi tp trong bi luyn tp Cu 1 : Lp e v phn lp e Cu 2 : Mi lin h gi lp e ngoi cng vi loi nguyn t. Cu 1 : Nghin cu H.1.9 SGK -Tr23 v trnh by s phn b mc nng lng ca cc phn lp v cc lp? cho bit Th t sp xp cc phn lp theo chiu tng ca nng lng S dng phiu hc tp: 1. Nghin cu sgk v cho bit nguyn t ch c th c ti a bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng: 2. Hy vit cu hnh e ca cc nguyn t kim loi Na, Al, Ca. T cho bit c bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng? 3. Hy vit cu hnh e ca cc nguyn t phi kim O, P, Cl. T cho bit c bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng? 49

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

4. Rt ra c kt lun v c im ca lp e ngoi cng Cu 2: Vit cu hnh electron nguyn t ca cc nguyn t sau bng hai cch: He (Z = 2); N (Z = 7); Mg (Z=12); Ca (Z = 20); Fe (Z=26); Br (Z= 35) Nguyn t no l kim loi l phi kim l kh him?

Ngy son : 25 / 9/ 2008 Ngy dy : 28/ 9 / 2008

Tit 10 :
A. Mc tiu bi dy:

Luyn tp : Cu to v nguyn t

1. Kin thc Hc sinh nm vng: V nguyn t gm c cc lp v phn lp e. Cc mc nng lng ca lp, phn lp. S e ti a trong mt lp, mt phn lp. Cu hnh e ca nguyn t 2. K nng Hc sinh c rn kuyn v mt s dng bi tp lin quan n cu hnh e lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t 20 nguyn t u. T cu hnh e ca nguyn t suy ra tnh cht tiu biu ca nguyn t . B. Chun b Hc sinh: n li cc kin thc trng tm ca 3 bi hc trc, chun b kin thc bi luyn tp v lm cc bi tp trc nh Gio vin: Chun b cc dng bi tp C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 50

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc Hot ng ca c v tr Hot ng 1: Chia nhm nh, hs tr li cc cu hi vo bng ph. Sau cho 1 nhm trnh by cc nhm khc gp 1. V mt nng lng cc e nh th no c xp vo cng mt lp, mt phn lp. 2. Lp n c bao nhiu phn lp, k hiu ca cc phn lp? v d khi n = 1, 2, 3. 3. S e ti a mi phn lp, mi lp l bao nhiu? 4. Cho bit th t sp xp cc phn lp theo chiu tng ca nng lng 5. Cc quy tc vit cu hnh 2 ca nguyn t ca mt nguyn t. Xc nh tnh cht ho hc in hnh ca nguyn t nguyn t . Hot ng 2: gio vin t chc cho hc sinh cung lm cc bi tp: ni dung A.Kin thc cn nm vng: SGK

Bi 1: - Nguyn t s l nhng nguyn t m nguyn t c e ngoi cng in vo phn lp s Mg(Z=12) : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2

Chia bng ra lm 4 phn, gi 3 - Nguyn t p l nhng nguyn t m hs ln bng lm 3 bi tp v nh nguyn t c e ngoi cng in vo Bi 1: Th no l cc nguyn t phn lp p s, p, d, f? ly v d v nguyn t Cl ( Z = 17 ) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p5 s, p, d: - Nguyn t d l nhng nguyn t m HS: Chun b 2 pht: nguyn t c e ngoi cng in vo phn lp d GV: gi 3 hc sinh tr li, mt hs Fe ( Z = 26) 1s2 2s2 2p6 ln bng ly v d: 3s23p64s23d6 51

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- Nguyn t f l nhng nguyn t m GV b xung: e cui cng l e c nguyn t c e ngoi cng in vo phn lp f in sau cng vo phn lp c nng lng cao nht. Bi 3: Bi 3( sgk) Trong nguyn t nhng e ca lp no quyt nh tnh cht ho hc ca nguyn t nguyn t . Cho v d? HS tr li Bi 4: ( SGK ) GV: Gi hc sinh ln bng lm: GV: Gi hs phn tch cch suy ngh lm bi tp: Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t . Xc nh s lp e, s e lp ngoi cng v tnh cht ca nguyn t . GV: Nu c im ca lp e ngoi cng? Bi 6: SGK Gi tng hc sinh tr li theo cu hi Bi 6: a. Nguyn t P c 15 e b. S hiu nguyn t P l 15 c. Lp th 3 ( lp M ) c mc nng lng cao nht d. C 3 lp e, s e trn mi lp l 2,8,5 e. C 5 e lp ngoi cng. P l nguyn t phi kim. Bi thm: P ( Z= 15) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p5 Nguyn t P c 5 e lp ngoi cng. Nguyn t P l phi kim Al ( Z = 13) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p1 Nguyn t Al c 3 e lp ngoi cng. Nguyn t Al l kim loi V ( Z = 23) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p6 3d3 4s2 52 Trong nguyn t nhng e ca lp ngoi cng quyt nh tnh cht ho hc ca nguyn t nguyn t . V d: Mg c 2 e lp ngoi cng, Ca c 2 e lp ngoi cng. u th hin tnh cht ca kim loi. Bi 4: ( SGK ) Nguyn t c 20 e: cu hnh e: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p64s2 a. Nguyn t c 4 lp e. b. Lp ngoi cng c 2 e c. l kim loi

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Bi thm: Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t nguyn t P (Z= 15), Al ( Z = 13), V ( Z =23) Xc nh s e lp ngoi cng, xc nh l nguyn t kim loi hay phi kim kh him,

Nguyn t V c 2 e lp ngoi cng. Nguyn t Al l kim loi

E . Cng c : Nhc li bc vit cu hnh e, xc nh s e lp ngoi cng, c im e lp ngoi cng. F. Bi tp v nh- dn d Yu cu cc em gii li cc bi tp ny vo v nu lm b sai. Li ton b cc bi tp trong sch bi tp.

53

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son : 1 / 10 / 2008 Ngy dy : 3 / 10 / 2008 Tit 11 : Luyn tp : Cu to v nguyn t ( Tit 2) A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc Hc sinh nm vng: V nguyn t gm c cc lp v phn lp e. Cc mc nng lng ca lp, phn lp. S e ti a trong mt lp, mt phn lp. Cu hnh e ca nguyn t 2. K nng Hc sinh c rn kuyn v mt s dng bi tp lin quan n cu hnh e lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t 20 nguyn t u. T cu hnh e ca nguyn t suy ra tnh cht tiu biu ca nguyn t . B. Chun b Hc sinh: Lm cc bi tp trong sch bi tp Gio vin: Chun b cc dng bi tp C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung A. Cc dng bi trc nghim Cu1:Nguyn t X c s hiu nguyn t Z = 13. Cu hnh e ca nguyn t nguyn t X l: A. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p1 3s3 C. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s13p3 3p53s2 B. 1s2 2s2 2p6 D. 1s2 2s2 2p6

Hot ng 1: Cc dng bi trc nghim GV: Pht phiu hc tp ti tng nhm nh hc sinh HS: Chun b 5 pht GV: Gi hc sinh ln bng cha bi, gii thch ti sao.

Cu 2:. Mt s nguyn t c cu hnh e nh sau: 1. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 54 2. 1s2 2s2 2p6

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

3. 1s2 2s2 3s23p1

4. 1s2 2s2 2p6

Nguyn t no l nguyn t ca nguyn t p A. 1, 4 B. 1, 3, 4 C. 2, 3


27 13

D. 2, 4 Al

Cu 3: Nguyn t nhm A. 13 D. 40 A. 13 D.40 A. 13 D. 40 A. 3 B. 27

1. S e trong nguyn t Al l: C. 14

2. S khi ca nguyn t Al l: B. 27 C. 14

3. S notron trong nguyn t Al l: Hot ng2: Lm bi tp GV: c bi B. 27 C. 14

4. S e lp ngoi cng ca Al l: B. 2 C. 6 D. 5 HS: Trao it v chun b trong Cu 4: S e ti a c th phn b 5 pht trn lp N ( n = 3) GV: Gi 3 hc sinh ln bng lm A. 2 B. 8 C. 18 GV: Gi cc hc sinh di lp nhn xet D. 32 B. Phn t lun Cu 1: 1. Vit cu hnh e ca cc nguyn t nguyn t sau: N ( Z = 7), Na ( Z = 11 ), S ( Z = 16), Ca ( Z= 40), Fe ( Z = 26) 2. Xc nh cc nguyn t trn l nguyn t s, p, d, f 3. Xc nh cc nguyn t trn nguyn t no l kim loi, kh him, phi kim, gii thch? Hng dn gii: N ( Z = 7) : 1s2 2s2 2p3 55

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

N l nguyn t p GV: c bi Nguyn t ca nguyn t N c 5 e lp ngoi cng, Nguyn t N l phi kim

2 2 6 2 6 2 HS: Trao it v chun b trong Ca ( Z= 40): 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 5 pht Nguyn t ca nguyn t Ca c 5 e lp ngoi cng, Nguyn t Ca l kim GV: Gi 3 hc sinh ln bng lm loi GV: Gi cc hc sinh di lp nhn Fe ( Z = 26): 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p6 3d6 4s2 xet Nguyn t ca nguyn t Fe c 2 e Cng thc tnh: aA + bB + lp ngoi cng, Nguyn t Fe l kim loi A = 100 S ( Z = 16): 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p4 Trong : S l nguyn t p A l ng.t khi trung bnh Nguyn t ca nguyn t c 6 e lp

A, Bl ng.t khi ca mi n ngoi cng, Nguyn t S l phi kim v a,b l t l % mi ng v. Cu 2: Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Brom bit rng trong t nhin cc ng v ca Brom tn ti theo t l:
81 Br 35 Br 50,7% 49,3% Hng dn gii: KL nguyn t trung bnh ca Brom l 80. 50,7 + A =81.49,3 80,493 g/mol 10080,493 Cu 3 : Tnh % ca mi loi n v ca nguyn t liti bit Liti c 2 ng v 63 Li l : 3 7 Li Bit rng nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Liti t nhin l 6,94 Hng dn gii: 80 35

GV: c bi HS: Trao i v chun b trong 5 pht GV: Gi 3 hc sinh ln bng lm GV: Gi cc hc sinh di lp nhn xet

Gi a l % ng v -> % ng v
63 Li

7 Li

l (100-a)
63a + 65 (100 a) 100

Da vo cng thc 56

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

6,94=

a.7 + (100 a ).6 100

Gii tm a =. Cu 4 : Trong mt nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s ht proton, notron v electron l 28. Bit rng s notron bng s proton cng thm mt. Hy xc nh s khi A ca nguyn t nguyn t X, Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t, xc nh xem nguyn t X l phi kim hay l kim loi. F. Bi tp v nh- dn d Gi sau kim tra mt tit Cu1: Nguyn t X c s hiu nguyn t Z = 13. Cu hnh e ca nguyn t nguyn t X l: A. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p1 C. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s13p3 1. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3. 1s2 2s2 A. 1, 4 B. 1, 3, 4
27 13

B. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s3 D. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3p53s2 2. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 4. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p1 C. 2, 3 Al C. 14 C. 14 C. 14 C. 6 57 D. 40 D. 40 D. 40 D. 5 D. 2, 4

Cu 2:. Mt s nguyn t c cu hnh e nh sau:

Nguyn t no l nguyn t ca nguyn t p Cu 3: Nguyn t Lu hunh 1. S e trong nguyn t Al l: A. 13 2. S khi ca nguyn t Al l: A. 13 A. 13 4. S e lp ngoi cng ca Al l: A. 3 B. 2 B. 27 B. 27 3. S notron trong nguyn t Al l: B. 27

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Cu 4: S e ti a c th phn b trn lp N ( n = 3) A. 2 B. Phn t lun Cu 1: 1. Vit cu hnh e ca cc nguyn t nguyn t sau: N ( Z = 7), Na ( Z = 11 ), S ( Z = 16), Ca ( Z= 40), Fe ( Z = 26) 2. Xc nh cc nguyn t trn l nguyn t s, p, d, f 3. Xc nh cc nguyn t trn nguyn t no l kim loi, kh him, phi kim, gii thch? Cu 2: Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Brom bit rng trong t nhin cc ng v ca Brom tn ti theo t l:
81 Br 35 Br 50,7% 49,3% Cu 3 : Tnh % ca mi loi n v ca nguyn t liti bit Liti c 2 ng 63 Li. Bit rng nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Liti t nhin v l : 3 7 Li l 6,94 Cu 4 : Trong mt nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s ht proton, notron v electron l 28. Bit rng s notron bng s proton cng thm mt. 80 35

B. 8

C. 18

D. 32

Hy xc nh s khi A ca nguyn t nguyn t X, Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t, xc nh xem nguyn t X l phi kim hay l kim loi.

58

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

A.Trc nghim Cu 1:.Pht biu no sau y l ng: 1. Ch c ht nhn nguyn t canxi mi c 20 proton 2. S khi A l khi lng tuyt i ca nguyn t 3. Khng c nguyn t no c lp ngoi cng nhiu hn 8 e 4. Tt c cc nguyn t c 5 e ngoi cng u l phi kim Cu 2: Nguyn t 27 X c cu hnh e l: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p1 . Ht nhn nguyn t X l A. 14 proton B. 13 notron C. 14 proton v 13 electron D. 14 proton v 13 notron Cu 3: Nguyn t M c cu hnh e phn lp ngoi cng l 3p 6. Cu hnh e y ca M l: A. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p6 B. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3p6 4s2 C. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p5 D. Tt c u sai Cu 4: Nguyn t nguyn t A c cu hnh e l 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p5. Nguyn t A l: A. Kim loi B. Kh him C. Phi kim Cu 5: S e i a cha trong cc phn lp s, p, d, f ln lt l: A. 2, 4, 6, 8 B. 2, 8, 18, 32 C. 2, 6, 10, 14 D.2, 8, 10, 20 Cu6: Nguyn t X c s hiu nguyn t Z = 13. Cu hnh e ca nguyn t nguyn t X l: A. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p1 B. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s3 C. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s13p3 D. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3p53s2 Cu 7:. Mt s nguyn t c cu hnh e nh sau: 1. 1s2 2s2 2p6 2. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 3. 1s2 2s2 4. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p1 Nguyn t no l nguyn t ca nguyn t p : A. 1, 4 B. 1, 3, 4 C. 2, 3 D. 2, 4 Cu 8: Nguyn t Lu hunh
27 13

Al

1. S e trong nguyn t Al l: A. 13 B. 27 C. 14 D. 40 2. S khi ca nguyn t Al l: A. 13 B. 27 C. 14 D. 40 3. S notron trong nguyn t Al l: A. 13 B. 27 C. 14 D. 40 4. S e lp ngoi cng ca Al l: A. 3 B. 2 C. 6 D. 5 Cu 9: S e ti a c th phn b trn lp N ( n = 3) : A. 2 B. 8 C. 18 D. 32 B. Phn t lun Cu 1: 1. Vit cu hnh e ca cc nguyn t nguyn t sau: N ( Z = 7), Na ( Z = 11 ), S ( Z = 16), Ca ( Z= 40), Fe ( Z = 26) 2. Xc nh cc nguyn t trn l nguyn t s, p, d, f 3. Xc nh cc nguyn t trn nguyn t no l kim loi, kh him, phi kim, gii thch? Cu 2: Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Brom bit rng trong t nhin cc ng 80 81 v ca Brom tn ti theo t l: 35 Br 35 Br

59

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai 50,7% 49,3% Cu 3 : Tnh % ca mi loi n v ca nguyn t liti bit Liti c 2 ng v l : 63 Li. Bit rng nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Liti t nhin l 6,94
7 Li

Cu 4 : Trong mt nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s ht proton, notron v electron l 28. Bit rng s notron bng s proton cng thm mt. Hy xc nh s khi A ca nguyn t nguyn t X, Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t, xc nh xem nguyn t X l phi kim hay l kim loi Cu 5: Vit cu hnh e ca cc nguyn t nguyn t c s hiu nguyn t sau: A ( Z = 16) , B ( Z = 23 ), C ( Z = 20 ) , D (Z = 29) , E (Z = 32) Xc nh cc nguyn t trn l nguyn t s, p hay d Xc nh cc nguyn t trn l kim loi, phi kim hay kh him? Gii thch? Cu 6: Tng s cc ht proton, notron, electron trong nguyn t ca nguyn t X l 58, trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 18. Xc nh s khi ca nguyn t nguyn t X. Cu 7: Hon thnh cc phng trnh phn ng sau: 1. St (III) clorua + Natri hiroxit 3. St + Axit clohiric 2. ng sunfat + Bari clorua 4. Caxi cacbonat + axit sunfuric Cu 8 : Tng s cc ht proton, notron, electron trong nguyn t ca nguyn t X l 13, trong. Xc nh s khi ca nguyn t nguyn t X.

Ngy son : 8 / 10 / 2007 Ngy dy : 16 / 10 / 2007

Tit 13: Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc


A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc Hiu c: - Nguyn tc sp xp cc nguyn t trong bng tun hon. 60

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- Cu to ca bng tun hon: , chu k, nhm nguyn t (nhm A, nhm B) - S cc nguyn t trong mi chu k 2. K nng - T v tr trong bng tun hon ca nguyn t (, nhm, chu k) suy ra cu hnh electron v ngc li. B. Chun b Gio vin: - Hnh v nguyn t. - Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc (dng di). - T liu lch s v bng h thng tun hon, v mt s cc nguyn t. nguyn t. Hc sinh: n li cch vit cu hnh electron nguyn t cc

C. Phng php hot ng ch yu


m thoi gi m v hot ng theo nhm D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc Hot ng 1: *S lc v s pht minh ra bng tun hon GV: Treo bng tun hon v nh chn dung ca ng . I. Men--l-p ln bng ri cho hc sinh nghin cu SGK ( phn ch nh) bit r s lc v s pht minh ra bng tun hon HS: Quan st bng tun hon v c sch gio khoa GV: Gii thiu v ngun gc v tn gi ca mt s nguyn t khc trong bng nh + Mt s nguyn t c gi tn theo mt c tnh no ca mnh nh: Agon, rai, flo, Clo, It, ..... + Mt s tn nguyn t xut x t tn gi ca khong vt nh: Nhm (aluminium), Canxi (Calcium ), .... + Mt s tn nguyn t l tn ca cc v sao nh: Selen (selenium l tn ca Mt tri), Uran ( uranium l tn ca sao Thin Vng )... + Mt s tn nguyn t gn vi tn t quc thn yu ca nh bc hc tm ra chng nh : poloni ( do nh bc hc Mari Quyri pht hin v t tn k nim T quc) Ba Lan.... ........... Gii thiu nhng ci nht trong th gii cc nguyn t ha hc nh: + Kim loi cng nht: Crm ( Cr ) + Kim loi dt mng tt nht: vng ( Au) + Kim loi nh nht: LiTi ( Li ) 61

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

+ Nguyn t t nht: Califoni ( Cf ) + Kh nh nht: Hiro. + Trong v tri t, nguyn t c nhiu nht l oxi. Kim loi c nhiu nht l nhm. + Kim loi c nng chy cao nht l: Vonfram Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung Hot ng 1: nguyn tc sp I. nguyn tc sp xp cc nguyn t xp cc nguyn t trong bng trong bng tun hon tun hon GV : Hot ng tho nhm nh : Cu 1 : Vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t nguyn t sau: Li ( Z=3), C ( Z=6 ), F ( Z = 9), Ne ( Z= 10), Li ( Z=3), Na ( Z=11 ), K ( Z = 19) Cu 2 : Da vo BTH, cu hnh - Cc nguyn t ho hc c xp theo electron, hy nhn xt: + THN ca mt s nguyn t chiu tng dn ca in tch ht trong cng mt hng ngang, nhn. - Cc nt c cng s lp electron trong trong cng mt ct dc. + S lp electron ca cc nguyn nguyn t c xp thnh mt hng. t trong cng mt hng ngang, - cc nt c cng s electron ho tr trong nguyn t c sp xp thnh trong cng mt ct dc + S e lp ngoi cng ca cc mt ct. nguyn t trong cng mt hng *Electron ho tr l nhng electron c kh nng tham gia hnh thnh lin ngang, trong cng mt ct dc Cu 3: T kt qu trn hy rt kt ho hc. ra nguyn tc xy dng BTH. HS: Sau khi hot ng nhm nh xong ln bng trnh by GV tng kt ri rt ra kt lun v nguyn tc sp xp cc nguyn t trong bng tun hon II. cu to bng tun hon 1. nguyn t Mi nguyn t ho hc c xp vo mt ca bng gi l nguyn t. S th t ca nguyn t = s in Hot ng 3: nguyn t tch ht nhn = tng s proton = GV: treo hnh v nguyn t tng s electron. Da vo s nguyn t, hy nhn xt v thnh phn nguyn t. VD: Fe 26 62

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

GV nhn mnh nhng thnh phn khng th thiu trong mt nt nh k hiu ho hc, s hiu nguyn t, NTKTB, tn nt. GV: Chn mt s trong 20 nguyn t u bng tun hon ri yu cu hc sinh nhn vo trnh by cc thng tin m HS thu nhn c ? Xc nh s hiu nguyn t, s p, s e, in tch ht nhn ca nguyn t nguyn t Ca. Hot ng 4: Chu k GV : Mi hng ngang l mt chu k, da vo ntc sp xp hy nu nh ngha chu k?

in tch ht nhn = 26+ S hiu nguyn t Z = 26 S p = s e = 26

2. Chu k a. nh ngha (SGK- tr.37) Chu k l dy cc nguyn t, m nguyn t ca chng c s lp electron, c sp xp theo chiu in tch ht nhn tng dn. S th t ca chu k = s lp electron trong nguyn t.

Cl ( Z = 17 ) ? Xc nh Clo (Z = 17) chu Cu hnh electron: 1s22s22p63s23p5 k s my? gii thch ? Clo thuc chu k 3 v nguyn t ca nguyn t clo c 3 lp electron. b. Gii thiu cc chu k GV yu cu HS da vo BTH cho bit: c bao nhiu chu k? Hy nhn xt s lng cc nguyn t trong mi chu k. GV: Chu k 1 c bao nhiu nguyn t? M u l nguyn t no? Kt thc l nguyn t no? c bao nhiu lp e? mi lp c bao nhiu e? - Chu k 1: 1s1-2 :gm 2 nt H(Z=1) n He(Z=2). Nguyn t ca nhuyn t ny c ch c 1 lp e. l lp K - Chu k 2: 2s1-2 2p1- gm 8 nt Li(Z=3) n Ne(Z=18) - Chu k 3 : 3s1-2 3p1-6 Na(Z=11) n Ar(Z=18) gm 8 nt

- Chu k 4 : 4s1-2 3d1-10 4p1-6 gm 18 nt K(Z=19) n Kr(Z=36) - Chu k 5 : 5s1-2 4d1-10 5p1-6 gm 18 GV: Hi tng t vi chu k 2, nt Rb(Z=37) n Xe(Z=54) 3,4, 5, 6 - Chu k 6: 6s1-2 4f 1-14 5d1-10 6p1-6 gm 32 nt Cs(Z=55) n Rn (Z=86) 63

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

GV: Chu k 7 cha hon thin d on c 32 nguyn t tng t Chu k 7: Bt u t nguyn t Fr chu k 6 (Z=87), y l mt chu k cha y . c. Phn loi chu k - Chu k 1, 2, 3 l cc chu k nh. - Chu k 4, 5, 6, 7 l cc chu k ln. NX: - Cc nt trong cng CK c s lp electron bng nhau v bng STT ca CK. - M u chu k l kim loi kim, gn cui chu k l halogen (tr CK 1); cui Ck l kh him. - Di bng c 2 h nt: Lantan v Actini.

Chn mi chu k mt nt ng u tin, mt nt ng gn cui v mt nt ng cui cng yu cu HS vit cu hnh electron nt ca chng ri yu cu HS nhn xt: S lp electron, nt no l kim loi, phi kim hay kh him. GV hng dn HS rt ra nhn xt:

D.Cng c - Gio vin cng hc sinh nhc li cc kin thc c bn trng tm ca bi. - Xc nh chu k ca cc nguyn t sau trong bng h thng tun hon. Cl ( Z = 17) , Fe ( Z = 26 ), Cu ( Z = 29 ). -Lm cc bi tp s 1, 2, 3, 4 trong sch gio khoa E.Dn d Bi tp v nh. - Lm bi tp v nh ( SGK ). - Hc sinh c v chun b bi nh. +Th no l nhm, phn nhm, cch xc nh phn nhm, s th t ca nhm. + Cc nguyn t thuc phn nhm chnh nhm I, phn nhm chnh nhm VII, nhm IIX. Cu 1 : 1. Vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t nguyn t sau: Li ( Z=3), C ( Z=6 ), F ( Z = 9), Ne ( Z= 10), Li ( Z=3), Na ( Z=11 ), K ( Z = 19) 2. Da vo BTH, cu hnh electron, hy nhn xt: + THN ca mt s nguyn t trong cng mt hng ngang, trong cng mt ct dc. 64

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

+ S lp electron ca cc nguyn t trong cng mt hng ngang, trong cng mt ct dc + S e lp ngoi cng ca cc nguyn t trong cng mt hng ngang, trong cng mt ct dc 3. T kt qu trn hy rt ra nguyn tc xy dng BTH Cu 2 : 1. Mi hng ngang l mt chu k, da vo ntc sp xp hy nu nh ngha chu k? Xc nh Clo (Z = 17) chu k s my? gii thch ? 2. Chu k 1 c bao nhiu nguyn t? M u l nguyn t no? Kt thc l nguyn t no? c bao nhiu lp e? mi lp c bao nhiu e? tng t vi chu k 2, 3,4, 5, 6

Ngy son : 12 / 10 / 2007 Ngy dy : 18 / 10 / 2007

Tit 14: Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc


( Tit 2) A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc Hiu c: -Tip tc nghin cu bng tun hon: Nhm nguyn t 65

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

-Da vo cu hnh e ca nguyn t nguyn t kt lun nguyn t thuc nhm A hay nhm B 2. K nng Rn luyn k nng vit cu hnh e v xc nh nguyn t s , p, d , f,xc nh s e lp ngoi cng B. Chun b Gio vin: - Hnh v nguyn t. - Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc (dng di). - T liu lch s v bng h thng tun hon, v mt s cc nguyn t. Hc sinh: n li cch vit cu hnh electron nguyn t cc nguyn t, chu k C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu1: Nu cc nguyn tc sp xp cc nguyn t trong bng h thng tun hon. Th no l chu k? S lng nguyn t mi chu k? Cu 2: Vit cu hnh electron, xc nh chu k v s electron lp ngoi cng, s electron ho tr ca cc nguyn t nguyn t sau: Ca ( Z = 20 ), P ( Z = 15 ), V ( Z = 23 ), Cr ( Z = 24 ) 3. Thit k cc hot ng d v hc Hot ng ca c v tr Hot ng 5: Nhm nguyn t Da vo kt qu ca phn kim tra bi c. ? So snh cu hnh e, s e ho tr. S e lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t nguyn t P v V. ? P v V u c xp vo nhm V. Vy nhng nguyn t nh th no c xp vo cng mt nhm. ni dung 3. Nhm nguyn t P ( Z = 15 ): 1s22s22p63s23p3 V ( Z = 23 ) 2 2 6 2 6 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d34s2 Nguyn t ca nguyn t P c 5 electron lp ngoi cng, c 5 electron ha tr. Nguyn t ca nguyn t V c 2 electron, c 5 electron ho tr. a. N (SGK): Nhm l tp hp cc nguyn t c xp thnh mt ct, gm cc nguyn t m nguyn t c cu hnh electron tng t nhau, c TCHH gn ging nhau. 66

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Nguyn t cc nguyn t trong cng ?Cc nhm nguyn t c chia mt nhm c s electron ho tr bng thnh my loi? nhau v bng STT nhm (tr mt s ? C bao nhiu nhm A, c t ngoi l). im cu to nt cc nt nhm A. b. Phn loi theo nhm : - Nhm A ( PNC): gm 8 nhm t IA ? Cch xc nh s th t ca VIIIA: Gm cc nguyn t m nguyn nhm A t ca chng c e cui cng in phn lp s, p. S electron ho tr bng s electron VD: Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn lp ngoi cng = s th t ca nhm. (c cha cc nguyn t s v p) t Ca ( Z = 20) v cho bit v tr ca nguyn t trong bng tun hon ( , chu k, nhm) Ca ( Z = 20 ) 1s22s22p63s23p63d04s2 Thuc th 20 v nguyn t nguyn t Ca c s hiu nguyn t l 20 Ca thuc chu k 4 v nguyn t ca Gi hc sinh trnh by nguyn t Ca c 4 lp electron. Ca thuc nhm IIA v nguyn t nguyn t Ca c e cui cng in vo phn lp s v c 2 e ho tr ? C bao nhiu nhm B, c im cu to nt cc nt nhm B. Cc nguyn t nhm B bao gm nhng nguyn t d, f. y ta ch gii hn xc nh STT nhm B ca cc nguyn t d ? Cch xc nh s th t ca nhm B - Nhm B (PNP): gm 8 nhm t IB VIIIB (mi nhm l mt ct, ring nhm VIIIB c 3 ct) : Gm cc nguyn t m nguyn t ca chng c e cui cng in phn lp d, f. Cc nguyn t nhm B gm cc nguyn t chuyn tip Cu hnh e ho tr ca nguyn t d l: ( n-1) da 4sb Nu a + b < 8: PNP nhm a + b Nu a + b = 8, 9, 10: PNP nhm VIII Nu a + b > 10 : PNP nhm a + b 10 VD: Fe ( Z = 26) 1s22s22p63s23p63d6 4s2 Thuc th 26 v nguyn t nguyn 67

VD: Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t Fe ( Z = 26) v cho bit v tr ca nguyn t trong bng tun hon ( , chu k, nhm)

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

t Fe c s hiu nguyn t l 26 Fe thuc chu k 4 v nguyn t ca nguyn t Fe c 4 lp electron. Fe Thuc nhm VIIIB v nguyn t nguyn t Fe c e cui cng in phn lp d v c 8 e ho tr. Ch : 2 6 10 14 GV: Phn lp 3d9, 3d4 ch thiu Cu hnh bo ho: s , p 1, d 3 , f 5 7 Cu hnh bn bo ho: s , p , d , f mt e l t phn lp bo ho, bn bo ho bn vng do d 1 e L cc cu hnh e bn vng phn lp 4s2 s nhy vo V vy 3 d9 4s2 3 d10 4s1 to hin tng bo ho gp hau bn 3 d4 4s2 3 d5 4s1 bo ho gp. VD: Cu ( Z = 29 ) VD: Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t Cu ( Z = 29) v cho bit v tr Thuc th 29 v nguyn t nguyn ca nguyn t trong bng tun t Cu c s hiu nguyn t l 29 hon ( , chu k, nhm) Cu thuc chu k 4 v nguyn t ca nguyn t Cu c 4 lp electron. Cu Thuc nhm IB v nguyn t nguyn t Cu c e cui cng in phn lp d v c 1 e ho tr. Phn loi theo khi : Khi cc nguyn t s gm cc nguyn t nhm IA v IIA
VD1: 3s1
11

1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1

Na l nt s nhm IA :1s2 2s2 2p6

Th no l nguyn t s, p, d, f? Xc nh cc nguyn t s, p, d, f nm cc nhm no trong bng tun hon

Khi cc nguyn t p gm cc nguyn t cc nhm t IIIA v VIIIA (tr He)


VD2:
16

S l nt p nhm VIA: 1s2 2s2 2p6

3s23p4

Khi cc nguyn t d gm cc nguyn t thuc cc nhm B VD2 : 26 Fe: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d6

4s2

Khi cc nguyn t f gm cc nguyn 68

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

t thuc cc nhm B, xp thnh 2 hng cui bng, chng l hai h Lantan Hot ng 5: Cng c bi Bi 1: Nguyn t X c phn lp e ngoi cng l 3p 4 . Hy ch ra iu sai khi ni v nguyn t X: a. Ht nhn nguyn t X c 16 p b. Lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t X c 6e c. Trong bng tun hon X nm chu k 3. d. Trong bng tun hon X nm nhm IVA e. X l mt nguyn t phi kim. Bi 2: Hy ch ra cu tr li ng: p s: c ng Cation R+ c cu hnh electron phn lp ngi cng l 2p6. V tr ca ca R trong BTH l: a. Chu k 2, nhm VIA. b. Chu k 2, nhm VIII A. c. Chu k 3, nhm IA. d. Chu k 2 nhm VIB. e. Tt c u sai Bi 3: Mt nt chu k 3, nhm VI ca BTH. Hi: a. Nguyn t ca nguyn t c bao nhiu electron lp ngoi cng? Gii thch. b. Cc electron ngoi cng nm lp th my? Gii thch. c. Vit cu hnh electron nguyn t ca nt . Tr li: a. Nguyn t c 6 electron lp ngoi cng, thuc nhm VIA v chu k 3 gm cc nt nhm A, STT nhm = s electron ngoi cng. b. Cc electron ngoi cng nm lp th ba, v nt thuc chu k 3 c 3 lp electron, lp ngoi cng l lp th 3. c. Cu hnh electron nguyn t : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3p4 Bi 4: Vit cu hnh electron nguyn t ca cc nguyn t c Z =12; Z = 23, Z=24, xc nh v tr ca nt trong BTH. Bi 5: I on X-, Y2+ c cu hnh e lp ngoi cng l 3s 2 3p6. Xc nh v tr ca X, Y trong bng HTTH. E.Dn d Bi tp v nh. - Lm bi tp v nh ( SGK ). sch bi tp - Hc sinh c v chun b bi nh.

69

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son : 15 / 10 / 2007 Ngy dy : 23 / 10 / 2007

Tit 15: S bin i tun hon cu hnh electron ca nguyn t cc nguyn t ho hc


A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc Hiu c: - c im cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t nhm A; - S bin i tun hon cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t khi s in tch ht nhn tng dn chnh l nguyn nhn ca s bin i tun hon tnh cht ca cc nguyn t. 2. K nng - Da vo cu hnh electron ca nguyn t, suy ra cu to nguyn t, c im cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng. - Da vo cu hnh electron, xc nh nguyn t s, p.B. Chun b Gio vin: - Bng cu hnh e lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t nguyn t nhm A ( bng 5 sgk) - Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc (dng di). Hc sinh: n li cch vit cu hnh electron nguyn t cc nguyn t. Cch xc nh v tr ca c nguyn t trong bng tun hon. C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, Nghin cu, Nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh

D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu1: Lm cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa: ( 4, 5, 6, 7) Cu 2: Xc nh v tr ca cc nguyn t sau trong bng tun hon: Na ( Z = 11 ), Cl ( Z = 17 ), Ca ( Z = 20 ), Fe ( Z = 26 ) 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : 70

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hot ng ca c v tr Hot ng 1: Gv treo bng cu hnh e lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t nhm A ? Nhn xt v s bin thin ca s e lp ngoi cng ca ngt cc nguyn t trong cc nhm A mi chu k. HS: Lp i lp li , s bin i mt cch tun hon. ? Cch xc nh s th t ca nhm ca ngt cc nguyn t trong cc nhm A. HS: S th t ca cc nguyn t trong nhm A = s e lp ngoi cng. GV b xung: ? Cho bit nguyn nhn ca s bin i tun hon tnh cht ca cc nguyn t ?

ni dung I. S bin i tun hon cu hnh e nguyn t ca cc nguyn t

Cu hnh e lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t trong cng mt nhm A c lp i lp li sau mi chu k. Chng bin i mt cch tun hon.

S bin i tun hon v cu hnh electron nguyn t cc nguyn t chnh l nguyn nhn ca s bin i tun hon v tnh cht ca cc nt. II. Cu hnh e nguyn t ca cc nguyn t nhm A. 1.Cu hnh e lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t nhm A.

Hot ng 2: GV hng dn hc sinh quan st bng 5 trong sgk tr li cc cu hi: ? Hy nhn xt v s e lp ngoi cng ca cc nguyn t thuc cc nguyn t trong cng mt nhm A. HS: Trong cng mt nhm A cc nguyn t ca nguyn t c cng s e lp ngoi cng ( cng e ho tr) ? Vit cu hnh e lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t nhm A thuc chy k n? v ch ra s e lp ngoi cng? Xc nh s th t ca nhm.

Trong cng mt nhm A cc nguyn t ca nguyn t c cng s e lp ngoi cng ( cng e ho tr) Cu hnh e lp ngoi cng ca cc nguyn t thuc nhm A l: nsa npb STT ca nhm A = s e lp ngoi cng =a+b

Cc nguyn t thuc 2 nhm IA, IIA l nguyn t s 71

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Cc nguyn t thuc nhm IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA VIIIA thuc nguyn t p HS: Tr li v ghi vo v GV: Xc nh cc nguyn t thuc nhm IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA thuc nguyn t no?

Hot ng 3: hng dn hc sinh lm cc bi tp cng c lun : ba 1, 2, 3 trong sgk ( 41) Bi 1:C Bi 2: C Bi 3: Hot ng 4: Chia nhm nh thnh 6 nhm: 2 nhm lm vic cng mt ni dung ( troa i trong 10 pht) Nhm 1,2: Cc nguyn t thuc nhm VIIIA gm cc nguyn t no? C bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng. Vit cu hnh e lp ngoi cng dng tng qut.? Cc nguyn t thuc nhm VIIIA c tham gia vo cc phn ng ha hc khng? ti sao? nhit thng n trng thi no?

2. Mt s nhm A tiu biu. a. Nhm VIIIA l nhm kh him Gm He, Ne, , Kr, Xe, Rn u c 8 e lp ngoi cng Cu hnh ns2 np6 ( tr He) Hu ht cc kh him u khng tham gia phn ng ho hc iu kin thng, cc kh him u trng thi kh v phn t ch gm mt nguyn t

Nhm 3,4: Cc nguyn t thuc nhm IA gm cc nguyn t no? C bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng. Vit cu hnh e lp ngoi cng dng tng qut.? Cc nguyn t thuc nhm IA c

b. Nhm IA l nhm kim loi kim: Gm cc nguyn t: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr C 1 e lp ngoi cng Cu hnh ns1 Trong cc phn ng ho hc cc klk c khuynh hng nhng i 1 e t ti cu hnh e bn vng ca kh him M 1e M+ Klk c mt s tnh cht ho hc sau: - Tc dng vi oxi 4M + O2 2M2O - Tc dng vi nc to thnh baz mnh 72

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

tham gia vo cc phn ng ha hc khng? tham gia bng cch nh th no? Nu mt s tnh cht ho hc c bn ca kim loi km, vit pTPU minh hc

Nhm 5, 6: Cc nguyn t thuc nhm IA gm cc nguyn t no? C bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng. Vit cu hnh e lp ngoi cng dng tng qut.? Cc nguyn t thuc nhm IA c tham gia vo cc phn ng ha hc khng? tham gia bng cch nh th no? Nu mt s tnh cht ho hc c bn ca ki, loi km, vit pTPU minh hc Hot ng 5: 3 nhm 3 ni dung khc nhau ln trnh by, cc nhm khc b xung.

2M +2 H2O 2MOH + H2 - Tc dng vi phi kim khc to mui 2M + Cl2 2MCl - Tc dng vi axit HCl, H2SO4 long 2M + 2HCl 2 MCl + H2 c. Nhm VIIA l nhm halogen Gm cc nguyn t: flo, clo, brom, iot, atatin C 7 e lp ngoi cng: ns2np5 Trong cc phn ng ho hc cc hlg c khuynh hng nhn thm 1 e t ti cu hnh e bn vng ca kh him X + 1e XPhn t hlg gm 2 nguyn t: F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 (X2) Tnh cht ha hc c bn: - Tc dng vi kim loi: 2Al + 3Cl2 2AlCl3 -T c dng vi H2 to KH HX: HF, HCl, HBr, HI tan rong nc to axit -cc hiroxit ca cc hlg l cc axit: HClO, HClO3

Hot ng 6: Cng c: Bi 1: Mt nt chu k 3, nhm VI ca BTH. Hi: ( Bi 6 sgk) a. Nguyn t ca nguyn t c bao nhiu electron lp ngoi cng? Gii thch. b. Cc electron ngoi cng nm lp th my? Gii thch. c. Vit cu hnh electron nguyn t ca nt . 73

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Tr li: a. Nguyn t c 6 electron lp ngoi cng, thuc nhm VIA v chu k 3 gm cc nt nhm A, STT nhm = s electron ngoi cng. b. Cc electron ngoi cng nm lp th ba, v nt thuc chu k 3 c 3 lp electron, lp ngoi cng l lp th 3. c. Cu hnh electron nguyn t : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3p4 Bi 2: Mt nt chu k 3, nhm V ca BTH. Hi: a. Nguyn t ca nguyn t c bao nhiu electron lp ngoi cng? Gii thch.

b. Ng.t ca ng.t c bao nhiu lp e? Gii thch.


c. Vit cu hnh electron nguyn t ca nt . d. Vit c.hnh e ng.t ca ng.t cng nhm, thuc 2 chu k lin tip (trn v di vi nguyn t ) Tr li: a. Nguyn t c 6 electron lp ngoi cng, thuc nhm VA v chu k 3 gm cc nt nhm A, STT nhm = s electron ngoi cng. b. Nguyn t ca nguyn t c 3 lp electron v nt thuc chu k 3. c. Cu hnh electron nguyn t : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 d. Nguyn t nhm VA, chu k 2: 1s2 2s2 2p3 Nguyn t nhm VA, chu k 4: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p63d104s24p3 Bi 7 (SGK) E.Dn d Bi tp v nh. Lm cc bi tp trong sch bi tp:, c trc bi mi Nhm 1,2: Cc nguyn t thuc nhm VIIIA gm cc nguyn t no? C bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng. Vit cu hnh e lp ngoi cng dng tng qut.? Cc nguyn t thuc nhm VIIIA c tham gia vo cc phn ng ha hc khng? ti sao? nhit thng n trng thi no? Nhm 3,4: Cc nguyn t thuc nhm IA gm cc nguyn t no? C bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng. Vit cu hnh e lp ngoi cng dng tng qut.? Cc nguyn t thuc nhm IA c tham gia vo cc phn ng ha hc khng? tham gia bng cch nh th no? Nu mt s tnh cht ho hc c bn ca kim loi km, vit pTPU minh hc Bi 1: Mt nt chu k 3, nhm V ca BTH. Hi: a. Nguyn t ca nguyn t c bao nhiu electron lp ngoi cng? Gii thch.

b. Ng.t ca ng.t c bao nhiu lp e? Gii thch.


c. Vit cu hnh electron nguyn t ca nt . 74

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

d. Vit c.hnh e ng.t ca ng.t cng nhm, thuc 2 chu k lin tip (trn v di vi nguyn t ) Nhm 1,2: Cc nguyn t thuc nhm VIIIA gm cc nguyn t no? C bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng. Vit cu hnh e lp ngoi cng dng tng qut.? Cc nguyn t thuc nhm VIIIA c tham gia vo cc phn ng ha hc khng? ti sao? nhit thng n trng thi no? Nhm 3,4: Cc nguyn t thuc nhm IA gm cc nguyn t no? C bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng. Vit cu hnh e lp ngoi cng dng tng qut.? Cc nguyn t thuc nhm IA c tham gia vo cc phn ng ha hc khng? tham gia bng cch nh th no? Nu mt s tnh cht ho hc c bn ca kim loi km, vit pTPU minh hc Nhm 5, 6: Cc nguyn t thuc nhm IA gm cc nguyn t no? C bao nhiu e lp ngoi cng. Vit cu hnh e lp ngoi cng dng tng qut.? Cc nguyn t thuc nhm IA c tham gia vo cc phn ng ha hc khng? tham gia bng cch nh th no? Nu mt s tnh cht ho hc c bn ca ki, loi km, vit pTPU minh hc Bi 1: Mt nt chu k 3, nhm V ca BTH. Hi: a. Nguyn t ca nguyn t c bao nhiu electron lp ngoi cng? Gii thch.

b. Ng.t ca ng.t c bao nhiu lp e? Gii thch.


c. Vit cu hnh electron nguyn t ca nt . d. Vit c.hnh e ng.t ca ng.t cng nhm, thuc 2 chu k lin tip (trn v di vi nguyn t )

Ngy son : Ngy dy :

Tit 18: ngha ca bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc


A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc 75

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hiu c: Hiu c mi quan h gia v tr ca mt nguyn t trong bng tun hon, cu to nguyn t v tnh cht ca nguyn t, n cht, hp cht ca chng. 2. K nng HS c rn luyn k nng gii cc bi tp c lin quan n bng tun hon. Bit khai thc vn dng mi quan h gii cc bi tp B. Chun b Gio vin: Bng tun hon, bng 7, 8 sch gio khoa, chun b h thng cu hi Hc sinh: n tp tit trc v gii cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Kim tra bi c trong qu trnh hc bi mi 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr Hot ng1 : GV t vn : Bit v tr ca mt nguyn t trong bng tun hon, c th suy ra cu to nguyn t ca nguyn t wocj khong ? V ngc li ? V d 1 : Bit nguyn t K c s th t l 19 thuc chu k 4, nhm IA. Hy cho bit cc thng tin v cu to nguyn t K HS : Tho lun nhm nh 3 pht HS : Trnh by phng hng gii quyt ni dung I. Quan h gia v tr ca nguyn t v cu to nguyn t ca n

V d 1 : Bit nguyn t K c s th t l 19 thuc chu k 4, nhm IA. Hy cho bit cc thng tin v cu to nguyn t K

S th t 19 S hiu nguyn t 19 76

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- Bit s th t ca nguyn t th suy ra c s n v in tch ht nhn, tng s e, tng s p - Bit s th t ca chu k th suy ra s lp e trong nguyn t - Bit s th t ca nhm A th suy ra c s e lp ngoi cng. HS : Ln bng trnh by

Hot ng 2 : Lm v d 2 : V hy so snh dng bi tp th d 1 v th d 2 HS : hot ng theo nhm nh HS : trnh by phng hng gii quyt HS : Ln gii quyt cc vn GV : Hng dn Tng s e cho bit cc thng tin g v X Nguyn t X c e cui cng in vo phn lp p cho bit thng tin g ? C 6 e lp ngoi cng v c 3 lp * Mi quan h gia v tr v cu to e cho bit iu g ? nguyn t Hot ng 3 : gi 2 hc sinh ln bng lm 2 v d sau : v tr nguyn t Cu to nguyn VD3 : Nguyn t X thuc chu k t 3, nhm VA. 1.vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t - S th t ca - S p, e nguyen t X 2.Cho bit in tch ht nhn - S th t ca - S lp e chu k ca X VD4 :Nguyn t X c s hiu - S th t ca - S e lp ngoi nguyn t l 20. Hy vit cu nhm A cng hnh e v xc nh v tr ca - Cu hnh e nguyn t X trong bng tun hon. Hot ng 4 : GV tng kt mi 77

(Z = 19) c 19 p v 19e Chu k 4 Nguyn t ca nguyn t K c 4 lp e Nhm IA Nguyn t ca nguyn t K c 1 e lp ngoi cng Cu hnh e ca nguyn t K 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 V d 2 : Cho cu hnh e ca nguyn t X l 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4. Xc nh v tr ca nguyn t X trong bng tun hon. Gii Nguyn t X c cu hnh e : 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 C tng s e l 16 S th t ca nghuyn t X l 16 Thuc chu k 3 v nguyn t nguyn t X c 3 lp e Thuc nhm VIA v nguyn t nguyn t X c e cui cng in vo phn lp p v c 6 e ho tr

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

quan h gia v tr v cu to theo s cm v yu cu hc II. Quan h gia v tr v tnh cht sinh in thng tin v cc v tr v cu to Bit v tr ca mt nguyn t trong v tr nguyn Cu to nguyn bng tun hon c th suy ra c t t - Nguyn t c tnh kim loi hay phi kim - Ho tr cao nht ca nguyn t vi oxi Hot dng 5 : GV t vn : Bit v tr ca - Cng thc oxit cao nht v hiroxit mt nguyn t trong bng tun tng ng hon c th suy ra c tnh cht -oxit v hiroxit c tnh axit hay ho hc c bn ca n c baz khng ? - Cng thc hp cht kh vi hiro Hs tho lun sau da ra nhn nu c xt ca mnh : V d1 : Bit nguyn t S th 16 GV tng kt v hc sinh ghi vo trong bng tun hon. T suy ra v c nhng tnh cht g ca n ? Gii : GV yu cu hc sinh vn dng 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4. vo d gii quyt v d sau S chu k 3 nhm VI A l phi kim Bit nguyn t S th 16 trong - Ho tr cao nht vi oxi l 6 bng tun hon. T suy ra -Cng thc oxit cao nht l SO3 c nhng tnh cht g ca n ? - Cng thc hiroxit tng ng l HS ; Chun b 2 pht ri ln bng H2SO4 trnh by - Oxit v hiroxit l axit mnh - Ho tr ca nguyn t trong hp cht kh vi hiro l 2. Cng th hirit l H2S III. So snh tnh cht ho hc ca mt nguyn t vi cc nguyn t ln cn

Hot ng 5 : GV t vn : Da vo quy lut bin i tnh cht ca cc Trong cng mt chu k theo chiu nguyn t trong bng tun hon, tng dn ca in tch ht nhn th 78

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

ta c th so snh tnh cht ho hc ca mt nguyn t vi cc nguyn t ln cn c khng ? HS : Tho lun v a ra kin ca mnh GV : Trnh by quy lut bin i tnh cht ca cc nguyn t trong cng mt chy k v trong mt nhm A HS ; trong cng mt chu k theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn Th tnh kim loi gim dn, tnh phi kim mnh dn, oxit v hiroxit c tnh ba z yu dn v tnh axit mnh dn trong cng mt nhm A theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn Th tnh kim loi mnh dn, tnh phi kim gim dn, oxit v hiroxit c tnh axit yu dn v tnh baz mnh dn VD : So snh tch cht ho hc ca P, Si, S. V Li. Na, K, Cs HS ; lm v d

tnh kim loi gim dn, tnh phi kim mnh dn, oxit v hiroxit c tnh ba z yu dn v tnh axit mnh dn Trong cng mt nhm A theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn th tnh kim loi mnh dn, tnh phi kim gim dn, oxit v hiroxit c tnh axit yu dn v tnh baz mnh d

Cc nguyn t Si, P, S thuc cng mt chu k c Z tng dn theo dy. Trong cng mt chu k theo chiu thn tng dn th tnh kl gim dn v tnh phi kim tang dn nn tnn phi kim tng dn Si - P - S Trong cng mt nhm A theo chiu tn dn in tch ht nhn tnh kl tng dn. Tnh kim loi tng dn theo chiu : Li Na K - Cs

D. Cng c dn d

GV cng c ton bi v nhn mnh png hng giI quyt ba vn - Quan h gia v tr ca nguyn t v cu to nguyn t - Quan h gia v tr v tnh cht ca nguyn t - So snh tnh cht ho hc ca mt nguyn t vi cc nguyn t ln cn
E. Dn d Bi tp v nh.

Lm cc bi tp trong sch bi tp:, c trc bi mi Ngy son : Ngy dy : 79

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Tit 15: S bin i tun hon tnh cht ca cc nguyn t ho hc. nh lut tun hon
A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc Hiu c: -Th no l tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim ca cc nguyn t. S bin i tun hon tnh kim loi v tnh phi kim. -Khi nim v m in, s bin i tun hon m in. 2. K nng Da vo quy lut bin i tun hon vn dng cho cc chu k v nhm A c th. Da vo qui lut chung, suy on c s bin thin tnh cht c bn trong chu k ( nhm A) c th B. Chun b Gio vin: Bng 2.4; 2.5 Hc sinh: n k bi 11 S bin i tun hon tnh cht cc nguyn t C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, Nghin cu, Nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu1: Lm bi s 1, 2, 3, 4 trong sch gio khoa Cu 2: Lm bi 6, 7 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc :

80

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hot ng ca c v tr

ni dung

I. Tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim Hot ng 1 : Tnh kim loi, tnh *. Tnh kim loi (SGK) phi kim M Mn+ + ne GV yu cu HS tm hiu SGK: ? Cho bit c trng ca tnh KL? ? So snh tnh kim loi ca kim loi Na, Mg, Al ? Gii thch

? Cho bit c trng ca tnh PK? ? So snh tnh phi kim ca ca cc nguyn t sau : F, O2 N2 Gii thch ? GV : lu khng c ranh gii r rt gia tnh KL v PK v hd hs ng phn cch giua pk v kl HS : s dng bng tun hon nghin cu v tho lun cc cu 1. S bin i tnh cht trong mt hi sau : chu k GV yu cu HS tm hiu SGK: GV : Hy cho bit: chu k 3, ng.t no c tnh KL mnh nht? c tnh PK mnh nht? GV : Trong mi chu k ca bng tun hon tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim bin i nh th no theo chiu tng in tch ht nhn HS : Tr li v ghi vo v GV : cho hc sinh tho lun v tng kt li kt lun : HS : ghi vo v HS : quan st bng bn knh nguyn t ca mt s nguyn t v nhn xt bn knh nguyn t

Na Na+ + 1e Al Al3+ + 3e Tnh KL c c trng bng kh nng ca nguyn t nguyn t d nhng e tr thnh ion dng. -Nt cng d nhng e tnh KL cng mnh * Tnh phi kim: (SGK) X + ne XnF + 1e FO + 2e O2Tnh PK c c trng bng kh nng ca nguyn t nguyn t d nhn thm e tr thnh ion m. - Ng.t cng d nhn e tnh PK cng mnh Khng c ranh gii r rt gia tnh KL v PK.

Trong mi chu k theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn, tnh KL ca cc nguyn t gim dn, ng thi tnh PK tng dn.

Gi thch :

Trong mt chu k theo chiu tng ca in tch ht nhn s lp e ca nguyn t cc nguyn t bng nhau, 81

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

bin i nh th no trong mt chy k GV : Khi bn knh nguyn t gim th kh nng nhng hay thu e ca nguyn t tng hay gim ? HS : Bn knh nguyn t gim th kh nng nhng e ca ngt gim v kh nng thu e ca ngt tng. GV : Dng bn kinh nguyn t gii thch quy lut bin i tnh kl, tnh pk HS : nghe v hiu v ghi kt lun. GV : Dng bng 2.1 trong sch gio khoa hd hc sinh nghin cu v tho lun s bin i tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim trong nhm IA n nhm VIIA GV : Hy cho bit: nhm IA, ng.t no c tnh KL mnh nht? c tnh PK mnh nht? HS : Cs l kim loi mnh nht. Tnh kl gim dn i t trn xung di. GV : Pht biu quy lut bin i KL - PK ca cc ng.t theo chu k v theo nhm? HS : Pht biu , gv tng kt li GV : Da vo bn knh nguyn t ca cc nguyn t trong mt nhm A hy gii thch quy lut bin i tnh kl tnh pk trong mt nhm A HS : gii thch GV : Tng kt li GV : Nhn vo bng tun hon v da vo quy lut bin i tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim hy

s e lp ngoi cng tng dn Lc ht ca e lp ngoi cng vi ht nhn tng ln bn knh nguyn t gin dn kh nng nhng e ca nguyn t gim, kh nng thu e ca nguyn t tng nn tnh kim loi gim dn v tnh phi kim tng dn.

2. S bin i tnh cht trong mt nhm A.

Trong mt nhm A, theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn, tnh KL ca cc nguyn t tng dn, ng thi tnh PK gim dn.

Gii thch : Trong mt nhm A theo chiu tng ca in tch ht nhn s lp e ca nguyn t cc nguyn t tng nhanh, s e lp ngoi cng bng nhau bn knh nguyn t ca cc nguyn t tng nhanh kh nng nhng e ca nguyn t tng, kh nng thu e ca nguyn t gim nn tnh kim loi gim dn v tnh phi kim tng dn. KL mnh nht : Cs Khi kim mnh nht : Flo

82

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

cho bit kim loa no mnh nht Kt lun: (SGK) Tnh KL -PK bin i tun hon v phi kim no mnh nht ? theo chiu tng dn ca in tch HS : Tr li v ghi vo v ht nhn.
III. m in

1. Khi nim (SGK) m in ca mt nguyn t c HS nghin cu sgk trng cho kh nng ht electron ca GV : m in nh hng nh nguyn t nguyn t trong phn th no n tnh kim loi tnh t. khi kim HS : m in ca mt nguyn t cangf ln th tnh phi kim ca n cng mnh v ngc li GV v hs dng bng trong sgk tho lun v s bin i m in theo chiu in tch ht nhn tng dn. GV : gii thiu trong ho hc c nhiu thang m in khc nhau do cc tc gi tnh ton trn cc c s khc nhau : Trong sgk l bng gi tr m in do nh bc hc Pau linh thit lp nm 1932. V nguyn t flo l phi kim mnh nht, Pau linh quy c ly m in ca n lm chun xc nh m in tng i ca cc nguyn t cc nguyn t khc. GV : Nhn v bng gi tr a hy nhn xt v s bin i m in theo chu k v theo nhm A 2. Bng m in:

Trong mt chu k, theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn th gi tr m in ca cc nguyn t ni chung tng dn. - Trong mt nhm A, theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn th gi tr m in ca cc nguyn t ni chung gim dn. Kt lun: Vy m in ca cc nguyn t bin i tun hon theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn 83

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Quy lut bin i m in ph GV : Quy lut bin i m hp vi s bin i tnh kim loi, in c ph hp vi quy lut bin tnh phi kim ca cc nguyn t i tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim ca cc nguyn t trong mt chu k v trong mt nhm HS : tr li v ghi vo v D.Cng c Th no l tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim. Nu quy lut bin i tnh kim loi tnh phi kim trong mt chu k, trong mt nhm A. Gioi thch ? Lm bi 1, 2 trong sgk E.Dn d Bi tp v nh. Lm cc bi tp trong sch bi tp:, c trc bi mi

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 16: S bin i tun hon tnh cht ca cc nguyn t ho hc. nh lut tun hon
A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc Hiu c: - Hiu c s bin i tun hon ho tr cao nht vi oxi ca nguyn t trong oxit v ho tr trong hp cht kh vi hiro -S bin i tnh cht oxit v hiroxit ca cc nguyn t nhm A. Trn c s hiu c nh lut tun hon. 2. K nng - Da vo quy lut bin i tun hon vn dng cho cc chu k v nhm A c th. - Da vo qui lut chung, suy on c s bin thin tnh cht c bn trong chu k ( nhm A) c th - Rn luyn k nng lm cc bi tp c lin quan 84

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

B. Chun b Gio vin: Bng tun hon, bng 7, 8 sch gio khoa Hc sinh: n tp tit trc v gii cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu1: Th no l tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim. Nu quy kut bin i tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim trong mt chu k, trong mt nhm A Cu 2: Lm bi tp 1, 2, 4, 5, 7. Cu 3: Lm bi 8, 9 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc :

Hot ng ca c v tr Hot ng 1 : Ho tr ca cc nguyn t Gio vin treo bng 7 : S bin i tun hon ho tr ca cc nguyn t hoc cho hs nghin cu trong sgk HS : Quan st GV : S dng phiu hc tp s 1: Cu 1 : Chu k 3 gm cc nguyn t no ? xc nh Cng thc hp cht vi oxi v ho tr cao nht vi oxi ca cc nguyn t. Cu 2 : Xc nh hp cht kh vi hiro v ho tr vi hiro.

ni dung II. Ho tr ca cc nguyn t Bng 7 : ( SGK) S bin i tun hon ho tr ca cc nguyn t

Quy lut : Trong 1 chu k: theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn th ho tr cao nht vi oxi tng ln lt t 1 n 7, ho tr vi hiro ca cc PK gim t 4 n1. 85

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Cu 3 : T em pht hin ra quy lut bin i g theo chiu in tch ht nhn tng dn. HS : Tho lun theo nhm v ghi vo v GV : Gi tng em tr li cc cu hi ri i n kt lun : GV : S bin i ho tr ca cc nguyn t trong chu k khc din ra nh th no ? HS : Din ra tng t nh trong chu k 3

Ho tr cao nht ca mt nt vi oxi, ho tr vi hiro bin i tun hon theo chiu tng ca in tch ht nhn.

* Tng ho tr ca mt nguyn t phi kim cao nht vi oxi v ho tr vi hiro l 8 : GV : i vi cc nguyn t phi kim VD : Oxit cao nht ca mt nguyn t l RO3 th tng ho tr co nht ca mt nguyn t vi oxi v vi hiro theo bng tun hon th cng thc hp cht kh vi hiro vi n l RH2 l bo nhiu ? lm v d sau : Oxit cao nht ca mt nguyn t l RO3 theo bng tun hon th cng thc hp cht kh vi hiro vi n l ? III. S bin i tnh axit - baz ca Hot ng 2: S bin i tnh oxit v hiroxit axit - baz ca oxit v hiroxit Nhn bng 8 trong sch gio khoa : S bin i tnh axit tnh baz GV : Nhn vo bng 8 hy cho bit quy lut bin i tnh axit baz ca hp cht oxit v hiroxit ca cc nghuyn t nhm A thuc chu k 3 ? Na2O + H2O 2 NaOH HS : Tnh baz yu dn ng thi tnh axit mnh dn. GV : Na2O l mt oxit c tnh MgO + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2O baz mnh tan tt trong nc to dd baz mnh : HS : Vit ptp 2 AlCl3 + 3 H2O GV : MgO l mt oxit c tnh Al2O3 + 6HCl 86

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

baz yu hn khng tan trong nc m tan trong dd axit to mui v nc. HS : Vit ptp GV : Al2O3 l mt oxit lng tnh va tc dng c vi axit v vi baz HS : Vit ptp GV : SiO2 khng cn th hin tnh bazt na m th hin tnh axit yu tc dng vi baz mnh c HS : Vit ptp GV : P2O5 l mt oxit axit mnh hn SiO2 tan trong nc to axit trung bnh HS : Vit ptp GV : SO3 l mt oxit axit mnh tan trong nc to axit mnh HS : Vit ptp GV : Cl2O7 c tnh axit mnh tan trong nc to axit rt mnh HS : Vit ptp GV : Quy lut bin i c lp i lp li trong mi chu k, Hy pht biu quy lut bin i tnh axit, tnh baz ca cc nguyn t ? HS : Pht bi hnh quy lut ri t ghi vo v GV : Trn c s kho st s bin i tun hon cu cu hnh e nguyn t, bn knh nguyn t m in ca nguyn t, tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim ca cc nguyn t ho hc, thnh phn v tnh cht ca cc nguyn t ho hc bin i theo chiu in tch ht nhn

Al2O3 + 2 NaOH 2 NaAlO2 + H2O

SiO2 + 2 NaOHc +2 H2O

t c Na2SiO3
0

P2O5

+ H2O H3PO4

SO3 + H2O H2SO4

Cl2O7 + H2O 2HClO4

Trong mt chu k i t tri qua phi theo chiu tng ca in tch ht nhn, tnh b ca cc oxit v cc hiroxits tong ng yu dn, ng thi tnh axit ca chng tng dn. IV. nh lut tun hon

nh lut tun hon: SGK Tnh cht ca cc nguyn t cng nh thnh phn v tnh cht ca cc n cht v hp cht to nn t cc nguyn t bin i tun hon theo chiu tng ca in tch ht 87

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

tng, nhng khng lin tuc m nhn nguyn t tun hon. chnh l ni dung ca nh lut tun ho. HS : c ni dung nh lut tun hon trong sach gio khoa.

D. Cng c dn d Bi 1: Hy cho bit tnh cht no ca cc nguyn t bin i tun hon theo chiu tng dn ca Z+: a. S lp electron b. S electron lp ngoi cng c. Khi lng nguyn t d. Ho tr cao nht vi oxi. e. Bn knh nguyn t f. S electron trong lp v n.t h. S th t k.Tnh kim loi l. Tnh cht c trng ca cc hiroxit. p n: b, d, e,, k, l Bi 2: Nhng kt lun no sau y khng hon ton ng ? Trong mt chu k, theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn th: a. Bn knh nguyn t gim dn. b. m in tng dn. c. Nguyn t khi tng dn. d. Tnh kim loi gim dn, cn tnh phi kim tng dn. e. Tnh baz ca cc oxit v hiroxit tng ng yu dn, ng thi tnh axit mnh dn. p n: cBi 3: a. So snh tnh kim loi ca cc n.t sau v gii thch ngn gn: 11Na,12Mg v 13Al. b. So snh tnh phi kim ca cc n.t sau v gii thch ngn gn: 7N v 15P v 33As. c. So snh tnh axit cc cht trong dy sau v gii thch ngn gn: H2SO4 ; H2SeO4 ; H2TeO4 ; Bi 4: Cho k hiu nguyn t cc nguyn t 15P, 16S, 17Cl a. Xp cc nguyn t theo tnh phi kim tng dn. b. Vit cng thc oxit cao nht v hp cht vi hiro Cho bit ho tr ca cc nguyn t trong hp cht vit. c. Tnh axit ca cc oxit v hiroxit tng ng bin i nh th no? E.Dn d Bi tp v nh. Lm cc bi tp trong sch bi tp:, c trc bi mi

Ngy dy : 88

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy dy:

Tit 19: luyn tp


bng tun hon. S bin i tun hon cu hnh eletron nguyn t v tnh cht cc nguyn t ho hc A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc : Hc sinh cn nm vng -Cu to ca bng tun hon. - S bin i tun hon cu hnh e nguyn t ca cc nguyn t, tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim, bn knh nguyn t, m in v ho tr - ngha ca bng tun hon. 2. K nng - Vn dng ngha ca BTH lm bi tp v mi quan h gia v tr, cu to nguyn t v tnh cht ca n cht v hp cht. - Rn luyn k nng lm cc bi tp c lin quan B. Chun b Gio vin: Chun b bng ph hot ng nhm nh Hc sinh: n tp cc tit trc v gii cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung

A. Kin thc cn nm vng : Hot ng 1 : Cu to bng tun 1. Cu to bng tun hon : hon : * Chu k l dy cc nguyn t, m GV treo bng tun hon chia nguyn t ca chng c s lp electron, c sp xp theo chiu nhm hc sinh tho lun : 1. Bng tun hon c xy in tch ht nhn tng dn. Chu k 1, 2, 3 l cc chu k nh. dng trn nguyn tc no. ( c 3 chu k nh) 2. Bng tun hon c cu to nh 89

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

th no ? 3. Th no l chu k, c bao nhiu chu k nh, chu k ln, s lng ca mi chu k 4. S th t ca chu k cho ta bi iu g 5. Trong mt chu k tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim bin i nh th no ? gii thch Hot ng 2 : GV gi ln lt ccs nhm ln trnh by tng ni dung gv tng kt li

Chu k 4, 5, 6, 7 l cc chu k ln. ( c 4 chu k ln Chu k 1 c 2 nguyn t Chu k 2, 3 mi chu k c 8 nguyn t Chu k 4, 5 mi chu k c 18 nguyn t Chu k 6 c 32 nguyn t Chu k 7 cha hon thnh Cc nt trong cng CK c s lp electron bng nhau v bng STT ca chu k Trong mi chu k theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn, tnh KL ca cc nguyn t gim dn, ng thi tnh PK tng dn. B. Bi tp Bi 2 : sch gio khoa : p n ng : C Bi trc nghim : Hy ch ra iu sai Tr li: Cu d sai. a. Tnh kim loi c c trng bng kh nng nguyn t ca nguyn t d nhng e tr thnh ion dng. b. Nguyn t ca nguyn t cng d nhn e th tnh phi kim ca nguyn t cng mnh. c. Tnh phi kim c c trng bng kh nng nguyn t ca nguyn t d nhn e tr thnh ion m. d. Nguyn t ca nguyn t cng d tr thnh ion dng th nguyn t c tnh phi kim cng mnh

Hot ng 3 : Lm bi tp HS tr li v gii thch ti sao ? GV ch li bi

* Nhm A Hot ng 4 : Tho lun nhm S th t ca nhms A trng vi s e nh lp ngoi cng ( cng l s e ho 1. Nhm A c c im g ? 90

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

2. Lm bi tp 4 trong sch gio khoa Hc sinh ln bng trnh by Gv tng kt li cc kin thc c bn

tr ) ca nguyn t thuc cc nguyn t trong nhm Nhm A c c cc nguyn t thuc chu k nh v chu k ln Cc nguyn t nhm IA, IIA l ngt s Cc nguyn t t IIIA n VIIIA l ngt p Bi 4 ( 54) Nhm IA, IIA, IIIA gn hu ht cc ngt kim loi Nhm VA, VIA, VIIA gn hu ht cc ngt phi kim Nhm VIIIA gm kh him Nguyn t ca cc nguyn t kim loi c 1, 2, 3e lp ngoi cng Nguyn t ca cc nguyn t phi kim c 5, 6, 7 e lp ngoi cng Nguyn t ca cc nguyn t kh him c 8e lp ngoi cng ( tr He Bi 6 ( 54) V chu k 3 Nguyn t ca nguyn t c 3 lp e V nhm VIA Nguyn t ca nguyn t c 6 e lp ngoi cng Cu hnh e ca nguyn t K 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 - Ho tr cao nht vi oxi l 6 -Cng thc oxit cao nht l SO3 - Cng thc hiroxit tng ng l H2SO4 - Oxit v hiroxit l axit mnh - Ho tr ca nguyn t trong hp cht kh vi hiro l 2. Cng th hirit l H2S Bi thm : Nguyn t X c s hiu nguyn t l 20. Hy vit cu hnh e v xc 91

Nguyn t X thuc chu k 3, nhm VIIA ca bng tun hon. a.Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t X. b. Nguyn t X th bao nhiu trong bng h thng tun hon? c. Cho bit tnh cht ho hc c bn ca X? Vit cng thc oxit cao nht, cong thc hp cht vi H ca nguyn t X. Gi hc sinh ln bng lm Gv cng hc sinh di lp cha li bi nguyn t

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

nh v tr ca nguyn t X trong bng tun hon. Gi hc sinh nu cc gii quyt Hng dn : Nguyn t X c cu hnh e : vn ? 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 4s2 C tng s e l 20 S th t ca nguyn t X l 20 Thuc chu k 4 v nguyn t nguyn t X c 4 lp e Thuc nhm IIA v nguyn t nguyn t X c e cui cng in vo phn lp s v c e e ho tr D. Cng c dn d Nhc li mi qun h gia v tr v c im cu to ca nguyn t E. dn d Hc sinh chun b s bin i tun hon tnh cht kim loi, phi kim, m in... v lm cc ba tp Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 20: luyn tp


bng tun hon. S bin i tun hon cu hnh eletron nguyn t v tnh cht cc nguyn t ho hc ( t2) A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc : Hc sinh cn nm vng -Cu to ca bng tun hon. - S bin i tun hon cu hnh e nguyn t ca cc nguyn t, tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim, bn knh nguyn t, m in v ho tr - ngha ca bng tun hon. 2. K nng - Vn dng ngha ca BTH lm bi tp v mi quan h gia v tr, cu to nguyn t v tnh cht ca n cht v hp cht. - Rn luyn k nng lm cc bi tp c lin quan B. Chun b Gio vin: Chun b bng ph hot ng nhm nh Hc sinh: n tp cc tit trc v gii cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa C. Phng php dy hc ch yu 92

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr Hot ng 1 : GV chia hc sinh thnh cc nhm nh v hot ng theo cng mt ni dung 1. Trong mt chu k, trong mt nhm A theo chiu in tch ht nhn tng dn th tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim, gi tr m in bin i nh th no ? 2. Trnh by v s bin thin tun hon ca cu hnh e lp ngoi cng ca ngyn t, ho tr cao nht vi oxi, ho tr trong hp cht kh vi hiro cc nguyn t thuc chu k 2, 3 theo chiu tng dn in tch ht nhn ? HS : Tho lun theo nhm 10 pht HS : Tng nhm ln trnh by tng ni dung HS : Cc nhm khc nhn xt GV : Nguyn nhn gy ln s bin i tun hon cc tnh cht . ni dung Phn 2 : S bin di tun hon A. Kin thc cn nm vng + Trong mi chu k theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn, tnh KL ca cc nguyn t gim dn, m in ca cc nguyn t tng dn ng thi tnh PK tng dn. + Trong mt nhm A, theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn, tnh KL ca cc nguyn t tng dn, m in ca cc nguyn t gim dn ng thi tnh PK gim dn.

+ Trong 1 chu k: theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn th ho tr cao nht vi oxi tng ln lt t 1 n 7, ho tr vi hiro ca cc PK gim t 4 n1. * Tng ho tr ca mt nguyn t phi kim cao nht vi oxi v ho tr vi hiro l 8 : * S bin i tun hon v cu hnh e lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t khi in tch ht nhn tng dn chnh l nguyn nhn ca s bin i tun hon HS : Ln bng in Chu k cc thng tin tnh cht ca cc nguyn t vo bng sau : Nhm

93

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Bng : S bin i tun hon tnhs cht ca ccs nguyn t : (SGK)

Hot ng 2 : Cng c l thuyt GV : Treo bng trc nghim ln HS : Suy ngh ri tr li

B.Bi tp bi 1 : Trong BTH nhng tnh cht no bin i tun hon? a, b, d, e, h, k a. Bn knh nguyn t. b. Tnh kim loi-phi kim. c. S lp e. d. m in. e. S e lp ngoi cng. g. in tch ht nhn nguyn t. h. Ho tr cao nht ca nguyn t i vi oxi. k. Tnh axit-baz ca cc oxit v hiroxit

Bi 5 : ( SGK) Gi tng s ht proton l Z, tng s notron l N, tng s electron l Tng s ht proton, notron, Z ( v s e = s p) electron ca nguyn t mt Tng s ht proton, notron, nguyn t thuc nhm VIIA l 28. electron l 28 2Z + N = 28 1. Tnh nguyn t khi N = 28 2Z 2. Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t nguyn t iu kin ca nguyn t bn l HS : Chun b 2 pht N 1 1,52 Z GV : Gi mt hc sinh nu hng gii quyt 94

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai 28 2 Z GV : Gi 1 hs ln bng trnh by 1 1,52 Z HS : di lp lm tip nu em no cha lm c, hs lm ri th lm bi tp sau : 28 2 Z 1 Z Tng s ht proton, notron, 28 2 Z electron ca nguyn t mt 1,52 Z nguyn t l 13. 1. Tnh nguyn t khi 8 Z 9,3 2. Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t nguyn t Z = 8 Cu hnh e : 1s2 2s2 2p4 V tr : th 8, chu k 2, nhm VIA Loi v theo bi nguyn t nhm VIIA 2 2 5 Hp cht kh vi hiro l RH4. Z = 9 : Cu hnh e : 1s 2s 2p Oxit cao nht ca n cha 53,3% V tr : th 9, chu k 2, nhm oxi v khi lng. Xc nh VIIA nguyn t khi ca nguyn t b. Cu hnh ca F : 1s2 2s2 2p5 . Xc nh cng thc oxit cao nht v cng thc hp cht kh Bi 8 : (SGK) vi hiro Hp cht kh vi hiro ca mt HS : suy ngh 2 pht nguyn t l RH4 Cng thc oxit GV : Gi mt hc sinh nu hng cao nht ca n l : RO 2 gii quyt Trong phn t RO2 c cha 53,3% GV : Gi 1 hs ln bng trnh by oxi v khi lng. HS : di lp lm tip nu em 32 * 100 = 53,3 no cha lm c, hs lm ri th Ta c : R + 32 lm bi tp sau 7 R = 28 R l Si Cng thc oxit cao nht l SiO2 Cng thc hp cht kh vi hiro l : SiH4

Khi cho 0,6 g mt kim loi nhm IIA tc dng vi nc to ra0,336 lt Bi 9( SGK) kh hiro c ktc. Xc nh Gi kim loi nh IIA l M. Kim loi M kim loi c 2e ho tr nn c ho tr 2 HS : suy ngh 2 pht pt M + 2 H 2O M(OH)2 + 95

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

GV : Gi mt hc sinh nu hng H2 gii quyt Mol GV : Gi 1 hs ln bng trnh by 0,015 S mol H2 l : n H2 =


0,336 22,4

0,015

= 0,015 (mol)

Khi lng nguyn t M l : M=


0,6 = 40 g 0,015

Nguyn t khi c M l 40 Kim loi M l Ca

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Chng 3 : Lin kt ho hc
96

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Tit 22 : Lin kt ha hc tinh th ion


A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc : Hc sinh cn nm vng Bit c: - V sao cc nguyn t li lin kt vi nhau. - S to thnh ion, ion n nguyn t, ion a nguyn t. - nh ngha lin kt ion. - Khi nim tinh th ion, tnh cht chung ca hp cht ion. 2. K nng - Vit c cu hnh electron ca ion n nguyn t c th. - Xc nh ion n nguyn t, ion a nguyn t trong mt phn t cht c th. B. Chun b Gio vin: Hnh v tinh th NaCl Hc sinh: n tp cc tit trc v gii cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c:

Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng 1: Gio vin gii thiu : Lin kt ha hc l s kt hp gia cc nguyn t to thnh phn t hay tinh th. Khi to thnh lin kt ho hc, nguyn t thng c xu hng t ti cu hnh e bn vng ca kh him vi 8 lp ngoi cng tr heli. Hot ng ca c v tr ni d I. S to thnh ion, cation, anion. Hot ng 2 : - GV: vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t a. S to thnh cation 2 2 6 1 23 17Cl v chng minh nguyn t 11Na: 1s 2s 2p 3s : c 1e lp NC 11 Na Na c 11 proton; 11 electron, in tc Na, F trung ho v in. - t ti cu hnh e ca kh him Na trung ho v in. th nguyn t Na, F s phi nhng t ti cu hnh e ca kh him Ng hay nhn e? khi phn cn li ca - Ht nhn c 11p t 11+ nguyn t Na, F mang in tch bao - Lp v c 10e t 10nhiu?vit cu hnh e ca Na+, Cl97

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Vit qu trnh hnh thnh ion ca Vy phn cn li ca nguyn t Na man Na Na+ + 1 e Nt Na, F

Na+ : 1s22s22p6 * F : 1s22s22p5 GV: Cho hc sinh suy ngh 3 pht t ti cu hnh e ca kh him Ng HS: 2 em ln bng trnh by mi F + 1e Fphn F-: 1s22s22p6 GV: Biu din bng s phn ng: * Khi nim ion: Nguyn t trung ho v GV: tng kt: nhn e nguyn t tr thnh mang in b. S to thnh cation, anion * S to thnh cation GV : Qua 2 v d va ri, hy cho c - Khi tam gia cc p ho hc cc KL c bit Ion l ? hnh e bn ca kh him gn nht to Vd: hoc Li -> Li+ + 1e Na -> Na+ + 1e
(2,8,1) (2,8)

Khi tham gia cc p ho hc Nguyn t ca nhng ng.t no c kh nng to ra Ion m, ion dng ? Ti sao ? HS: Vit s hnh thnh cc Ion dng Na, Mg, Al

GV :Vit tng qut khi kim loi nhng e lp NC to Ion dng ? (2,8,8) GV : Cc cation kim loi c c tn (2,8,7) 2O + 2e -> O theo kim loi 2,6 (2,8) F + 1e -> FHS : c tn cc cation trn
(2,7) (2,8)

Mg -> Mg2+ + 2e Al -> Al3+ + 3e M -> Mn+ + ne (n=1,2,3) c tn: Cation + kim loi Na+ : Cation natri Mg2+ Cation Magi Al3+ Cation natri nhm * S to thnh anion: Trong phn ng ho hc t cu h kim c khuynh hng nhn e tr thn V d: Cl + 1e -> Na-

X + ne -> Nn2. Ion n nguyn t v ion a nguyn * Ion n nguyn t to nn t 1 ng.t: HS: Vit s hnh thnh cc Ion m * Ion a nguyn t l nhng nhm ngu ca Cl, O, F amoni OH : anion hiroxit GV :Vit tng qut khi kim loi nhng NO 3 : anion nitrat e lp NC to Ion dng ? 2SO4 : anion sunphat GV : c tn : Anion + tn gc axit tr a) H3PO4 c anion pht pht PO 3 4 98

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

O2- ( gi l anion oxit) HS : c tn cc anion trn ?

b) NH4NO3 c cation amoni NH + 4

NO 3 c) Anion Hydroxit: OH GV hng dn hc sinh c sgk v phn bit 2 loi Ion: ion n nguyn II S to thnh lin kt ion: VD1: S to thnh phn t NaCl. t v ion a nguyn t. Th d: Ion n nguyn t: Na+, Na + Na Mg2+..

Na+ + Cl- = NaCl Ion a nguyn t: SO 2 , OH 4 2.1 ?Trong cc hp cht sau y, cht e pt: no cha Ion a nguyn t k trn VD2: S to thnh phn t MgO cc Ion a nguyn t ? Mg 2e -> Mg2+ a) H3PO4 Mg2+ + O2- = MgO b) NH4NO3 c) KCl 2x2e d) Ca(OH)2 2Mg + O2 N: Lin kt Ion l lk c hnh thnh b tri du. K: Lin kt ion ch ochnh thnh phi kim in hnh III. Tinh th Ion. 1. Tinh th NaCl: trong sch NaCl tn c phn b u n trn nh ca GV : gii thch s hnh thnh phn 2. T/c chung ca h/c Ion: + Tinh th bn t NaCl : + Kh rn, kh nng chy, kh bay h + Nng chy v khi tan trong nc th d Vit qu trnh hnh thnh ion ca Do lc ht cc Ion tri du trong h/c Ion Ca, O, s hnh thnh phn t t cc nguyn t.

1s22s22p63s23p5 1s22s22p6

- Lin kt Ion l g ? iu kin hnh thnh lin kt Ion.

- GV treo hnh ln bng v ch cho HS cu to tinh th NaCl. 99

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

?Nu mt vi tnh cht v trng thi, nhit nng chy, kh nng tan trong nc ca NaCl Ti sao tinh th ion li c nhng tnh cht c bit k trn ?

23 Cu 1: vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t 11 Na 17Cl v chng minh nguyn t Na, Cl trung ho v in. - t ti cu hnh e ca kh him th nguyn t Na, Cl s phi nhng hay nhn e? khi phn cn li ca nguyn t Na, Cl mang in tch bao nhiu?vit cu hnh e ca Na+, ClVit qu trnh hnh thnh ion ca Nt Na, Cl

Cu 2: 1.Vit s hnh thnh cc Ion dng Na, Mg, Al 2.Vit s hnh thnh cc Ion m ca N, S, F Cu 3 : 1.Vit qu trnh hnh thnh ion ca Ca, O, s hnh thnh phn t t cc nguyn t. 2.Lin kt Ion l g ? iu kin hnh thnh lin kt Ion. Cu 4: Vit qu trnh hnh thnh ion ca cc nguyn t v s hnh thnh cc phn t sau : AlCl3, K2O, NaBr

23 Cu 1: vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t 11 Na 17Cl v chng minh nguyn t Na, Cl trung ho v in. - t ti cu hnh e ca kh him th nguyn t Na, Cl s phi nhng hay nhn e? khi phn cn li ca nguyn t Na, Cl mang in tch bao nhiu?vit cu hnh e ca Na+, ClVit qu trnh hnh thnh ion ca Nt Na, Cl

Cu 2: 100

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

1.Vit s hnh thnh cc Ion dng Na, Mg, Al 2.Vit s hnh thnh cc Ion m ca N, S, F Cu 3 : 1.Vit qu trnh hnh thnh ion ca Ca, O, s hnh thnh phn t t cc nguyn t. 2.Lin kt Ion l g ? iu kin hnh thnh lin kt Ion. Cu 4: Vit qu trnh hnh thnh ion ca cc nguyn t v s hnh thnh cc phn t sau : AlCl3, K2O, NaBr

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Chng 3 : Lin kt ho hc Tit 23 : Lin kt cng ho tr


A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc : Hc sinh cn nm vng - S hnh thnh lin kt cng ho tr ca mt s phn t n cht v mt s phn t hp cht - T hiu c khi nim lin kt cng ho tr, lin kt cng ho tr khng cc, c cc v lin kt n, lin kt i, lin kt ba. 2. K nng - Vn dng vit c cng thc e, cng thc cu to ca mt s hp cht, n cht. - Dng hiu m in phn loi mt cch tng i: lin kt cng ho tr khng cc, c cc v lin kt ion B. Chun b Gio vin: Hc sinh: n tp cc tit trc v gii cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa, m in. C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: 1.Th no l lin kt ion? Vit qu trnh hnh thnh ion, lin kt ion v s phn ng to thnh CaCl2, K2O, Na2S t cc n cht tng ng. 2. Lm cc bi tp tng sch gio khoa. 101

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng 1: Hot ng ca c v tr

ni dung

Hot ng 1: Vo bi : - Vit cu hnh e ca cc nguyn t nguyn t sau : H, O, N, Cl, S. - hnh thnh phn t H2, O2, N2, HCl... th c thc hin theo lin kt ion c khng ? ti sao ?. - Vy hnh thnh cc phn t em th d on xem cc nguyn t lin kt vi nhau bng I. S hnh thnh lin kt cng ho cch no ? tr : 1.S hnh thnh phn t n cht: *H2 H : 1s1 H + H H:H Cng thc e H-H GV : Chia nhm nh Cng thc T cu hnh e ca nguyn t H, cu to O. N hy nu cc hnh thnh Gia 2 nguyn t hiro c 1 cp e phn t H2 , O2, N2 lin kt l lin kt n HS : mt nhm ln trnh by, *O : 2 cc nhm khc rt ra nhn xt v kt lun O + O GV : Tng kt li Hay : O = O

::

Gia 2 nguyn t oxi c 2 cp e lin kt l lin kt i. *N2


\ \

N N

Hay : N N 102

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Gia 2 nguyn t nit c 3 cp e lin kt l lin kt ba. * Kt lun : - Lin kt CHT l lin kt c to nn gia 2 nguyn t bng mt hay nhiu cp e dng chung. - Mi cp e dng chung c to nn mt lk CHT nn ta c LK n, LK ? T cc vd trn hy nh ngh th no l lin kit cng ho tr ? -Th no l lin kt n, i, ba ? - Khi no hnh thnh lin kt cng ho t khng phn cc. i, LK ba. - LK to nn t 2 nguyn t ca cng mt nguyn t ( c m in bng nhau) cp e dng chung khng b lch v pha nguyn t no gi l lk CHT khng phn cc. 2. S hnh thnh hp cht a. S hnh thnh phn t hiro clorua.
T cu hnh e ca nguyn t H, H : Cl : H + Cl : Cl ?Hy trnh by s gp chung e CTCT : H Cl ca chng to thnh phn t m in ca clo ln hn HCl m in ca hiro nn cp e

dng chung b lch v pha nguyn t clo Lin kt CHT phn cc b. S hnh thnh phn t H2O, NH3, CH4, CO2 Cho hc sinh hot ng nhm H2O : nh. + O + H H : O : H H HS : Vit cu hnh e ca cc nguyn t ( hoc da vo bng ( H O H) tun hon ). T vit cng 103

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

thuc e, ctct ca cc phn t NH3 H : N : H H N-H trn, xc nh loi lin kt CHT H H n, i, ba HS : Mt nhm ln bng trnh CO2 : O :: C :: O O = C = O by, cc nhm khc nhn xt Lin kt C vi o xi l lin kt phn cc nhng phn t CO2 c cu to thng nn phn t ny khng phn cc :

D. Cng c dn d

Th no l lin kt cng ho tr, lk CHT c c, LK CHT khng phn cc. iu kin hnh thnh lin kt CHT
E. dn d

Lm cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa v bi tp

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 23 : Lin kt cng ho tr

A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc : Hc sinh cn nm vng - Mi lin h gia hiu m in ca 2 nguyn t v bn cht lin kt ho hc gia 2 nguyn t trong hp cht. - Tnh cht chung ca cc cht c lin kt cng ho tr. - Quan h gia lin kt cng ho tr khng cc, lin kt cng ho tr c cc v lin kt ion. 2. K nng - Vn dng vit c cng thc e, cng thc cu to ca mt s hp cht, n cht. - Dng hiu m in phn loi mt cch tng i: lin kt cng ho tr khng cc, c cc v lin kt ion B. Chun b 104

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Gio vin: Hc sinh: n tp cc tit trc v gii cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa, m in. C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu 1: Th no l lin kt cng ho tr, lin kt n, lin kt i, lin kt ba, lin kt CHT khng phn cc, LK CHT phn cc Cu 2: Vit cng thc e, cng thc cu to ca cc phn t sau: Cl2, O2, N2, HCl 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr Hc sinh nghin cu sch gio khoa v tr li cc cu hi sau: ? Trong cc cht: ng, lu hunh, iot, ru etylic, nc. Nhng cht no c lin kt CHT khng cc? c cc? So snh kh nng ho tan vo noc ca ru, v oxi? ni dung 3. Tnh cht ca cc cht lin kt CHT Cc cht m phn t ch c lin kt CHT l: + Cht rn: Lu hunh, Iot, ... + Cht lng: Nc, ru... + Cht kh: H2, Cl2... - Cc cht c cc tan trong dung mi phn cc nh: nc + Cc cht khng phn cc tan trong dm khng phn cc nh: benzen,... Cho hc sinh tho lun theo nhm nh Ni dung: So snh s ging nhau v khc nhau gia lin kt CHT c cc LK CHT khng phn cc II. m in v lin kt CHT 1. Quan h gia lin kt CHT c cc, lk CHT khng phn cc v lin kt ion: Kiu lin 105 iu Bn cht

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

v lin kt ion: ( k hnh thnh,

kt LK ion

kin LK gia kl in hnh v PK in hnh LK gia 2 nguyn t c tnh cht ging nhau -Ion dng v ion m ht nhau bng lc ht tnh in Cp e dng chung khng b lch v pha nguyn t no. Cp e dng chung b lch v pha nguyn t c m in ln hn

GV k khung trc, hc sinh tho lun ri in vo khung LK CHT khng c cc

Cc nhm khc tho lun, nhn xt GV tng kt li

LK CHT c LK gia cc 2 nguyn t c tnh cht gn ging nhau

Khng c ranh gii r rt gia lin kt CHT v lin kt ion . 2. Hiu m in: Gv gii thiu bng m in xc nh loi lin kt Hiu m in

Loi lin kt

0 < 0,4 0,4 < 1,7 1,7 Hc sinh s dng bng tun hon xc nh hiu m in t xc nh lai lin kt gi cc nguyn t trong phn Cc hp cht 106

LK CHT khng phn cc LK CHT c cc LK ion Loi lin kt

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

t GV Gi hc sinh ln bng in cc gi tr thng tin GV: Hiu s m in ca 2 nguyn t trong phn t khc nhau th cp electron chung s c sp xp nh th no? Cc hc sinh khc nhn xt

HCl NaCl K2O CH4 NH3 CO2 MgBr2 Al2O3 Hiu s m in gia 2 nguyn t cng ln lin kt CHT cng phn cc X > 0.

D. Cng c : Lm cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa

Da vo iu kin hnh thnh ln kt xc nh xem cc hp cht sau thuc loi lin kt no : KCl, CaO, HBr, H2O, C2H6
E. Bi tp v nh : Cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa

107

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 25 : tinh th nguyn t v tinh th phn t


A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc : Hc sinh cn nm vng - Cu to mng tinh th nguyn t . Lin kt trong mng tinh th nguyn t l lin kt cng ho tr. Tnh cht chung ca mng tinh th nguyn t. - Cu to mng tinh th phn t. Lin kt trong mng tinh th phn t l lit kt yu gia cc phn t. Tnh cht chung ca mng tinh th phn t. 2. K nng - So snh mng tinh th nguyn t , mng tinh th phn t , mng tinh th ion. - Bit tng cht chung ca tng loi mng tinh th s c tt cc vt liu c cu to t cc loi mng tinh th k trn. B. Chun b Gio vin: Ph t hnh v tinh th ca nguyn t, phn t trong sch gio khoa. Hc sinh: Chun b bi v nghin cu cc hnh v v m hnh cu trc phn t. C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu 1: So snh gia lin kt CHT v lin kt ion, iu kin hnh thnh lin kt CHT v lin kt ion. Cu 2: Lm cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa 6, 7, 5. 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung I. Tinh th nguyn t. Gio vin treo bng ph t tinh 1. Tinh th nguyn t. th kim cng ln bng HS: Hc sinh quan st. 108

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

GV hi: Nguyn t C c bao nhiu e lp v ngoi cng: HS; 4 e GV gii thch: Kim cong l mt dng th hnh ca cacbon, thuc lai tinh th nguyn t. Nguyn t cacbon c 4 e lp v ngoi cng. Trong tinh th kim cng mi nguyn t cacbon lin kt vi 4 nguyn t cacbon ln cn gn nht bng 4 cp e chung, l 4 lin kt CHT. Cc nguyn t cacbon ny nm trn bn nh ca mt t din u. Mi nguyn t cacbon li lin kt vi 4 nguyn t cac bon khc. GV: Yu cu hc sinh nghin cu sch gio khoa v m hnh tinh th kim cng t khi qut hoa v tinh th nguyn t. HS nghin cu v tr li. Em hy cho bit mt s ng dng thng gp ca kim cng 2. Tnh cht chung ca tinh th nguyn t

Tinh th nguyn t cu to t nhng nguyn t c sp xp u n, theo mt trnh t nht nh trong khng gian to thnh mt mng tinh th l nhng nguyn t lin kt li vi nhau bng cc lin kt CHT.

GV: Kim cng dng lm dao ct Lc lin kt cng ho tr trong tinh knh, lm mi khoan khoan th nguyn t rt ln. V vy tinh su vo lng t tm du m. th nguyn t u bn vng, rt cng kh nng chy, kh si. Kim c? Ti sao kim cng li c nhng ng c cng ln nht c quy c tnh cht nh vy l 10 n v II. Tinh rh phn t: GV ph t m hnh tinh th 1. Tinh th phn t phn t it v mng tinh th nc . Hc sinh quan st Gv m t: Tinh th it l tinh th phn t, nhit thng iot 109

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

th rn vi mng li lp Cc phn t cc tm 6 phng.

cu trc tinh th phng tm din: iot 8 nh li v mt ca hnh lp

Tinh th nc cng l tinh th phn t. Trong tinh th nc , mi phn t nc lin kt vi 4 phn t nc gn nht nm trn 4 nh ca mt t din u. Mi phn t noc nhli lin kt vi 4 phn t ln cn nm 4 nh ca hnh t din u khc v c tip tc nh vy

Tinh th phn t cu to t nhng phn t c sp xp mt cch u , theo mt trn t nht nh trong khng gian mt to thnh mt mng tinh th, cc im nt ca mng tinh th l nhng phn t lin kt vi nhau bng lc tng tc yu gia cc phn t.( lc ht Vande Van)

? T tinh th phn t iot v n- 2. Tnh cht chung ca tinh th cs , em hy khi qut th nguyn t no l tinh th phn t ? Hy cho bit mt s tnh cht ca nc , vin bng phin Trong tinh th phn t, cc phn ( long no ) trong t qun o? t vn tn ti nh nhng n v GV: un nng mt t tinh th iot c lp v ht nhau bng lc tng th iot chuyn thnh hi mu tc yu gia cc phn t. Nn tinh th phan t d nng chy, d bay tm ( hin tng thng hoa) ? Ti sao phn t d nng chy, hi. d bay hi nh vy GV b xung: Ngay nhit thng mt phn tinh th Naphtalen ( bng phin) v iot x b phn hu, cc phn t tch ri khi mng tinh th v khuch tn vo khng kh lm cho ta d nh ra mi ca chng. Cc tinh th phn t khng phn cc, d b hoad tan trong cc dung mi khng phn c 110

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

D. Cng c :

Em hy nu r s khc nhau v cu to v lin kt trong mng tinh th nguyn t v mng tinh th phn t. -Tinh th nguyn t : cc im nt ca mng tinh th l nhng nguyn t lin kt vi nhau bng cc lin kt cng ho tr -Tinh th phn t : cc im nt mng tinh th l nhng phn t lin kt vi nhau bng lc tng tc yu gia cc phn t
E. Bi tp v nh : Cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 26 : ho tr v s oxi ho
A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc : Hc sinh cn nm vng Ho tr trong hp cht ion, trong hp cht cng ho tr. Khi nim s oxi ho, quy tc xc nh s oxi ho 2. K nng: Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t B. Chun b Gio vin: Gio n Hc sinh: c trc bi, nm phn lin kt cht v lin kt ion C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu 1: Em hy nu r s khc nhau v cu to v lin kt trong mng tinh th nguyn t v mng tinh th phn t. Cu 2: Xc nh cc loi lin kt trong phn t sau: NaCl, H2S, NH3, MgO 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : 111

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hot ng ca c v tr I.Ho tr

ni dung 1.Ho tr trong hp cht ion

GV: Trong hp cht ion, ho tr ca mt nguyn t bng in tch ca ion v c gi l in ho tr ca nguyn t

Trong hp cht ion, ho tr ca mt nguyn t bng in tch ca ion v c gi l in ho tr ca nguyn t

?NaCl c to nn t nhng ion VD: NaCl no? c in tch bao nhiu Na c in ho tr 1+ ?Xc nh in ho tr ca cc Cl c in ho tr l 1nguyn t trong cc hp cht ion sau: K2O, CaCl2, Al2O3, Na2S Cc nguyn t kim loa nhm IA, ? Qua cc nguyn t kim loa IIA, IIIA c in ho tr l 1+, 2+, nhm IA, IIA, IIIA. Cc nguyn t 3+. phi kim nhm IVA, VIIA c in Cc nguyn t phi kim nhm IVA, ho tr bao nhiu? VIIA c in ho tr 2-. 1GV nu quy tc 2.Ho tr trong hp cht cng ho tr

Trong hp cht cng ho tr , ho tr ca mt nguyn t c xc nh bng s lin kt CHT ca Qua bi kim tra bi c, hy xc nguyn t nguyn t trong nh CHT ca cc nguyn t N, phn t v c gi l cng h tr ca nguyn t . C, H, S Xc nh CHT ca tng nguyn t trong phn t sau: CH4, CO2, Nguyn t H c 1 lk CHT --> Nguyn t H c CHT 1 N2 VD: Trong CH4: Nguyn t C c CHT 4, Nguyn t H c CHT 1 GV t vn s oxi ho thng c s dng trong vic II.S oxi ho ngin cu phn ng oxi h kh. 1.Khi nim V s oxi ho l mt con s quy - S oxi ho ca mt nguyn t trong c: phn t l in tch ca nguyn 112 NH3: Nguyn t N c 3 lk CHT --> Nguyn t N c CHT 3

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

GV nu cc quy tc xc nh s t nguyn t trong phn t, oxi ho ca cc nguyn t: nu gi nh rng lk gia cc nguyn t trong phn t l lin kt ion. 2.Cc quy tc S oxi ho Quy tc 1: S oxi ho ca nguyn t trong cc n cht bng 0 VD: Trong phn t n cht Na. Ca, Al, Cu, H2, Cl2, N2 th SOXH ca cc nguyn t bng 0 Quy tc 2: Trong mt phn t tng s oxi h ca cc nguyn t bng 0 NH3: SOXH ca H l +1, ca N l -3 Quy tc 3: S oxi ho ca cc ion n nguyn t bng in tch ca ion . Trong ion a nguyn t, tng s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t bng in tch ca ion.\ SOXH ca cc nguyn t K+, Ca2+, S2-, Al3+ ln lt l: +1, +2, -2, +3 SOXH ca N trong NO3- l x x + 3 ( -2) = -1 x = +5 SOXH ca S trong SO42- l y y + 4 ( -2) = -2 y = +6 Quy tc 4: Trong hu ht cc hp cht, s oxi ho ca H bng +1, tr mt s trng hp nh: Hirua kim loi ( NaH, MgH2...) S oxi ho ca oxi bng -2, tr trng hp OF2, peoxit ( H2O2)

113

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 27: luyn tp


Lin kt ho hc ( T1)
A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc : Hc sinh cn nm vng

114

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Cng c cc kin thc v cc loi lin kt ho hc, vn dng gii thch s hnh thnh mt s loi phn t. c im cu trc 3 loi lin kt tinh th c hc 2. K nng Rn luyn k nng xc nh ho tr v s oxiho ca nguyn t trong n cht v hp cht. B. Chun b Gio vin: Chun b bng ph hot ng nhm nh Hc sinh: n tp cc tit trc v gii cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : ni dung Hot ng 1 : Chia 4 nhm nh A.Lin kt ho hc cng nhau trao i ni dung : So snh im ging nhau v So lk CHT lk CHT lk ion khc nhau ca 3 loi lin kt : lk Snh khng c cc CHT khng cc, lk CHT c cc, cc lk ion. Gin Cc ngt kt hp vi nhau So Snh lk CHT khng cc lk CHT c cc lk ion g to ra mi ngt c nhau cu hnh e lp ngoi cng bn vng nh kh him. Khc Cp e nhau dng chung ko b lch Cp e dng chung b lch v va ngt c am Cho v nhn e Hot ng ca c v tr

Ging nhau Khc nhau iu kin Nhn xt

115

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

ln hn iu kin GV hng dn hc sinh trao i nhm. Gi hs ln bng trnh by Cc hs nhm khc nhn xt v b sung Gia cc ngtu ca cng mt ngt pk Gia Gia cc pk kl v mnh pk yu khc nhau

0 < 0,4 1,7 < 0,4 1,7

Nhn lk CHT c cc l dng xt trung gian gia lk cht ko cc v lk ion Bi 1 : Mt ngt c cu hnh e l : 1s2 2s2 2p3 a. Xc nh v tr ca nguyn t trong bng tun hon, suy ra cng thc phn t hp cht kh vi hiro. b. Vit cng thc e, ctct ca phn t . Gii 7, chu k 2 nm VA Cng thc : NH3 H :

Hs chun b 3 pht GV gi 1 hc sinh ln bng lm

: H H N-H H

a. HS chun b 3 pht :

Bi 2 : a. Da vo g tr m in ( F = 3,98 ; O = 3,44 ; N = 3,04 ) Hy xt tnh phi kim thay i nh th no trong dy nguyn t sau : F , O , Cl , N b. Vit CTCT, CTe ca phn t sau y N2, CH4, H2O, C2H4, CO2, HNO3 . Xc nh xem phn t no c lk cht ko cc phn c mnh nht F O Cl N a 3,98 3,44 3,16 3,04 116

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

m in gim Tnh phi kim gim b.Vit cte, ctct ca cc hp cht trn GV hng dn hc sinh k bng hc sinh chun b 5 pht gi hs ln bng in vo bng ph Bi 3 :Cho dy hp cht sau : Na2O, MgO, KBr, SO3, N2O5, BaCl2. Da vo ga tr hiu a ca 2 ngt trong phn t hy x loi lk trong tng pt. H C Na2 O Mg O KBr BaC SO N2O , l2 3 5

lo i lk Bi 4 : 1.Vit qu trnh h nh thnh ion ca cc nguyn t : Na, Cl, Al, O, S. Vit cu hnh e ca cc ion to thnh. 2.Vit s phn ng to thnh cc hp cht sau t cc n cht tng ng : NaCl, K2O, MgO, K2S.

D. Dn d , cng c : Nhc li s ging nhau v khc nhau ca 3 loi lin kt. E. Bi tp v nh :bi tp trong sch gio khoa : Xem li bi ha tr

117

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 35: n tp hc k I
A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc : Hc sinh cn nm vng Cng c h thng ho li kin thc c bn v 3 chng: Nguy t, bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc, lin kt ho hc 2. K nng Rn luyn k nng vn dng kin thc v cu to nguyn t, bng tun hon v nh lut tun hon, lin kt ho hc gii bi tp c lin quan. B. Chun b Gio vin: Chun b bng ph hot ng nhm nh Hc sinh: n tp cc kin thc c bn ca chng trc v gii cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : ni dung GV yu cu hc sinh nhc li cc A. Ni dung cn nm vng kin thc c bn ca 3 chng Chng 1 : Nguyn t Chng 2 : Bng tun hon v nh lut tun hon cc nguyn t 118 Hot ng ca c v tr

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Chng 3 : Lin kt ho hc B. Bi tp GV yu cu hc sinh lm cDng 1 : Mi quan h gia cc loi ng v xy dng cc dng bi ht c bn ( p, n, e ) trong nguyn ton hay gp t Bi 1 : Hy cho bit s in tch ht nhn, s p, s n v s e ca cc nguyn t sau: vit cu hnh e ca cc nguyn t
7 3

Li ;

23 11

Na ;

40 20

Ca ;

235 92

GV yu cu hc sinh nhc li Hng dn 7 cch x s p, e, n v vit cu 3 Li hnh e. A = 14 Gi 1 hs ln bng lm trong 2 Z = 7 pht e=Z=7 N = A Z = 14 7 = 7 in tch ht nhn l 7+ Bi 2: Tng s cc ht trong mt nguyn t nguyn t X l 155. Trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 33. Xc nh s p. e, n v s khi A ca nguyn t nguyn t . GV hng dn phng php gii Hng dn Mt hs ln bng trnh by 2Z + N = 155 --> Z = 47 --> A = 108 2Z N = 33 N = 61 Bi 3: Nguyn t c tng s ht p, n, e l 40. Xc nh tn nguyn t Hng dn: GV hng dn hc sinh v nh lm 2Z + N = 40
N 1 1,52 Z 1 N 1,52 Z

Nguyn t l Nhm Dng 2: Xc nh nguyn t khi trung bnh khi bit % s lng nguyn t ca mi ng v v ngc li Bi 4: Tnh nguyn t khi trung bnh ca Ni bit rng trong t 119

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Nu cng thc tnh nguyn t 58 60 61 28 Ni 28 Ni 28 Ni khi trung bnh 62 67,76% 26,16% 28 Ni Cng thc tnh: 2,42% 3,66% aA + bB + A = 100 Trong : A l ng.t khi trung bnh A, Bl ng.t khi ca mi n v 58,74
100

nhin cc ng v ca Ni tn ti theo t l:

58.67,76 + 60.26,16 + 61.2,42 + 62.3,66

ANi =

Yu cu hc sinh nhc li cch xc nh v tr ca ca cc nguyn t trong bng tun hon - nguyn t : S th t ca nguyn t = s in tch ht nhn = tng s proton = tng s electron S th t ca chu k = s lp electron trong nguyn t. S electron ho tr bng s electron lp ngoi cng = s th t ca nhm.

Hiu m in

Loi lin kt

0 < 0,4

LK CHT khng

Bi 5 :. Tnh % ca mi loi n v ca nguyn t Cu bit ng c 63 29 65 Cu v 29 Cu; Acu = 63,546 Dng 3 : Bit v tr ca nguyn t trong bng tun hon suy ra c cu hnh e, s p, n, e v ngc li : Bi 6 : Bit nguyn t K c s th t l 19 thuc chu k 4, nhm IA. Hy cho bit cc thng tin v cu to nguyn t K Gii : S th t 19 S hiu nguyn t 19 (Z = 19) c 19 p v 19e Chu k 4 Nguyn t ca nguyn t K c 4 lp e Nhm IA Nguyn t ca nguyn t K c 1 e lp ngoi cng Cu hnh e ca nguyn t K 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 Bi 7 : Cho cu hnh e ca nguyn t X l 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4. Xc nh v tr ca nguyn t X trong bng tun hon. Cho bit tnh cht ho hc c bn ca X? Dng 4 : Lin kt ho hc v mng tinh th : Bi 8 : 1. Da vo m in, sp xp theo chiu tng phn cc ca 120

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

phn cc 0,4 < 1,7 1,7 LK CHT c cc LK ion

lin kt gia 2 nguyn t trong phn t cc cht sau : CaO, MgO, Na2O, CH4, O2, AlCl3, HCl, NH3, H2S 2. Phn t no thuc lin kt ion, phn t no thuc lin kt CHT khng cc, c cc 3. Vit CT e, CTCT i vi cc hp cht thuc lk CHT 4. Vit ptpu to thnh cc hc thuc lk ion t cc n cht tng ng.

D. Nhc li kin thc quan trng ca ton b 3 chng E. Nhc hc sinh n tp tt thi hc k I

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 28: luyn tp


Lin kt ho hc ( T2)
A. Mc tiu bi dy: 1. Kin thc : Hc sinh cn nm vng Cng c cc kin thc v cc loi lin kt ho hc, vn dng gii thch s hnh thnh mt s loi phn t. c im cu trc 3 loi lin kt tinh th c hc 2. K nng Rn luyn k nng xc nh ho tr v s oxiho ca nguyn t trong n cht v hp cht. B. Chun b 121

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Gio vin: Chun b bng ph hot ng nhm nh Hc sinh: n tp cc tit trc v gii cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa C. Phng php dy hc ch yu Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh D. Ln lp 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr Hot ng 1 : Mng tinh th Gio vin yu cu hc sinh c bi 6 - Gi mt hc sinh cho bit th no lm mng tinh th ion, tinh th nguyn t, tinh th phn t ? Ly v d - So snh nhit nng chy ca cc loi tinh th ? gii thch - Tnh th no dn in c trng thi rn ? tinh th no dn in c trng thi nng chy v khi ho tan vo nc Gio vin dng phng php m thoi gi hc sinh tr li cc chnh ca bi ? ni dung II. Mng tinh th : - Tnh th ion : NaCl, MgO - Tinh th nguyn t : Kim cng - Tinh th phn t : Iot, Nc , bng phin * Nhit nng chy : - Tinh th ion c to ra do lc ht tnh in gia cc ion ngc du nhau --> rt bn, kh rn, kh bay hi, kh nng chy - Tinh th nguyn t to ra do lc lin kt cng ho tr --> bn vng, kh cng, kh bay hi, kh nng chy - Tinh th phn t c to ra do lc tng tc yu gia cc phn t --> d nng chy, d bay hi * Khng c tinh th no dn in trng thi rn. Tinh th ion dn in c trng thi nng chy v dung dch III. S oxi ho ? Nu cc quy tc xc nh s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t. Quy tc 1: S oxi ho ca nguyn t trong cc n cht bng 0 122

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Quy tc 2: Trong mt phn t tng s oxi ha ca cc nguyn t bng 0 Quy tc 3: S oxi ho ca cc ion n nguyn t bng in tch ca ion . Trong ion a nguyn t, tng s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t bng in tch ca ion Quy tc 4: Trong hu ht cc hp cht, s oxi ho ca H bng +1, tr mt s trng hp nh: Hirua kim loi ( NaH, MgH2...) S oxi ho ca oxi bng -2, tr trng hp OF2, peoxit ( H2O2)

Bi 1 : Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t trong hp cht v trong ion sau : KMnO4, MnO2, CaCl2, HNO3, H2SO4, Cu, Fe(NO3)2, Al2(SO4)3, NH4+, PO42Gi hc sinh xc nh s oxi ho NO3ca cc nguyn t v yu cu hc Bi 2 : Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc sinh x vn dng theo quy nguyn t trong phn ng sau tc no ? 1. Fe + H2SO4 --> Fe2(SO4)3 +SO2 + H2O 2. Mg +HNO3 --> Mg(NO3)2 + NO + H2O Gi hc sinh ln bng lm 3. FeSO4 + KMnO4 + H2SO4 --> Hc sinh khc nhn xt Fe2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + MnSO4 + H2O D. Cng c : Nhc loi cc quy tc xc ng s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t : E. Dn d : Yu cu hc sinh c trc bi nh v xem phn ng oxi ho kh chng trnh lp 9

Ngy dy : Ngy dy: Chng 4:

Phn ng oxi ho kh
123

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Tit 29: Phn ng oxi ho kh


A. Mc tiu bi dy:

1. Kin thc : Hiu c: - Phn ng oxi ho - kh l phn ng ho hc trong c s thay i s oxi ho ca nguyn t. - Cht oxi ho l cht nhn electron, cht kh l cht nhng electron. S oxi ho l s nhng electron, s kh l s nhn electron. - Cc bc lp phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh, ngha ca phn ng oxi ho - kh trong thc tin. 2. K nng - Phn bit c cht oxi ha v cht kh, s oxi ho v s kh trong phn ng oxi ho - kh c th. - Lp c phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh da vo s oxi ho (cn bng theo phng php thng bng electron).
B. Chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n Hc sinh: Cc khi nim s oxi ho, s kh, cht oxi ho, cht kh v phn ng oxi ho kh hc THCS. Khi nim s oxi ho v quy tc xc nh s oxi ho hc chng trc.
C. Phng php dy hc ch yu

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh


D. Ln lp

1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh hc bi mi 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr Hot ng 1: Nhc li cc khi nim v phn ng oxi ho kh chng trnh lp 8 : Gio vin dng phng php m thoi n li kin thc c : a. Nhc li nh ngha s oxi ho s kh lp 8. Ly v d. ni dung

- S tc dng ca mt cht vi oxi l s oxi ho. Vd: 2Mg + O2 2MgO (1) - S nhng oxi cho mt cht khc l s kh. Vd: CuO + H2 Cu + H2O (2) Trong cc p: b. Xc nh cht kh, cht xi - Cht cho oxi l cht oxi ho O 2, ho trong cc phng trnh lm CuO. 124

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

th d. c. Cc phn ng trn gi l phn ng g? Phn ng sau y c phi l phn ng oxi ho kh khng ? 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl tr li cu hi ny chng ta vo hc bi phn ng oxi ho kh. Hot ng 2: Hnh thnh cc khi nim Hot ng nhm nh: 2Mg + O2 2MgO CuO + H2 Cu + H2O ? Xc nh cht oxi ho, cht kh ca phn ng? ? Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t trong phn ng? ? Xc nh cht nhng e, cht nhn e. Vit qu trnh cho nhn e. ? Qua cc v d trn hy nh ngha th no l cht oxi ho, cht kh, s oxi ho, s kh.

- Cht nhn oxi l cht kh Mg, H2. Cc phn ng trn u l phn ng oxi ho kh.

I. nh ngha

1. Cht oxi ho, cht kh, s oxi ho, s kh 0 0 +2 2 VD1: 2 Mg + O2 2 Mg O Mg l cht kh, O2 l cht oxi ho 0 +2 Mg Mg + 2 e S oxi ho Mg 0 2 2O S kh O2 O2 + 4 e Mg l cht nhng e, Oxi l cht nhn e VD2: 0 +1 2 +2 2 0 Cu O + H 2 Cu + H 2 O CuO l cht oxi ho, H2 l cht kh +2 0 +2 Cu + 2 e Cu S kh Cu
H2
0

2 H + 2e S oxi ho
+2

+1

H2
H 2 l cht nhng e, Cu Oxi l cht
0

0 0 +1 1 Phn ng gia Na v Cl2 khng Na + Cl2 2 Na Cl c s cho v nhn oxi nhng c s 0 +1 Na Na + 1e S oxi ho Na cho v nhn e (Na cho, Cl2 nhn) 0 1 Cl2 + 2e 2 Cl S kh Cl2 Na l cht kh, Cl2 l cht oxi ho Cc nh ngha: Gio vin gi mi nhm ln trnh - Cht kh ( cht b oxi ho ) l by mt v d: cht nhng e hay l cht c s oxi ho tng sau phn ng Gi mt hc sinh ln kt lun li Gio vin tng kt v cho hc - Cht oxi ho ( Cht b kh) l cht thu e hay l cht c s oxi ho gim sinh ghi ni dung vo m

nhn e VD3:

125

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

sau phn ng. - Qu trnh oxi ho ( s oxi ho) l qu trnh nhng e. - Qu trnh kh ( s kh) l qu Hot ng 3: Khi nim phn trnh thu e ng oxi ho kh. 2. Phn ng oxi ho kh VD4: H2 + Cl2 ------> 2HCl khng c s nhng, thu e m ch a. Phn ng ho hc sau y: c s chuyn e v c s thay i c s nhng, thu e khng? c s thay i s oxiho s oxiho. L phn ng oxi ho - kh khng? Cht oxi ho: Cl2 c phi l phn ng oxi ho - Cht kh: H2 0 1 kh khng ? Nu phi hy xc Cl + 2e 2 Cl S kh Cl2 2 nh cht oxi ho, cht kh ? 0 +1 H 2 2 H + 2e S oxi ho H2 Qu trnh oxi ho (s oxi ho), qu trnh kh (s kh) ? VD5: s H2 + Cl2 ------> 2HCl b. Xt cc cu hi tng t vi t0 phn ng: NH4NO3 N 2O + H 2O c. Phn ng oxi ho - kh l g ?
t NH4NO3 N 2O + H 2O Trong phn ng ny ch c s thay i s oxiho ca mt nguyn t (nit) 3 +1 3 N N + 4 e S oxi ho N
0

+ 4 e N S kh N * Phn ng oxi ho kh: Phn ng oxi ho - kh l phn ng ho hc trong c s chuyn electron gia cc cht phn ng. Hay phn ng oxi ho - kh l phn ng c s thay i s oxiho ca mt s nguyn t.
N

+5

+1

D. Cng c :

Cho cc phn ng sau : t0 1. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 0 t 2. 2HgO Hg + O2 t0 3. 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O 126

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

4. HNO3 + NaOH --> NaNO3 + H2O a. Xc nh xem phn ng no l phn ng oxi ho kh? b. Phn ng oxi h kh th cc nh cht oxi ho, cht kh. Vit qu trnh oxi ho, qu trnh kh
E. Bi tp v nh: Lm bi 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 trong sch gio khoa

Ngy dy : Ngy dy: Chng 4:

Phn ng oxi ho kh

Tit 30: Phn ng oxi ho kh ( Tit 2)


A. Mc tiu bi dy:

1. Kin thc : Hiu c: - Phn ng oxi ho - kh l phn ng ho hc trong c s thay i s oxi ho ca nguyn t. - Cht oxi ho l cht nhn electron, cht kh l cht nhng electron. S oxi ho l s nhng electron, s kh l s nhn electron. - Cc bc lp phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh, ngha ca phn ng oxi ho - kh trong thc tin. 2. K nng - Phn bit c cht oxi ha v cht kh, s oxi ho v s kh trong phn ng oxi ho - kh c th. - Lp c phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh da vo s oxi ho (cn bng theo phng php thng bng electron).
B. Chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n Hc sinh: Chun b bi


C. Phng php dy hc ch yu

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh


D. Ln lp

1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu 1: Nu cc khi nim cht oxi ho, cht kh, s oxi ho, s kh, phn ng oxi ho kh? Ly v d: Cu 2: Lm bi tp 2, xc nh s oxi ho 127

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Cu 3: Lm bi tp 3: 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung II. Lp phng trnh ho hc ca phn ng oxi ho - kh theo phng php thng bng e: Nguyn tc: Tng s e do cht kh nhng ra phi ng bng tng s e m cht oxi ho nhn. V d 1; NH3 + CuO Cu + N2 + H2O Bc 1: Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t trong phn ng tm cht oxi ho, cht kh: 0 +1 2 3 +1 +2 2 0 N H + Cu O Cu + N + H O
3 2 2

Gio vin gii thiu phng php cn bng v nguyn tc cn bng phn ng. Hot ng 4: Da vo phn kim tra bi c: Ly phng trnh: NH3 + CuO Cu + N2 + H2O Gio vin cha bi kim tra ca hc sinh phn xc nh s oxi ho, cht oxi ho, cht kh, qu trnh oxi ho, qu tnh kh Gi hc sinh nhc li cc khi nim v cht oxi ho, cht kh, qu trnh oxi ho, qu tnh kh

S oxi ho ca Cu gim t +2 n +2 O: Cht oxi ho l: Cu ( CuO) : S oxi ho ca N tng t -3 n 0: 3 Cht kh l N ( trong NH3) Bc 2: Vit qu trnh oxi ho v qu trnh kh, cn bng mi qu trnh: 0 3 T gio vin nu ra 2 bc u 2N N 2 +2. 3 e Qu trnh oxi tin ca cn bng ho +2 0 Qu trnh Cu + 2e Cu kh Gio vin gii thiu 2 bc cn Bc 3: Tm h s thch hp cho bng cn li cht oxi ho v cht kh sao cho Gio vin hng dn 2 bc cn li tng s e do cht kh nhng ra i vi phn ng phi ng bng tng s e m cht oxi ho nhn. 0 3 1x 2 N N 2 +2. 3 e 3x Cu + 2e Cu Bc 4: t cc h s ca cht oxi ho v cht kh vo s phn ng. Kim tra li 2 NH3 +3 CuO 3 Cu + N2 ?Yu cu hc sinh tng hp li +3 H2O cc bc cn bng phn ng oxi
0 +2

128

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

ho kh theo phng php thng bng e Gi tng hc sinh ln lt lm tng bc mt Khi lm mi bc cn bng th u phi nhc li l thuyt v gii tch cch suy ngh lm Gio vin cha li:

V D 2: Fe2O3 + CO Fe + CO2 Bc 1: +3 2 +2 2 0 +4 2 Fe O 3 + C O Fe + C O
2

Cht oxi ho:


+2

Fe ( trong Fe2O3)

+3

Cht kh: C ( Trong CO) Bc 2: +3 0 1x 2 Fe + 2.3 e 2 Fe Qu trnh kh +2 +4 3x C C + 2e Qu trnh oxi ho Gi 3 hc sinh ln bng lm 3 v Bc 3: +3 0 d bn: 1x 2 Fe + 2.3 e 2 Fe 3x C C + 2e Buc 4: Fe2O3 +3 CO 2 Fe + 3CO2 V d 3: Cu + HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + NO + H2O V d 4: Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 H2O + H 2S +
+2 +4

V d 5: MnO2 + HCl MnCl2 + Cl2 + H2O III. ngha ca phn ng oxiho kh SGK
D. Cng c : Nhc li cc bc cn bng phn ng oxi ho kh :
E. Bi tp v nh :

Trong sch giao khoa v sch bi tp

129

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 31: Phn loi phn ng trong ho v c


A. Mc tiu bi dy:

1. Kin thc : Hs bit : Phn ng ho hp v phn ng phn hu c th thuc loi phn ng oxi ho - kh v cng c th khng thuc loi p oxi ho kh. P th thuc loi p oxi ho kh v phn ng trao i lun khng thuc loi p oxi ho kh HS Hiu c: Cc phn ng ho hc c chia thnh 2 loi: phn ng oxiho - kh v khng phi l phn ng oxiho - kh. 2. K nng

130

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Da vo s oxi ho c th chia cc phn ng ho hc thnh 2 loi chnh l mt phn ng thuc loi phn ng oxiho - kh da vo s thay i s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t.
B. Chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n Hc sinh: Chun b bi, xem li kin thc lp 8
C. Phng php dy hc ch yu

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh


D. Ln lp

1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu 1: Nu cc bc cn bng phn ng oxi ho kh theo phng php thng bng e Cu 2: Lm bi 7 A Cu 3: Lm bi 7 B 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung

1. Phn ng ho hp: a) Th d 1: 0 0 +1 -2 Hot ng 1: 2 H 2 + O2 2 H 2 O Gv yu cu hc sinh nhc li khi - S oxi ho ca hidro tng t 0 ln nim th no l phn ng ho +1 hp? Ly 2 v d - S oxi ho ca oxi gim t 0 Gv hng dn hs ly 2 v d sao xung -2 cho c 1 p thay i s oxi ho. b) Th d 2: ? Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc +2 -2 +4 -2 +2 +4 -2 Ca O + CO 2 Ca CO3 nguyn t trong phn ng ? T rt ra kt lun l trong - S oxi ho ca cc nguyn t phn ng ho hp , s oxi hoa ca khng c s thay i. * Nhn xt: Trong phn ng ho cc ngt c thay i khng? hp, s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t c th thay i hoc khng thay i. Hot ng 2: Gv yu cu hc sinh nhc li khi nim th no l phn ng phn 2. Phn ng phn hu: a) Th d 1: hu? Ly 2 v d +1 -1 +1 +5 -2 0 Gv hng dn hs ly 2 v d sao cho c 1 p thay i s oxi ho. 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2 131

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- S xi ho ca oxi tng t -2 ln 0 ? Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc - S xi ho ca clo gim t +5 nguyn t trong phn ng xung-1


+1 -2 +2 -2 -2 +1 ? T rt ra kt lun l trong phn ng ho hp , s oxi hoa ca Cu (OH)2 CuO + H2O cc ngt c thay i khng? S oxi ho ca cc nguyn t khng thay i. +2

b) Th d 2:

* Nhn xt: Trong cc phn ng Hot ng 3: phn hu, s oxi ho ca cc Gv yu cu hc sinh nhc li khi nguyn t c th thay i hoc nim th no l phn ng th? khng thay i. Ly 2 v d Gv hng dn hs ly 2 v d sao 3. Phn ng th: cho c 1 p thay i s oxi ho. a) Th d 1: +1 0 +2 ? Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc 0 + Ag NO3 Cu (NO3)2 + 2 Ag Cu nguyn t trong phn ng ? T rt ra kt lun l trong - S oxi ho ca Cu tng t 0 ln +2 phn ng ho hp , s oxi hoa ca - S oxi ho ca Ag gim t +1 xung 0 cc ngt c thay i khng? b) Th d 2: 0 0 +1 +2 Hot ng 4: Zn + 2 H Cl Zn Cl2 + H 2 Gv yu cu hc sinh nhc li khi * Nhn xt: Trong phn ng th, nim th no l phn ng trao bao gi cng c s thay i s oxi i? Ly 2 v d ho ca cc nguyn t . Gv hng dn hs ly 2 v d sao cho c 1 p thay i s oxi ho. 4. Phn ng trao i: ?Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc a) Th d 1: nguyn t trong phn ng ?T rt ra kt lun l trong phn ng ho hp , s oxi hoa ca cc ngt c thay i khng? Hot ng 5: Vic chia phn ng thnh cc loi nh phn ng ho hp, p phn hu, ph th, ph trao i d trn c s no? ( Da vo s lng cht tham gia phn ng v to thnh sau phn ng.
+1+5 -2 -1 +1 +1 -1 -2 +1 +5

AgNO + NaCl 3

AgCl

+ NaNO3

b) Th d 2: NaOH + CuCl2 Cu(OH)2 + 2NaCl * Nhn xt: Trong phn ng trao i, s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t khng thay i. 132

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Nu ly c s l s oxi ho th c th chia thnh my loi? HS: 2 loi: Gv b xung: Da trn c s s thay i s oxi ho th vic phn loi s thc cht hn so vi vic phn loi da o s lng cht tham gia phn ng v to thnh sau phn ng.

5. Kt lun:

Da vo s thay i s oxiho c th chia phn ng trong ho hc v c thnh hai loi: Phn ng oxiho - kh Phn ng ho hc c s thay i s oxi ho. (phn ng ho hp, phn hu, th) Phn ng khng phi oxiho - kh Phn ng ho hc khng c s thay i s oxi ho.(phn ng ho hp, phn hu, trao i)

D. Cng c bi : s dng bi s 1, 2, 3 trong sch gio khoa E. Bi tp v nh : Cc bog cn li trong sch gio khoa

133

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 32: luyn tp Phn ng oxi ho kh


A. Mc tiu bi dy:

1. Kin thc : Hiu c: - Phn ng oxi ho - kh l phn ng ho hc trong c s thay i s oxi ho ca nguyn t. - Cht oxi ho l cht nhn electron, cht kh l cht nhng electron. S oxi ho l s nhng electron, s kh l s nhn electron. - Cc bc lp phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh, ngha ca phn ng oxi ho - kh trong thc tin. 2. K nng - Phn bit c cht oxi ha v cht kh, s oxi ho v s kh trong phn ng oxi ho - kh c th. - Lp c phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh da vo s oxi ho (cn bng theo phng php thng bng electron).
B. Chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n Hc sinh: Chun b bi


C. Phng php dy hc ch yu

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh


D. Ln lp

1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Lm bi 1, 2, 4. Lm bi 3 Lm bi 5 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung Ht ng 1: Hot ng nhm A. L thuyt ngang ( 5 p) SGK Gio vin yu cu hc sinh nhc li cc l thuyt c bn v phn 134

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

g oxi ho kh. - S oxi ho, s kh - Cht oxi ha, cht kh - Phn ng oxi ho - kh - Phn loi phn ng trong ho v c Hot ng 2: C nhn: B. Bi tp Bi 1: SGK 88

Hc sinh c bi, nu yu cu ca bi Hc sinh tr li v gii thch p n ng: D (Phn ng oxi ho kh: ( phn ng ho hp, p phn hu, v phn ng th) Phn ng khng phi l p oxi ho kh: ( phn ng ho hp, p phn Bi 2: SGK 89 hu, p trao i) p n ng: C Hs c v nu yu cu ca Bi 3: SGK 89 bi Hs tr li v gii thch nh trn p n ng: D ? Th no l phn ng oxi ho kh ? Da vo du hiu no xc Bi 4: SGK 89 nh l phn ng oxi ho kh Cu ng : A, C ( C s thay i s oxi ho ) Cu sai: B, D ? Phng php gii bi ton Bi 5: Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc Hs tr li nguyn t:
+1+32 -3 +1 -1 +1 +6 +3 +6 -2 -2 -2

HNO2

NH4Cl

K2Cr2O Cr2(SO4)

7 3 Gi hs ln xc nh s oxi ho Hs nhn xt Gv cha li bi Cc hp cht khc v nh lm Bi 7: tip Cht oxi ho: O2, KNO3, NH4NO2, Fe2O3 Cht kh: H2, KNO3, NH4NO2, Al

135

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hc sinh nu yu cu ca bi xc nh mt cht ng vai Bi 8: tr g th ta phi da vo Cht oxi ho: Cl2, H2SO4, HNO3, Cl2 u? Cht kh: HBr, Cu, H2S, FeCl2 Gi 1 hc sinh ln lm bi s 7, mt lm bi 8 ? xc nh qu trnh oxi ho, kh:
D. Cng c bi : Nhc li cc khi nim v phn ng oxi ho kh E. Bi tp v nh : Cc bi cn li trong sch gio khoa. Nu cc bc cn bng

phn ng oxi ho kh

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 33: luyn tp Phn ng oxi ho kh


A. Mc tiu bi dy:

1. Kin thc : Hiu c: - Phn ng oxi ho - kh l phn ng ho hc trong c s thay i s oxi ho ca nguyn t. - Cht oxi ho l cht nhn electron, cht kh l cht nhng electron. S oxi ho l s nhng electron, s kh l s nhn electron. - Cc bc lp phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh, ngha ca phn ng oxi ho - kh trong thc tin. 2. K nng - Phn bit c cht oxi ha v cht kh, s oxi ho v s kh trong phn ng oxi ho - kh c th. - Lp c phng trnh phn ng oxi ho - kh da vo s oxi ho (cn bng theo phng php thng bng electron).
B. Chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n Hc sinh: Chun b bi


C. Phng php dy hc ch yu

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh


D. Ln lp

1. n nh lp 136

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung Hot ng 9: Hot ng nhm Bi 9: Cn bng cc phn ng oxi ngang ho kh t c 1. Cl2 + KOH KCl + KClO3 + ? Nu nguyn tc v cc bc cn H2O bng phn ng oxi ho kh 0 +1-2 +1-1 +1+ Nguyn tc: Tng s e do cht 5 t c kh nhng ra phi ng bng Cl2 KOH KCl KClO tng s e m cht oxi ho nhn. + 3 + H2O Cht oxi ho: Cl2 Gi hs ln bng lm Cht kh: Cl2 0 1 Hs nhn xt 5x Cl + 1e Cl S kh Gv cha bi 0 +5 1x Cl Cl + 5e S oxi ho
0 0

Gi hs ln bng lm Hs nhn xt Gv cha bi

t c 3Cl2 +6 KOH 5 KCl + KClO3 + 3H2O 2. +2 +7 +6 FeSO4 + + KMnO4 H2SO4


0

+3

+2

+1+ 6 + K2SO4 + H2O

Fe2(SO4 + )3 MnSO4 Cht oxi ho: Cht kh Gi hs ln bng lm Hs nhn xt Gv cha bi


+7 +2 +7

Mn ( KMnO4)

2x Mn +2 5x 2 Fe

Fe ( FeSO4) +2 + 5e Mn S kh

2 Fe + 2.1e

+3

10FeSO4 + 2 KMnO4 + 8 H2SO4 --> 5Fe2(SO4)3 + 2 MnSO4 + K2SO4 + 8 H2O 3.Al + HNO3 --> Al(NO3)3 + NH4NO3 137

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

+ H2O Hs c bi, nu yu cu Bi 10: Cho 2,24 gam st tc dng ca? vi dd HCl. Kh sinh ra cho i qua Phng php gii: ng ng 4,2 gam CuO c t - Vit cc phng trnh phn ng nng. Xc nh khi lng ca cht - Tnh s mol ca cc cht rn sau phn ng. - Xc nh cht rn sau p l cht no Fe + 2 HCl --> FeCl2 + H2 - Mun tnh khi lng th tnh s (1) mol. Da vo ptpw tnh mol 0,04 0,04 t c H2 + CuO Cu + H2O (2) Gv dng phng php m thoi mol
0

nFe = nCuO =

2,24 = 0,04mol 56 4,2 = 0,0525 mol 80

p 2 ta thy nCuO > nH 2 nn sau phn ng CuO d, H2 p ht Cht rn sau p l: Cu v CuO d nCu = 0,04 mol nCuO = 0,0525 0,04 = 0,0125 mol Khi lng cht rn sau p: m = mCu + mCuO = 0,04.64 + 0,0125.80 = 12,56gam Bi 12: SGK nFeSO 4 = 1,39/278 = 0,005 mol t pt --> nKMnO 4 = 0,001 mol --> V = 0,01l D. Cng c bi : Hng dn bi 4.29, 4.30 trong sch bi tp E. Bi tp v nh : Cc bi cn li trong sch gio khoa. Nu cc bc cn bng phn ng oxi ho kh Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 34: Bi thc hnh s 1


Phn ng oxi ho - kh
A. chun kin thc v k nng

1. Kin thc Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: 138

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

+ Phn ng gia mt s kim loi Fe, Cu vi H2SO4 long hoc c, nng + Phn ng gia kim loi Mg vi dung dch mui CuSO4. + Phn ng gia oxiho - kh gia kim loi vi oxit (Mg + CO2) nhit cao.. + Phn ng oxi ho - kh trong mi trng axit (Cu + KNO3 + H2SO4). 2. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim.
B. Chun b:

1. Dng c th nghim: ng nghim: 4 Kp ly ho cht :1 - inh st loi 1,5 cm - Bng Mg CO2


C. Ni dung thc hnh:

ng ht nh git: 6 Tha xc ho cht: 1

Capsun s hoc hm s: 1 -

2. Ho cht: - Km vin - dd HCl, H2SO4 long - dd CuSO4 ; dd KMnO4 long

dd FeSO4 ; l kh cha kh

Hot ng ca gio vin 1. Th nghim 1. Phn ng gia kim loi v dd axit.

Hot ng ca hc sinh 1. Th nghim 1. Phn ng gia kim loi v dd axit.

- phn ng xy ra nhanh, nn Cho vo ng nghim 2 ml dung dng dd H2SO4 nng khong dch axit H2SO4 long, b tip vo 30%, cc ht Zn phi c ra sch ng mt ht km. bng dd HCl long, sau ra - Quan st hin tng bng nc ct. Trong ng nghim c bt kh H2 - tit kim ha cht v thm ni ln, km tan dn trong dung an ton cho HS, c th tin hnh dch axit. cc th nghim lng nh trong cc Gii thch hin tng, vit ptp, cho hm s trn gi th nghim. bit vai tr tng cht trong phn ng 139

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

2. Th nghim 2. Phn ng gia 2. Th nghim 2. Phn ng gia kim loi v dd mui. mi v c lau kim loi v dd mui. Nn dng chic inh st cn Cho vo ng nghim 2 ml dung sch. Nu dng dch CuSO4 long, b tip vo ng mt inh st. - Quan st hin tng: Trn mt chic inh c ph dn mt lp ng kim loi mu . Mu xanh ca dung dch CuSO4 nht dn do phn ng to thnh dung dch FeSO4 khng mu. Gii thch hin tng, vit ptp, cho bit vai tr tng cht trong phn ng 3. Th nghim 3. Phn ng oxi 3. Th nghim 3. Phn ng oxi ha kh gia Mg v CO2 ha kh gia Mg v CO2 iu ch sn kh CO2 t dung Ly mt bng Mg (kp bng kp dch HCl v CaCO3, thu y l st) em chm la trong khng ming rng 100 ml, sau y kh ri a vo bnh c cha kh nt li. CO2. Cho vo y l mt t ct - Quan st hin tng. trnh cho l khi b nt,v khi tin Khi t Mg trong khng kh s cho hnh th nghim. ngn la sng chi. a nhanh u dy ang chy vo l ng CO2, Mg tip tc chy, to thnh bt MgO mu trng ri xung v mui than (C) mu en xut Th nghim 4. Phn ng oxi ha hin. kh trong mi trng axit. Gii thch hin tng, vit ptp, cho Hng dn HS xc nh sn bit vai tr tng cht trong phn phm to thnh ng 3. Th nghim 4. Phn ng oxi ha kh trong mi trng axit. 140

inh st c phi nh sch g.

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Cho vo ng nghim 2 ml dung dch FeSO4 long, thm tip vo ng nghim 1 ml dung dch H2SO4. Nh vo ng nghim tng git dd KMnO4, lc nh ng sau mi ln thm mt git dung dch. - Quan st hin tng: Khi nh tng git dung dch KMnO4 mu tm vo hn hp dd FeSO4 v H2SO4 trong ng nghim,lc nh, dung dch mt dn mu tm. Gii thch hin tng, vit ptp, cho bit vai tr tng cht trong phn ng D. bo co kt qu thc hnh 1. H v tn hc sinh:Lp:.. 2. Tn bi thc hnh.
TT Tn TN Cch TN tin hnh Hin quan st c tng Gii thch kt qu TN

141

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Chng IV:

Phn nhm chnh nhm VII- Nhm halogen

Tit 37 :
A. Mc tiu bi dy:

Cc nguyn t Halogen

1. Kin thc : Hs bit v hiu - V tr nhm halogen trong bng tun hon. Nhm Hlg gm cc nguyn t no - S bin i m in, bn knh nguyn t v mt s tnh cht vt l ca cc nguyn t trong nhm. - Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca cc nguyn t halogen l tnh oxi ho mnh do lp e ngoi cng ca cc nguyn t ngyn t hlg c 7 e nn huynh hng l nhn thm 1 e to thnh ion hlgnua c cu hnh e bn vng. - S bin i tnh cht ha hc ca cc n cht trong nhm halogen. - V sao nguyn t F ch c s oxi ho l -1 trong khi cc nguyn t hlg cn li c s oxi ho +1, +3, +5, +7 -1 2. K nng - Vit c cu hnh lp electron ngoi cng ca nguyn t F, Cl, Br, I. - D on c tnh cht ha hc c bn ca halogen l tnh oxi ha mnh da vo cu hnh lp electron ngoi cng v mt s tnh cht khc ca nguyn t. - Vit c cc PTHH chng minh tnh cht oxi ho mnh ca cc nguyn t halogen, quy lut bin i tnh cht ca cc nguyn t trong nhm.
B. Chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n, bng h thng tun hon cc nguyn t, bng ph Hc sinh: Chun b bi vit cu hnh e 142

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai C. Phng php dy hc ch yu

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh


D. Ln lp

1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh luyn tp 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng 1: Vo bi: Sang hc k II chng ta nghin cu v ho nguyn t u tin l nghin cu v cc nguyn t thuc nhm VIIA hay gi l nhm Halogen. Hot ng ca c v tr Hot ng 2: Nhm ngang ( 2p) ? Hs quan st trong bng tun hon, cho bit tn nguyn t, k hiu, khi lng nguyn t, s hiu nguyn t ca cc nguyn t thuc nhm VIIA v nhm halogen. Tn nguy n t K hiu S Z Khi lng nguyn t ni dung I. V tr ca nhm halogen trong bng tun hon. Nhm VIIA gm cc nguyn t : F, Cl, Br, I, At Nhm Halogen gm cc nguyn t :F, Cl, Br, I.

Gv: Gii thch ngun gc t Halogen ? Ti sao At li khng c xp vo nhm hlg

Hot ng 3: C nhn ? Vit cu hnh e ca cc gnuyn t nguyn t hlg ? Nhn xt s e lp ngoi cng? Vit cu hnh e lp ngoi cng Nguyn t F khng c phn lp d. dng tng qut ? Nhn xt v s lp e - trong cc T F I s lp electron tng dn. Cc hlg d nhn thm 1 e t halogen, Lp ngoi cng F c g ti cu hnh e bn vng ca kh khc so vi Cl, Br, I? him. Tch cht ho hc c bn ? Da vo c im lp ngoi ca cc hlg l tnh oxi ho mnh cng cho bit cc nguyn t hlg X2 + 2 e --> 2X Phn t hlg: 143

II. Cu hnh electron nguyn t, cu to phn t. : 1s22s22p5 9F : 1s22s22p63s23p5 17Cl 2 2 6 2 6 2 10 5 35Br : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p : 53I 2 1s 2s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d10p5 Halogen c 7e- ngoi cng dng ns2np5 Trong c 1e- c thn.

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

c tnh cht ho hc c trng l g? ? V sao cc nguyn t hlg khng ng ring r m li lin kt vi nhau to phn t X2 ( To u hnh e bn vng) Hot ng 4: nhm ngang ( 2p) Hs quan st bng : Mt s c im ca cc nguyn t hlg ? Nhn xt v s bin i trng thi, mu sc, nhi nng chy, nhit si theo chiu tng dn in tch ht nhn: Cc nhm bo co , nhn xt, b xung Gv tng kt hs t ghi Hot ng 5: C nhn

: X + : X : X : X :
.. .. .. ..

..

..

..

..

hay cng thc cu to l X- X. III. S bin i tnh cht 1. S bin i tnh cht vt l ca cc n cht * Theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn (t F n I) - Trng thi : T kh lng rn - Mu sc : m dn - t0n/c : Tng dn 0 -t s : Tng dn - S lp (e) : Tng dn 2. S bin i m in - m in tng i ln nhng gim dn - Flo c m in ln nht nn ch c s oxh = -1.

Cc halogen khc ngoi s oxh -1, ? Nhn xt v gi tr m cn c cc s oxh +1, +3, +5, +7. in ca cc nguyn t hlg so vi nguyn t khc, S bin i 3. S bin i tnh cht ho hc m in cc cc ngt hlg theo ca cc n cht chiu Z tng - Halogen l cc phi kim in hnh ? Ti sao ngoi s o xh l -1 th d nhn thm 1e- thnh ion Cl, Br, I cn c s oxh l +1,+3, m X+5, +7 m F khng c X + 1e- X(tnh OXH mnh) - T F I tnh phi kim v kh nng ? Em hy d on tnh cht ho oxh gim dn. - Flo lun c s OXH 1 trong hp hc chung ca halogen (da vo cht. cu hnh e-, m in) - Cl, Br, I c s o xh c trng l -1 ? Em hy so snh tnh OXH ca trong H.C vi kim loi v hiro. Ngoi ra cn c s o xh l : +1, +3, cc halogen v gii thch? +5, +7 trong H.C vi o xi ? Em hy d on s OXH ca * Trong H.C vi Ag cc alogen trong hp cht AgF AgCl AgBr AgI Tan KT(trng) KT(vng nht) KT(vng) 144

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

.
D. Cng c bi :

So snh cu hnh e- nguyn t Clo, Flo, Brm, It? Ti sao cc halogen c tnh cht ho hc ging nhau? Ti sao cc halogen c tnh cht ho hc khc nhau? Ti sao Flo ch c s OXH 1 trong hp cht?

E. Bi tp v nh : Bi tp: 2, 3, 4, 5 SGK (gio vin hng dn qua)

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 38 :
A. Mc tiu bi dy:

Clo

1. Kin thc : - Hs bit c:-Tnh cht vt l, trng thi t nhin, ng dng ca clo, phng php iu ch clo trong phng th nghim, trong cng nghip. - Hs hiu c: Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca clo l phi kim mnh, c tnh oxi ho mnh (tc dng vi kim loi, hiro, nc). Clo cn th hin tnh kh . 2. K nng - D on, kim tra v kt lun c v tnh cht ha hc c bn ca clo. - Vit cc PTHH minh ho tnh cht ho hc v iu ch clo. - Tnh th tch kh clo ktc tham gia hoc to thnh trong phn ng. 145

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

B. Chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n, bng ph, cc phiu hc tp Hc sinh: Nm c tnh oxy ho mnh ca cc nguyn t halogen Cng c & pht trin k nng xc nh s oxy ho ca cc nguyn t.
C. Phng php dy hc ch yu

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh


D. Ln lp

1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Lm bi 1 4 Nhm halg gm cc nguyn t no, k hiu, trng thi, mu sc v tnh cht ho hc c bn ca n? gii thch ti sao li c tnh cht 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng 1: Nguyn t trong nhm hlg c nhiu ng dng trong thc t i sng l nguyn t Clo. Vy nguyn t clo c nhng tnh cht vt l, ho hc g v c iu ch ra sao chng ta s nghin cu bi Clo Hot ng ca c v tr Hot ng 2: C nhn Hs quan st l ng kh clo ? Nu tnh cht vt l ca clo ni dung I. Tnh cht vt l - iu kin thng, clo l cht kh mu vng lc, rt c.

? Cho bit t khi ca clo so vi - Kh clo nng gp 2,5 ln khng kh (d= 71 : 29 ~ 2,5 ) 7 tan nhiu khng kh, kh clo nng hay trong nc cn gi l nc clo c mu nh hn khng kh. Khi iu vng nht, tan nhiu trong dung ch Clo ta thu kh Clo bng cch mi hu c. no? II. Tnh cht ha hc Cl ( Z = 17) 1s22s22p63s23p5 ? Vit cu hnh e ca nguyn t c 7e lp ngoi cng nn d nhn Cl? 1e Do tnh cht ho hc c ? T c im cu to cho bit tc ho hc c bn ca Cl l bn ca Clo l tnh oxi ho mnh tnh cht g Cl2 + 2.1e = 2Cl1. Tc dng vi kim loi: + Natri nng chy trong clo vi ngn la sng chi to natri clorua 146

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai


0 0 +1 -1

2Na + Cl2 > 2NaCl + St nung chy trong clo to thnh kh mu nu l nhng ? Tnh oxi ho ca Clo c th ht st (III) clorua 0 0 +3 -1 hin qua cc phn ng ho hc no 2Fe + Cl2 > 2FeCl3 ( td vi kim loi, hiro) + Dy ng nung trong kh clo to thnh ng (II) clorua ? Hs ly v d Gv gi ly Na, Fe, Cu...) ? Vit pt p ? Xc nh s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t Gio vin thng bo: t0 thng &
0 0 +2 -1

Cu

+ Cl2 > CuCl2

2. Tc dng vi hidro:
0 0 +2 -1
AS A 2HCl

H2

+ Cl2

bng ti, Clo khng phn ng vi Clo th hin tnh OXH mnh hir, khi chiu sng phn ng xy ra nhanh & c th n (theo t l 1:1). -Gio vin cho HS bit thm: Clo 3. Tc dng vi nc: 0 1 +1 oxi ho c tt c cc kim loi Cl + H O HCl + HClO 2 2 phn ng t0 thng hoc khng Clo va l cht kh va l cht oxi cao lm, tc nhanh, to ho nhiu nhit. Cl0 + 1e Cl ? Xc nh s oxi ho Cl 0 Cl + + 1e Clo ng vai tr l cht oxi ho - Phn ng trn thun nghch do hay cht kh trong phn ng HClO l cht oxi ho mnh, oxi ho trn HCl thnh Cl2 ? V sao phn ng clo vi H2O l - Clo m c tnh ty mu do axit HClO c tnh oxi ho mnh phn ng thun nghch ? III. Trng thi t nhin ? V sao clo m c tnh ty mu Trong t nhin clo tn ti ch yu cn clo kh li khng c tnh ty dng H.C: NaCl c trong nc bin & mu mui m. Clo trong t nhin clo tn ti 2 ng 147

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

? Trong t nhin clo tn ti dng v hp cht & ch yu dng hp cht no ? Thng bo cho bit clo c 3 ng v
35 17

Cl (75,4%)

37 17

Cl (24,6

%) IV. ng dng SGK V. iu ch 1. Trong PTN

- Kh clo dng lm g trong Nguyn tc: A xt HCl c + cht oxi ho ( MnO2, KMnO4, NaClO, i sng ? - Kh clo dng sn xut g KClO3, K2Cr2O7 Cl2 trong cng nghip ?
+4 -1 t0 +2 -1 0

MnO2+ 4HCl 2H2O ? Nu phng php iu ch clo trong PTN:


+7 -1

MnCl2 + Cl2 +

+2

2KMnO4 +16HCl 2MnCl2 + 5Cl2 + 2KCl + 8H2O 2. Trong CN:

V nh cn bng cc phn ng oxi ho kh

+ in phn dung dch mui n c mng ngn PCMN 2NaCl + 2H2O H2 + ? Nu phng php iu ch clo Cl2 +2NaOH trong CN: + in phn nng chy NaCl PNC 2NaCl Na + Gv m rng thm cc phng Cl2 php iu ch Cl trng CN + in phn dung dch a xt HCl Pdung dch HCl H2 + Cl2
D. Cng c bi :

Cho bit tnh cht ho hc c bn ca clo ? Gii thch v sao nguyn t clo c tnh cht ho hc c bn ? Cho th d minh ho.
E. Bi tp v nh : SGK (gio vin hng dn qua)

148

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 39 :
A. Mc tiu bi dy:

Hidrro Clorua . Axit Clohidric v mui clorua

1. Kin thc : - Cu to phn t, tnh cht ca hiro clorua ( l cht kh, tan nhiu trong nc ) - Tnh cht vt l, iu ch axit clohiric trong phng th nghim v trong cng nghip. - Tnh cht, ng dng ca mt s mui clorua, phn ng c trng ca ion clorua. - Dung dch HCl l mt axit mnh, c tnh kh . 2. K nng - Vit cc PTHH chng minh tnh cht ho hc ca axit HCl. - Phn bit dung dch HCl v mui clorua vi dung dch axit v mui khc.
B. Chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n, dung dch qu tm, chu, cc thu tinh. Th nghim phn bit 4 dung dch: HCl, H2SO4 (l), NaCl, Na2SO4 Hc sinh: Hc bi, n li tnh cht ho hc ca axit
C. Phng php dy hc ch yu

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh


D. Ln lp

1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Cu 1: Trnh by tnh cht ho hc ca clo? Vit ptpu minh ho Cu 2: Lm bi tp Cu 3: Trnh by tnh cht hc hc ca axit, vit pt pu minh ho 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng 1: Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung I. Hidrro clorua Hot ng 2: C nhn 1. Cu to phn t ? Xc nh hp cht HCl c lin Hp cht cng ho tr, phn t 149
. . . .

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

kt ho hc gi? ? Vit cng thc e, ctct ca phn t HCl Hot ng 3: GV lm TN hoc m t th nghim nghin cu tan ca kh HCl trong nc. HS quan st v tr li cc cu hi: + Hin tng? + v sao nc phun vo bnh? + v sao qu tm i mu? Ch : kh HCl khng th hin tnh cht thng thy ca dung dch axit. Khng lm giy qu tm, khng phn ng vi CaCO3 Hot ng 4: Tnh cht vt l ca dd HCl : C nhn GV gii thiu v dung dch HCl, Hs quan st l ng dung dch HCl nhn xt v trng thi mu sc m nt l cha axit HCl c cho HS quan st thy khi bc ln v nu cu hi bc khi l g? Hot ng 5: Hot ng nhm ngang ( 5 p ) ? Hy nu tnh cht ho hc chung ca axit. Vit ptpu minh ho Cc nhm bo co kt qu Cc nhm khc nhn xt, b xung Gv tng kt li + Qu tm + Tc dng vi Oxit baz, baz to ra mui v nc + Td vi mui + Td vi kim loi ? Nguyn nhn no gy nn cc tnh cht axit trn?

phn cc. H : Cl : hay H Cl 2. Tnh cht Kh khng mu, mi xc, nng hn KK Tan nhiu trong nc to thnh dung dch axit clohidric. (lm qu tm ng mu )

III. Axit clohidrric 1. Tnh cht vt l Cht lng khng mu, mi xc. 200C, nng c nht l 37% v khi lng ring = 1,19 g/cm3. Kh HCl thot ra KK m to vi hi nc nhng ht cht lng nh nh sng m bc khi 2. Tnh cht ho hc a. Dung dch HCl c y tnh cht chung ca axit mnh: * Lm qu tm i mu * Tc dng vi oxit baz: HCl + CuO * Tc dng vi baz HCl + Fe(OH)3 * Tc dng vi mui HCl + Na2CO3 * Tc dng vi kim loi (ng trc H2) HCl + Fe Tnh axit trn do ion H+ gy nn b. Kh HCl, dung dch HCl c tnh kh khi gp cht oxiho mnh HCl + KMnO4 = Cl2 + ? HCl + MnO2 --> Cl trong HCl c s oxiho thp nht (1) b oxiho thnh Cl2. 150

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

? Vit ptpu ? Xc nh vai tr ca HCl trong phn ng trn ( HCl l cht kh ) ? Ti sao HCl li c tnh kh ( Trong HCl s oxi ho ca Clo -1 l s oxi ho thp nht ca Clo nn c kh nng nhng e v s oxi ho 0, + 1, +3, +5 )
D. Cng c bi :

Kt lun: + Axit Clohiric c tnh axit mnh, tnh kh yu (Cl ), tnh oxi ho (H+).

Vit ptpu khi cho dd HCl ln lt tc dng vi Fe, Al, CaO, KOH, CaCO3, AgNO3 E. Bi tp v nh : SGK (gio vin hng dn qua)

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 40:
A. Mc tiu bi dy:

Hidrro Clorua . Axit Clohidric v mui clorua

1. Kin thc : - Tnh cht vt l, iu ch axit clohiric trong phng th nghim v trong cng nghip. - Tnh cht, ng dng ca mt s mui clorua, phn ng c trng ca ion clorua. 2. K nng - Vit cc PTHH chng minh tnh cht ho hc ca axit HCl. - Phn bit dung dch HCl v mui clorua vi dung dch axit v mui khc. - Lm cc bi tp c lin quan
B. Chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n, dung dch qu tm, chu, cc thu tinh. Th nghim phn bit 4 dung dch: HCl, H2SO4 (l), NaCl, Na2SO4 Hc sinh: Hc bi, n li tnh cht ho hc ca axit
C. Phng php dy hc ch yu

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh


D. Ln lp

1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: 151

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Cu 1: Trnh by tnh cht hc hc ca axit HCl, vit pt pu minh ho Cu 2: Bi s 5 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng 1: Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung III. iu ch 1.Trong Phng TN: ? iu kin v cc cht tham gia phn ng ? b) Cch thu kh HCl ? C th thu qua nc c khng ? ( Khng, v kh HCl tan trong nc to dung dch HCl) Tu vo nhit tin hnh phn ng m mui to thnh l NaHSO4 hoc Na2SO4. 2. Trong CN: Phng php tng hp y l phng php chnh dung trong cng nghip - Ly H2 , Cl2 t p in phn dung dch NaCl - t H2 trong bnh ng kh clo thu c kh HCl H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl ( kh hiroclrua ) - Ho tan kh HCl bng nc thu c a xt clohirc. Giai on ny c thc hin trong thp hp th ( nc phun t trn xung kh HCl i t di ln ) IV. Mui ca axit clohiric. Nhn bit ion clorua 1.Mui clorua Gio vin treo bng tnh tan, yu + Hu nh cc mui clorua u tan cu hc sinh rt ra nhn xt v trong nc. tnh tan ca cc mui clorua + Mt s mui t tan trong nc: AgCl, CuCl, PbCl2... + Mt s mui d bay hi nhit 152 Phng php sun pht 2500c NaCl + H2SO4 = NaHSO4 + HCl (tinh th) (m c) 5000c 2NaCl + H2SO4 = Na2SO4 + HCl (tinh th) (m c)

Gio vin dng s iu ch HCl bng phng php tng hp cng phn tch v rt ra nhn xt. + Kh H2, Cl2 c dn cng chiu, ch trn ln trc khi phn ng ly d kh H2 . + Hp th kh HCl theo phng php ngc dng.

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

cao: CuCl2, SnCl2, FeCl3... * ng dng + KCl lm phn kali + ZnCl2 c kh nng dit khun + AlCl3 dng lm xc tc trong Gio vin yu cu hc sinh c SGK & lit k nhng ng dng tng hp hu c + BaCl2 dng tr su bnh nng ca mui clorua. nghip + NaCl lm mui n, nguyn liu iu ch Cl2, NaOH, nc gia-ven 2. Nhn bit ion clorua Nhng mui clorua no c du hiu c trng. Gio vin: Hng dn hc sinh lm th nghim cho dd AgNO3 ln lt tc dng vi dd axit HCl & dd NaCl, yu cu hc sinh quan st hin tng. Gio vin lu thm: a ra ngoi nh sng AgCl chuyn mu xm. 2AgCl Ag + Cl2 * Nguyn tc : Dng dung dch mui AgNO3 nhn bit gc clorua * Cch lm : Cho dung dch AgNO3 vo dung dch cn nhn bit nu xut hin kt ta trng , kt ta ny khng tan trong a xt HNO3 th dung dch cn nhn bit c cha gc clorua NaCl + AgNO3 = AgCl trng + NaNO3 HCl + AgNO3 = AgCl + HNO3

D. Cng c bi :

1. Cho cc ho cht Fe2O3, MgCO3, Zn, Ag, K2Cr2O7, Cu(OH)2, CaSO4. Hy chn cc cht phn ng vi dd HCl chng t dd axit HCl c cc tnh cht: a) Tnh axit mnh b) Tnh oxi ho 2. Bng phng php ho hc, tin hnh cc th nghim dng nhn bit cc dd NaCl, dd HCl, dd NaOH, dd NaNO3 ng trong cc l ring bit. Vit cc PTP. 3. Nu cch phn bit 4 dung dch: HCl, H2SO4 (l), NaCl, Na2SO4 bng phn ng ho hc.
E. Bi tp v nh : SGK (gio vin hng dn qua)

153

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 41:
A. chun kin thc v k nng

Bi thc hnh s 3

tnh cht ho hc ca kh clo v hp cht ca clo 1. Kin thc Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: 154

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

+ iu ch clo, tnh ty mu ca clo m + iu ch axit axit clohiric + Lm bi nhn bit cc dung dch mt nhn 2. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim.
B. Chun b

1. Dng c th nghim: - ng nghim : 5 - Cp ng nghim : 1 - Tha xc ha cht: 1 2. Ha cht: - ng oxit - ng phoi bo - dd HCl; dd NaNO3 ; qu Mt s kim loi, phi kim v mui CaCO3, -KMnO4, MnO2
C. Ni dung thc hnh

- ng nh git: 5 - Gi ng nghim: 5 - L thy tinh c nh c nt: 4

- vi, km vin - dd HNO3 - dd NaCl - dd AgNO3

khc.ng

hiroxit,

Hot ng ca gio vin Hot ng ca hc sinh 1. Th nghim 1: iu ch kh 1. Th nghim 1: iu ch kh clo. Tnh ty mu ca kh clo clo. Tnh ty mu ca kh clo m hn. m Nu dng KMnO4 iu - Cho vo ng nghim mt lng Lp dng c nh hnh v. Bp nh phn cao su ca

ch th phi dng mt lng nhiu KClO3 bng nhng ht ng. Dung dch HCl c d bay -

hi v kh clo rt c v vy ng nh git dung dch HCl khi lm TN th ng nghim chy xung ng nghim. trn gi. 2. iu ch axit clohiric 2. iu ch axit clohiric Lp dng c v cho ho cht nh trong sch gio khoa 155

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Nu hin tng Gv nhc un ng nghim cn Vit ptp sy ra thn Nu thy si bt th tm ngng 3.Th nghim 1: Tnh axit ca un ch , lm th nghim cn thn axit clohiric. ng: Lc u Cu(OH)2 c mu xanh m, sau khi nh HCl vo Cu(OH)2 tan to thnh dung dch CuCl2 mu xanh trong. Trong ng nghim th 2: CuO mu en chuyn sang mu xanh trong ca dd CuCl2. hin cc bt kh CO2. ni ln. bit cc dung dch: 4. Bi tp thc nghim nhn - Dng qu nhn bit 2 ng HNO3. Sau dng dd AgNO3 Dng dung dch AgNO3 nhn bit dung dch HCl. Trong ng nghim th 3: xut bit cc dung dch: Trong ng th 4: c bt kh H2 nghim cha 2 dd axit HCl v 4. Bi tp thc nghim nhn GV a cho mi nhm HS 4 thn vi lng nh. axit clohiric. Ly 4 ng nghim sch. B vo mi ng mt trong cc cht CuO mu en; CaCO3 mu Dng ng nh git ln lt cho H2SO4 c gy bng nng nn -

3.Th nghim 1: Tnh axit ca rn sau: Cu(OH)2 mu xanh; Axit HCl rt c nn lm cn trng, mt vin km. HS phi nu c cc hin t- vo mi ng mt t dung dch HCl, lc nh.

ng nghim : mi ng ng mt nhn bit dung dch NaCl cha trong cc dd HNO3 ; HCl ; NaNO3 ; trong 2 ng nghim cn li. NaCl (khng ghi nhn). D. bo co kt qu thc hnh 1. H v tn hc sinh:Lp:.. 2. Tn bi thc hnh.
TT Tn TN Cch tin hnh Hin tng Gii thch kt qu TN

156

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai


TN quan st c

Ngy son : Ngy dy:

Tit 42:
A. chun kin thc v k nng:

hp cht c oxi ca clo

1. Kin thc Bit c: - Cc oxit v cc axit c oxi ca clo, s bin i tnh bn, tnh axit v kh nng oxi ho ca cc axit c oxi ca clo. - Thnh phn ha hc, ng dng, nguyn tc sn xut mt s mui c oxi ca clo. Hiu c: - Tnh oxiha mnh ca mt s hp cht c oxi ca clo (nc giaven, clorua vi, mui clorat) 2. K nng - Vit c cc PTHH minh ho tnh cht ha hc v iu ch nc Giaven, clorua vi, mui clorat. - S dng c hiu qu, an ton nc Gia-ven, clorua vi trong thc t. - Gii c mt s bi tp ho hc c ni dung lin quan n tnh cht, ng dng v iu ch.
B. Chun b ca gio vin v hc sinh:

Gio vin: - Chai ng nc Javen, bnh in phn dung dch mui n khng mng ngn. - Mu clorua vi, mui clorat, giy mu, ng nghim. Hc sinh: - Xem li cc bi : Clo, Hidroclorua Axit clorhidric. - c bi trc nh.
C. Tin trnh ging dy:

Hot ng ca Thy Hot ng 1: Vo bi - Dng phiu hc tp s 1 c 2 cu hi: a) Cc s oxi ho c th c ca clo? b) Trong hp cht vi hidro hoc kim loi, nguyn t clo c s oxi ho l bao nhiu? Nay chng ta tm hiu thm hp cht ca Clo vi oxi v chng c nhiu ng dng v s oxi ho a dng, l cc oxit, axit v mui tng ng.

Hot ng ca Tr -1, 0, +1, +3, +5, +7 -1 v d : HCl, NaCl I. S lc v cc oxit v cc axit c oxi ca clo:
1 +1 +3 +1

HCl
+5

HClO

HClO2
+7

Cl2O
+7

HClO3 157

HClO4

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hot ng 2: - GV gii thiu cng thc , tn gi ca cc oxit v axit c oxi ca clo. - Hng dn HS xc nh s oxi ho ca clo trong cc hp cht v rt ra nhn xt theo phiu hc tp s 2: in vo ch trng cc t (cm t) sau sao cho thch hp: tng, gim, +7, +1, +5, s oxiho m, s oxiho dng, + Trong cc hp cht c oxi ca clo, clo c. +Theo chius oxi ho ca clo tn .. th tnh bn v tnh axitcn tnh oxi ho. - GV b sung: cc oxit v cc axit cha oxi ca clo km bn, d dng b phn hu di tc dng ca nh sng hoc khi va chm mnh. Mui ca cc axit bn hn v c nhiu ng dng. Sau y ta xt k: nc Gia-ven, clorua vi v mui clorat. Hot ng 3: cng c BT 1, 2 tr. 137 SGK Hot ng 4: - Yu cu HS vit li phng trnh phn ng kh Clo tc dng vi dung dch NaOH long, ngui. - GV gii thiu thnh phn ho hc ca nc Javen v cho hs quan st mu nc Javen. - Tin hnh iu ch nc Javen bng in phn dung dch NaCl khng mng ngn. HS quan st v vit phng trnh phn ng. Hot ng 5: - GV lm th nghim ty mu ca nc Gia-ven. - GV yu cu HS nu hin tng v

Cl2O7

+ Trong cc hp cht c oxi ca clo, clo c s oxi ho dng. + Theo chiu tng s oxi ho ca clo t +1 n +7 th tnh bn v tnh axit tng cn tnh oxi ho gim.

II. Nc Gia-ven, Cloruavi, mui clorat: 1. Nc Javen: Kh Cl2 tc dng vi dd NaOH l, ngui
0 1 +1

Cl2+ 2NaOH NaCl + NaClO+ H2O (Natriclorua + Natri


hipoclorit)

in phn dd NaCl trong nc khng c mng ngn:


/p

hay nc Gia-ven

NaCl + H2O H2 + NaClO Quan st : Mu(ca giy mu hay cnh hoa hng) s nht dn chng t nc Gia-ven c tnh ty mu L mui ca mt axit rt yu , NaClO trong nc Gia-ven d tc dng vi CO2 ca khng kh to thnh axit HClO: 158

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

gii thch (gi cho HS v tnh axit rt yu ca axit HClO v tnh km bn ca axit ny). - Gv b sung mt s ng dng khc ca nc Gia-ven : kh mi - Kt lun v nc Gia-ven: + D b phn hu. + C tnh oxi ho mnh. Hot ng 6: - GV m t qu trnh sinh ra clorua vi: cho kh clo i qua vi bt hay vi ti 300C ri yu cu HS vit phng trnh phn ng iu ch. - GV t cu hi: phn ng trn c phi l phn ng xy ho - kh khng? - GV gii thiu cng thc cu to ca clorua vi v khi nim mui hn tp.

NaClO+ CO2+H2ONaHCO3+ HClO Do tnh cht oxi ho mnh, axit HClO c tc dng st trng, ty trng. 2. Clorua vi: Cl2 tc dng vi vi ti hoc sa vi
300c

Cl2 + Ca(OH)2 CaOCl2 + H2O C hai kh nng tr li: c - khng + c: HS tnh s oxh trung bnh 0 0 Cl2 Cl + khng: HS tnh s oxh theo cu to 0 -1 +1 Cl2 Cl + Cl Phn bit s oxi ho trung bnh (theo CTPT) v s oxi ho tng nguyn t theo cng thc cu to. Hiu c th no l mui hn tp. Cht bt mu trng, c mi xc ca kh clo Clorua vi c tnh oxiho mnh CaOCl2 +2HCl CaCl2 + Cl2 +H2O Trong KK m: 2CaOCl2 + CO2 + H2O CaCl2 + CaCO3+2HClO S to thnh HClO lm cho clorua vi c tnh ty mu, st trng, ty u. 3. Mui Clorat: * iu ch: Cl2 tc dng vi kim nng
0 1 +5

Clorua vi

Hot ng 7: - GV cho HS quan st mu clorua vi, nhn xt tnh cht vt l. - GV thng bo: cng nh NaClO, clorua vi cng c tnh oxi ho mnh tc dng c vi axit clohidric v CO2 trong khng kh . GV hng dn HS vit phng trnh phn ng. - GV cho HS d on ng dng ca clorua vi - GV b sung: clorua vi r tin, d bo qun , dng x l cc cht c, tinh ch du m. Hot ng 8: - GV yu cu h/s vit phng trnh phn ng do tc dng vi dd KOH t0 cao t suy lun vit phng trnh phn ng

3Cl2 + 6KOH 5KCl +KClO3 + 159

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

clo vi dd Ca(OH)2 nng. - GV b sung phng php iu ch KClO3 trong cng nghip. Hot ng 9: cng c BT 4 tr. 137 SGK - GV gii thiu mu KClO3 - GV b sung: - GV m thoi gi m hc sinh nh li phn ng nhit phn KClO3 c xc tc MnO2 hc lp 9. - GV b sung phn ng to KClO4 v cc phn ng vi P, C, S - Yu cu hc sinh rt ra kt lun - T tnh cht v lin h thc t yu cu hc sinh nu ng dng ca mui clorat. Hat ng 10: Tm tt li kin thc trng tm: + Thnh phn v tnh cht (tnh km bn vi nhit, tnh oxiho) ca cc hp cht c oxi ca clo Hng dn gii BT 5 tr. 137 SGK

3H2O
6Cl2 + 6Ca(OH)2 Ca(ClO3)2 +5CaCl2 + 6 H2O

Trong CN: cho Cl2 i qua nc vi nng, trn vi KCl ri ngui th KClO3 s kt tinh. Ca(ClO3)2 + 2KCl 2 KClO3 + CaCl2 Hoc in phn dd KCl 25% 70-750C khng c vch ngn * Tnh cht v ng dng Quan st nu tnh cht vt l cht rn kt tinh khng mu. T0nc: 3550c, tan nhiu trong nc nng, t tan trong nc lnh. B nhit phn hu
+5 MnO2, t0 1 0

2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2


+5 t0 1 +7

4KClO3 KCl + 3KClO4 KClO3 bn hn cloruavi v nc Gia-ven trng thi rn, KClO3 l cht oxi ho mnh (c th c oxi ho P, S v C...) 5KClO3 + 6P 5KCl + 3P2O5 4KClO3 +3C+ 3S 4KCl+ 3CO2+ 3SO2 c s dng : iu ch O2, lm pho, lm dim, thuc n

Ngy son : Ngy dy:

Tit 43:
A. chun kin thc v k nng:

Flo brom iot

1. Kin thc Bit c: - S lc v tnh cht vt l, trng thi t nhin, ng dng, iu ch flo, brom, iot v mt vi hp cht ca chng. 160

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hiu c : - Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca flo, brom, iot l tnh oxi ho, flo c tnh oxi ho mnh nht; nguyn nhn tnh oxi ho gim dn t flo n iot. 2. K nng - D on, kim tra v kt lun c tnh cht ho hc c bn ca flo, brom, iot. - Quan st th nghim, hnh nh...rt ra c nhn xt . - Vit c cc PTHH chng minh tnh cht ho hc ca flo, brom, iot v tnh oxi ha gim dn t flo n iot. - Tnh khi lng brom, iot v mt s hp cht tham gia hoc to thnh sau phn ng.
B. chun b

Axit HF, tm knh c ph farafin, ng nh git lm TN n mn thu tinh. Dung dch KI, nc brom, kh Cl2, h tinh bt lm TN so snh hot ng ca halogen.
C. bi ging

1. Cc hot ng: GV son ra mt h thng cu hi theo kin thc SGK v yu cu HS c SGK chun b tr li cc cu hi . GV lp mt bng trng km theo cc ni dung kin thc v hng dn HS trao i, lm vic nhm in cc ni dung . Cui gi hc, GV h thng v tm tt li cc kin thc trng tm. GV c th tin hnh TN hoc cng c kin thc bng cc bi tp ngay trong khi ang hot ng nhm ca HS. (v d GV c th ngh HS chun b tm knh ph sn farafin, cc em c th vit tn ca mnh bng que st v trn lp GV nh dd HI vo cc tm knh , cui gi HS s c chng kin sn phm) 2. Cc cu hi: 1. iu kin thng, F2 Br2 I2 + l cc cht rn? lng? kh? Mu sc? c tnh? + Tnh tan trong nc? 2. Trong t nhin, F2 Br2 I2 thng c u? 3. Phn ng ca F2 Br2 I2 vi kim loi, hiro, nc nh th no? 4. Khi cng tc dng vi mt cht kh nng phn ng ca F2 Br2 I2 tng hay gim dn? Minh ho bng phn ng vi H2, H2O 5. Vit phng trnh phn ng so snh hot ng ho hc ca F2 Br2 I2 . 6. Nu ra t nht 2 ng dng quan trng ca mi nguyn t F2 Br2 I2 v hp cht ca chng 7. Phng php iu ch trong cng nghip ca F2 Br2 I2 l g? 161

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Tnh cht vt l

F2 - Kh, lc nht - rt c

Trng thi t nhin

- ch dng hp cht: CaF2, NaAlF6 - cht to men rng

Br2 - lng, nu, c - gy bng da nng - tan t trong nc, tan nhiu trong dung mi hu c : Ru, benzen, xng - ch yu dng hp cht. - Trong nc bin

I2 - rn, en tm - c th thng hoa - tan t trong nc, tan nhiu trong dung mi hu c : Ru, benzen, xng - ch yu dng hp cht. - Trong nc bin - ch khi c xc tc hoc khi un nng 0 +3 -1 0 2 Al +3 I2 2 Al I 3 - ch oxh c H2 t0 cao, c cht xc tc v phn ng thun nghch 0 0 +1 -1 H 2 + I2 2 H I ( HI l axit mnh hn v c tnh kh mnh hn HCl, HBr) - khng tc dngvi H2O

Tnh cht ho hc - oxh tt c cc KL *T/d vi kim loi - oxh hu ht FK, n mnh vi H2 t0 *T/d vi H2 thp, ngay trong bng ti 0 0 +1 -1 H 2 + F2 2 H F (axit HI c th n mn thu tinh ) SiO2+4HFSiF4+2 H2O *T/d vi H2O - H2O bc chy trong hi F2. 2F2+2H2O 4HF+ O2

0 0 +3 -1 2Al + 3Br2 2AlBr3 - ch oxh c H2 t0 cao


H 2 + Br 2 2 H Br
0 0 +1 -1

(axit HBr mnh hn HCl)

So snh HHH

ng dng Sn xut cng nghip

- - in phn hn hp lng KF v HF 2HF H2 + F2 (catot)

- tc dng chm vi H2O Br2+H2OHBr+HB rO Cl2+2NaBr2NaCl Br2+2NaI2NaBr +Br2 +I2 Cl2+2NaI2NaCl +I2 - t nc bin - t rong bin Cl2+2NaBr2NaCl +Br2

162

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

(anot)
D. Cng c bi : Nhc li cc kin thc quang trng ca bi E. Bi tp v nh: SGK

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 45: Lun tp


A. Mc tiu bi dy:

1. Kin thc : Hiu c: -c im cu to lp e ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t halogen, cu to ca phn t halogen. - S bin thin tnh cht ca cc n cht halogen v hp cht halogen khi i t flo n iot - Nguyn tc chung ca phng php iu ch halogen 2. K nng - Vit c cc phng trnh phn ng - Lm c cc bi tp c lin quan
B. Chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n Hc sinh: Chun b bi


C. Phng php dy hc ch yu

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh


D. Ln lp

1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung Hot ng 1: Hot ng nhm A. L thuyt ngang ? Nu c im cu to ca lp e ngoi cng ca ca nguyn t SGK halogen. T cho bit tnh cht ho hc chung ca hlg 163

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

? Sp xp tnh oxi ho theo chiu gim dn ca Flo, clo, brom, iot. Ly v d minh ho ? Nu phng php iu ch cc halogen Cc nhm bo co b xung Gv cht li kin th Hot ng 2: Luyn tp Gi hs tr li trc nghim ca bi 1, 2, 3, 4, Gii thch ti sao Cu 1: Nc Javen c iu ch bng cch: A. Cho Clo tc dng vi nc B. Cho Clo tc dng vi dung dch Ca(OH)2 C. Cho Clo sc vo dung dch NaOH D. Cho Clo vo dung dch NaOH ri un nng Cu 2: Phn ng c dng iu ch kh HCl trong phng th nghim l: A. H2S + Cl2 2HCl + S 0 t B. CH4 + 2Cl2 C + 4HCl as C. H2 + Cl2 2HCl D. NaClr + H2SO4 NaHSO4 + HCl Cu 3: Thuc th c trng nhn bit ra hp cht halogenua trong dung dch l: A. Dung dch Ba(OH)2 C. Dung dch Cu(NO3)2 B. Dung dch AgNO3 D. Dung dch Ba(NO3)2 Cu 4. Axit HCl c th phn ng c vi cc cht trong dy no sau y? A. Cu, CuO, Ca(OH)2, AgNO3. B. Fe3O4, CuO, CaO, NaOH, CaCO3. C. Zn, Na2SO4, Ba(OH)2, qu tm.

B. Bi tp I. Dng bi l thuyt Bi 1: C Bi 2: A Bi 3: B Bi 4:

164

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

D. MnO2, Cu, BaSO4, qu tm.


D. Cng c : Lm cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa

Hy chn na phng trnh ha hc ct 2 ghp vi na phng trnh ha hc ct 1 cho ph hp. Ct 1 Ct 2 t0 a. MnO2 + HCl 1. KCl + Cl2 + H2O b. KMnO4 + HCl c. K2Cr2O7 + HCl Ct 1 d. NaCl + H/p 2O mnx . NaCl n/c e. CaOCl2 + HCl g. KClO3 + HCl Bi tp s 5 9 sgk Ngy dy : Ngy dy:
/p

2. MnCl2 + Cl2 + H2O 3. CaCl2+ Cl2 + H2O Ct 2 4. KCl + MnCl2 + Cl2 + H2O 5. NaOH + H2 + Cl2 6. KCl + CrCl3 + Cl2 + H2O 7. Na + Cl2

Tit 46: Lun tp


A. Mc tiu bi dy:

1. Kin thc : Hiu c: - c im cu to lp e ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t halogen, cu to ca phn t halogen. - S bin thin tnh cht ca cc n cht halogen v hp cht halogen khi i t flo n iot - Nguyn tc chung ca phng php iu ch halogen 2. K nng - Vit c cc phng trnh phn ng - Lm c cc bi tp c lin quan
B. Chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n Hc sinh: Chun b bi


C. Phng php dy hc ch yu

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh


D. Ln lp

165

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: 3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : ni dung Bi1: Cho 26,6g hn hp KCl v NaCl ha tan vo nc c 50g dung dch. Cho dung dch trn tc dng va vi dung dch AgNO3 thu c 57,4g kt ta. % Khi lng mi mui trong hn hp KCl, NaCl ln lt l: Hng dn gii: KCl + AgNO3 --> KNO3 + AgCl Mol Phng php lp h phng NaCl + AgNO3 --> NaNO3 + trnh: AgCl -Vit ptpu mol - Tnh s mol Gi s mol ca KCl l x, NaCl l y - Da vo pt --> lp h S mol ca AgCl l: 57,4/143,5 = + Phng trnh s mol 0,4 mol + Pt khi lng Ta c h pt x + y = 0,4 74,5x + 58,8y = 26,6 Bi 2: Ha tan 11 gam hn hp bt 2 kim loi Al, Fe vo dung dch HCl d thu c 8,96l H2 (KTC). Khi lng mi kim loi trong hn hp l: - Gi k hiu cng thc Hng dn gii: - Vit ptpu Bi 3: Cho 2,06g mui Natri - Tnh s mol --> da vo pt Helogenua A) tnh M tc dng vi dung dch AgNO3 - Da vo bng tun hon xc thu c nh tn nguyn t kt ta (B). Kt ta ny sau khi phn ng HS suy ngh l 5 p phn hy hon ton cho 2,16g Bc. Gi mt hs ln bng lm Mui A Gv cng cc hs khc cha bi l: Hng dn gii: 166 Hot ng ca c v tr

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Gi cng thc mui NaX pt: mol NaX + AgNO3 --> NaNO3 + AgX 0,2 0,2

?Hs vit ptpu / Tnh s mol 2 AgX ---> 2Ag + X2 Gv hng dn cch lp lun xc 0,2 0,2 nh cht d v cht phn ng S mol ca Ag: 2,16/108 = 0,2 mol ht 0,2 ( 23 + X ) = 2,06 X= Bi 12: ( SGK) MnO2 + 4HCl --> MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O mol 0,08 0,08 Cl2 + 2 NaOH --> NaCl + NaOCl + H2O mol 0,08 0.16 0,08 0,08

S mol NaOH: 4. 0,5 = 2 mol S mol ca MnO2 = 69,6/87 = 0,08 mol DD sau pu gm: NaCl, NaOCl, NaOH

D. Cng c : Lm cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa

E. Dn d : Chun b bi th nghim s 3

167

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy dy : Ngy dy:

Tit 46:
A. chun kin thc v k nng

Bi thc hnh s 3 tnh cht ca cc halogen

Kin thc Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: + iu ch axit clo, tnh ty mu ca clo m + So snh tnh oxiho ca clo vi brom v iot. + Tc dng ca iot vi h tinh bt. K nng - S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim.
B. Chun b

1. Dng c th nghim: - ng nghim : 5 - Cp ng nghim: 1 - Gi ng nghim: 1 2. Ha cht: - KClO3 hoc KMnO4 - dd NaCl; dd NaI; Nc iot - Bng
C. Ni dung thc hnh

- ng nghim nh git: 5 - Nt cao su c l: 1 - Tha xc ha cht: 1 - dd HCl c - dd NaBr; Nc clo. - H tinh bt.

Hot ng ca gio vin Hot ng ca hc sinh 2. So snh tnh oxi ho ca clo, 2. So snh tnh oxi ho ca clo, brom v iot brom v iot Ly 3 ng nghim c ghi quan st r hn lng brm -

c tch ra trong p ta c th cho nhn, mi ng cha mt trong thm vo ng mt t benzen cc dung dch NaCl; NaBr; NaI. brom c tch ra ho tan trong Nh vo mi ng vi git nc benzen. Lc nh ng nghim v clo, lc nh. 168

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

mt lc sau brom tan trong dch mu nu ni trn mt nc clo. 3. Tc dng ca iot vi tinh bt

Quan st hin tng th Lp li TN nh trn nhng thay Lp li TN ln na vi nc iot. Cho vo ng nghim mt t

benzen s to thnh mt lp dung nghim. Gii thch v vit pt. nc clo bng nc brom. 3. Tc dng ca iot vi tinh bt h tinh bt. Nh vo mt git nc

- Cch khc: Dng ng nh git iot. Quan st hin tng, nu nh 1 git nc iot ln mt ct nguyn nhn. ca c khoai ty hoc khoai 3. Th nghim 3: Tc dng vi baz lang. * Cch lm : Cho CuSO4 p vi NaOH thu c Cu(OH)2 kt ta sau nh HCl vo * Hin tng : Cu(OH)2 tan ra ? Nu cch iu ch Cu(OH)2 thnh dung dch mu xanh Tng t nh trn trong sut * Gii thch : Cu(OH)2 + 2HCl = CuCl2 + H2O 4. Th nghim 4: Phn ng vi mui * Cch lm : Nh khong 2 dn ? Nhn xt mu sc 3ml HCl vo 3ml dung dch ? Vit ptp ? mui AgNO3 * Hin tng : Xut hin kt ta iu kin ca p trao i ion mu trng * Gii thch : HCl + AgNO3 = AgCl + HNO3 ? Nu cch nhn bit gc ClVit ptp 5. Th nghim 5: Nhn bit gc Cl* Cch lm : Nh khong 2 dn 3ml NaCl vo 3ml dung dch mui AgNO3 * Hin tng : Xut hin kt ta mu trng * Gii thch : NaCl + AgNO3 = AgCl + NaNO3 169

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

D. bo co kt qu thc hnh 1. H v tn hc sinh:Lp:.. 2. Tn bi thc hnh.


TT Tn TN Cch TN tin hnh Hin quan st c tng Gii thch kt qu TN

Ngy dy : Ngy dy: Tit 49:


A. chun kin thc v k nng

oxi - Ozon

( Tit 1)

1. Kin thc: Bit c: - Tnh cht vt l, tnh cht ho hc phng php iu ch oxi trong phng th nghim, trong cng nghip, s to ra oxi trong t nhin. Hiu c: - Cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng oxi, cu to phn t oxi. - Tnh cht ho hc: Oxi c tnh oxiho rt mnh (oxiho c hu ht kim loi, phi kim, nhiu hp cht v c v hu c), ng dng ca oxi 2. K nng - D on tnh cht, kim tra, kt lun c v tnh cht ho hc ca oxi. - Vit PTHH minh ho tnh cht v iu ch. - Gii c mt s bi tp tng hp c ni dung lin quan .
B. chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n Hc sinh: Chun b bi


C. Tin trnh ging dy:

Hot ng ca thy v tr

Ni dung A. OXI I. Cu to phn t oxi: 1s22s2 2p4 8O Cu hnh e S phn b trong cc obitan Cng thc cu to O=O Oxi thuc chu k 2, nhm VI A II. Tnh cht vt l ca oxi: 170

Hot ng 1: - Hs vit cu hnh e ca O? ( Z = 8) - Nhn xt s e c thn? - Suy ra O2 c my lin kt CHT? Suy ra : CTCT Hot ng 2:

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- Bng kin thc thc t ca mnh, em hy cho bit tnh cht vt l ca oxi, ly dn chng minh ho? ( Mu sc, mi v, kh nng tan trong nc, nng hay nh hn khng kh ) Chng minh c th? ? o xi c tan trong nc khng ? Trong t nhin o xi tn ti my ng v th no l hin tng ng v

- oxi l cht kh khng mu, khng mi, khng v, hi nng hn khng kh 32 d O2 = 1,1 29 KK - Di p sut kh quyn oxi ho lng 183 0C - Kh oxi t tan trong nc. -Trong t nhin oxi c 3 ng v
16 8

17 8

18 8

II. Tnh cht ho hc: Nguyn t O c 6e lp ngoi cng, t cu hnh e ca kh Hot ng 3: him n d nhn thm 2e - Da vo cu hnh e v m 0 -2 O + 2e O oxi c tnh in ca O hy so snh vi oxiho m in ca cc nguyn t m in O = 3,44 ch nh khc? T rt ra tnh cht c trng ca O v mc tnh hn F = 3,98 tnh oxiho mnh cht ? - O xi c s o xh l -2 trong mi - D on s oxi ho ca oxi hp cht ( tr F2O) trong cc phn ng? Vy Oxi l nguyn t phi kim hot ? Nu tnh cht ho hc ca oxi ,So snh m in ca o xi vi ng, c tnh oxi ho mnh. 1. Tc dng vi hu ht cc kim clo v vi flo loi (tr Au, Pt,) to ra hp cht ion 0 0 t +1 - 2 Hot ng 4: 4Na + O2 2Na2O ? Vit cc phng trnh p, xc nh s o xh ca cc cht trong 0 0 t +2 - 2 p , cho bit cht no l cht o 2Mg + O2 2MgO xh , cht no l cht kh 3Fe + 2O2 = Fe3O4 ( FeO. Fe2O3 ) 0 0 +n -2 2M + nO2 = 2M2On 2. Tc dng vi hu ht cc phi kim (tr halogen ) 0 0 +4 -2 t0 + O 2 CO 2 C ? Vit ptp minh ho 0 0 +4 -2 t0 S O2 S + O 2 0 +5 -2 0 t0 4 P + 5 O 2 2 P 2 O5
0 0

171

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

3. Tc dng vi nhiu hp cht - Hp cht v c, hu c (C2H5OH, H2S) ? Vit ptp minh ho


-2 -2 0 t0 +4

C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O * Tc dng vi o xt ( ca kim loi hoc phi kim c s o xh thp ? Vit ptp minh ho hn ) 2CO + O2 = 2 CO2 4FeO + O2 = 2Fe2O3 ? Nhn xt cc p c o xi tham gia * Nhn xt : Cc p o xi tham gia u l p oxh-k trong o xi ng vai tr l cht oxh O2 + 4e = 2O2Hot ng 5: - Cc qu trnh oxiho u to Qua thc t, qua tham kho nhit. SGK, HS nu 1 s ng dng ca IV. ng dng ca Oxi: oxi trong i sng, trong CN m em bit?- Quan st : Tranh v ng - Vai tr quan trng /v i sng con ngi v ng vt (s h dng ca Oxi (H6-7) Ly vi v d c th chng minh ( hp). - Vai tr quan trng trong cc nhu cu th, cng nghip ho lnh vc: cng nghip, luyn cht) gang thp, y hc, v tr (s Hot ng 6: chy) Hs vit 1 vi phng trnh ho hc iu ch O2 m em bit? Gio vin: b xung , sa cha v V. iu ch oxi: nu nguyn tc chung GV hng dn HS lm TN iu ch 1. Trong phng TN: * Nguyn tc: phn hu nhng v thu kh O2 hp cht: giu oxi: KClO3, KMnO4 d b nhit phn hu v d: KMnO4 , KClO3 , H2O2 Qua thc t, HS rt ra c ngun MnO ,t 2KClO3 O2 c sinh ra t cy xanh. 2KCl + 3O2 0 t - HS : Vit phng trnh phn ng 2KMnO4 K2MnO4+MnO2 +O2 qu trnh quang hp cy xanh v nu vai tr phn ng quang hp 2. Trong t nhin: -T : gio dc hc sinh bo v 6CO2 + 6H2Quang O C6 H12O6 + mi trng, rng, 6O2 hp - Cn phi bo v mi trng v cy xanh. Hs c sgk
2 0

172

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Gv hng dn 3. Trong cng nghip: a. T khng kh: Khng kh sau khi loi b ht hi nc, bi.. ho lng khng kh ri chng ct phn on khng kh lng thu c oxi o nhit 183oc b. T nc: in phn dung dch nc c ho tan cc axit mnh hoc baz mnh dp 2H2O 2 H2 + O2
D. Cng c : Nhc li c tnh cht ho hc ca oxi, vit ptpu ca oxi vi Cu,

Fe, H2S, C2H6, C, S E. Dn d : Hc bi v lm bi tp v nh. c bi c thm

Ngy dy : Ngy dy: Tit 49:


A. chun kin thc v k nng

oxi - Ozon

( Tit 2)

1. Kin thc: 173

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- Tnh cht vt l, tnh cht ho hc ca ozon, ng dng v s to thnh ozon 2. K nng - Vit PTHH minh ho tnh cht v iu ch. - Gii c mt s bi tp tng hp c ni dung lin quan .
B. chun b

Gio vin: Chun b gio n Hc sinh: Chun b bi


C. Tin trnh ging dy:

Hot ng ca thy v tr

Ni dung

B. OZON ( dng th hnh ca ozon) Th hnh l hin tng cc dng Ozon l mt dng th hnh ca n cht khc nhau ca cng oxi, trong phn t gm 3 nguyn mt nguyn t ho hc. t oxi.3 nguyn t ny khng nm trn mt ng thng m to vi nhau mt gc 116,8o; nguyn t ozon trung tm lin kt cho nhn vi mt nguyn t ozon khc v I. Tnh cht vt l lin kt i vi nguyn t ozon L cht kh mu xanh da tri nht cn li. v c mi xc Ts=-1110C ,Tnc=1920C. Trng thi lng mu xanh thm,rn mu hi en. Hs c sgk Trong tt c cc trng thi tp hp, --> Kt lun v tnh cht vt l O3 u c th n khi va chm ca ozon C tnh nghch t. II. Tnh cht ho hc: L cht oxi ho mnh hn oxi Tc dng vi hu ht cc kim loi ( Tr Au,Pt,Ir ): Ag + O3 = Ag2 O + O2 So snh tnh oxi ho ca oxi vi >Tc dng vi nhiu hp cht ( c ozon v c v hu c ): KI + H2 O + O3 = O2 + KOH + I2 ? Vit cc ptp ca ozon vi Ag, ng dng ca phn ng: Nhn dung dch KI bit ozn Dung dch KI c tm h tinh bt to dung dch mu xanh III. S hnh thnh tng ozon:
Trn mt t: do sm st v s oxi ho 1 s hp cht hu c (nha thng, rong

174

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ozon tng thp l cht nhim - Cng vi nhng hp cht oxit nit gy nn m quang ho _ gy au c, mi, cung hng, ngun gc ca bnh kh th . (minh ho) - gy hiu ng nh knh, lm tng nhit tri t S ph hu tng ozon - 1 s khu vc, tng ozon b bo mn, c ch b thng. (minh ho) Nguyn nhn: do 1 s cht nh CFC (CFCl2, CFCl3 , c tn chung l freon) ; cc oxit ca nit(NO,NO2 , ) (minh ha1) (minh ha 2) Gii php: + Hn ch v c bin php x l kh thi, cm sn xut CFC. + a O3 nhn to ln kh quyn b p l thng tng ozon

bin) nn thng c 1 lng O3 r rt trong khng kh rng thng v b bin

Tng ozon l vng kh quyn cch b mt tri t t 19-48 km.Ti ,mt ozon ln ti 10/1000.Ozon tn ti do kt qu s tc ng ca bc x mt tri ln oxi. hv 3O2 = 2O3 O3 hp th tia t ngoi, to thnh tng ozon bo v sinh vt trn tri t

Cu 3. Nhng dy kim loi no sau y khng trc tip phn ng vi xi: A - Na, Mg, Al, Zn C - Ag, Au, Pt B - Ba, Cu, Fe D - Hg, Ca, Mn, Li Cu 4. xi v zn l dng th hnh ca nhau v: A. Chng c to ra cng mt nguyn t xi. B - u l n cht nhng s lng nguyn t trong phn t khc nhau. C - u c tnh xi ho. D - C hai l do A v B. Cu 5. phn bit 2 kh O2 v O3 ngi ta lm nh sau: A. Cho Ag v 2 bnh ng O2 v O3. B. Dn qua dung dch KI; dng h tinh bt nhn bit. C. Ch cn cho qua dung dch KI n d.D - C A, B, C.

III. ng dng SGK IV. Luyn tp Cu 1. Trong cc cu sau cu no sai? A - xi l cht kh khng mu, khng mi, khng v. B - xi nng hn khng kh. C - xi tan nhiu trong nc. D - xi chim 1/5 th tch khng kh. Cu 1. iu ch xi trong phng th nghim ngi ta c th dng phn ng n o trong cc phn ng sau: A 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2 t0 0 t B -2KMnO4 K 2MnO4 + p MnO2 + O2 C 2H2O 2H2 + O2 D. C A v B.

175

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai D. Cng c : So snh tnh oxi ho ca oxi v ozon

E. Dn d : Hc bi v lm bi tp v nh. c bi c thm

Ngy son : Ngy dy:

Tit 50:
A. Mc tiu bi dy:

lu hunh

1. Kin thc : + Hs bit c: - V tr ca lu hunh trong bng tun hon c cu hnh e ca nguyn t - Hai dng th hunh ca lu hunh, cu to phn t, tnh cht vt l ca lu hunh bin i theo nhit - Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca lu hnh l va c tnh oxi ho va c tnh kh. Trong cc hp cht lu hunh c s oxi ho -2, +4, +6 + HS hiu: - V sao cu to phn t v tnh cht vt l ca lu hunh bin theo nhit - V sao lu hunh va c tnh oxi ho va c tnh kh 2. K nng - D on tnh cht, kim tra, kt lun c v tnh cht ho hc ca lu hunh. - Tin hnh th nghim hoc quan st th nghim, hnh nh... rt ra c nhn xt v tnh cht ho hc ca lu hunh. - Vit PTHH chng minh tnh oxi ho v tnh kh ca lu hunh.
B. Chun b

Gio vin: Lu hunh bt, ng nghim, n cn, gi th nghim Tranh m t th nghim v cu to phn t v tnh cht vt l ca lu hunh bin i theo nhit ( da theo nc ngoi ) - Bng tun hon - Cu trc tinh th S, S Hc sinh: c trc bi
C. Phng php dy hc ch yu

Phng php m thoi gi m, nghin cu, nu v gii quyt vn v hp tc nhm nh


D. Ln lp

1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c: Trong qu trnh hc bi mi 176

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

3. Thit k cc hot ng dy hc : Hot ng ca c v tr ni dung

I V tr, cu hnh electron GV hng dn hc sinh quan st nguyn t: bng tun hon, phn nhm VI 32 A 16 Hot ng 1: Hs ln bng Cu hnh e: 1s22s22p63s23p4 Vit k hiu nguyn t lu hunh, m in: 2,58 vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t lu hunh, cho bit m in ca lu hunh. Hot ng 2: II. Tnh cht vt l ca lu hunh: Hc sinh xem tranh v bng tnh 1. Hai dng th hnh ca lu hunh. cht vt l v cu to ca tinh - Lu hunh t phng S th 2 dng th hnh ca lu - Lu hunh n t S hunh S, S (SGK) t phn + u cu to t cc vng S8 bit c s khc nhau v cu to + S bn hn S, tinh th, nhn xt v tnh bn, khi lng ring, nhit nng + Khi lng ring S nh hn S. + Nhit nng chy S ln hn chy. S. Gv: Lu hunh t phng v lu hunh n t c th bin i 2. nh hng ca nhit i vi qua nhau tu theo nhit cu to phn t v tnh cht vt l : Hot ng 3: Trn Gv lm th nghim un ng N. M Cu to phn nghim ng lu hunh trn g ngn la n cn. u t thi Hc sinh quan st th nghim v nhn xt s bin i trng thi, < 113o Rn Vng S8, m. vng tt S mu sc ca S theo nhit . S o Dng Tranh m t th nghim v 119 Lng Vng S8, m.vng, linh cu to phn t v tnh cht ng vt l ca lu hunh bin i > 187o Qunh Nu S8vng-> chuiS8 theo nhit ->Sn o GV thng bo: gin, ta > 445 Hi Da S6, S4 dng k hiu S m khng dng S8 1400o Hi cam S 2 trong cc phn ng ho hc. S Hot ng 4: Hot ng nhm 1700o Hi 177

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

ngang ( 2 p ) qua cu hi - Quan st cu hnh electron ca S - V s phn b electron lp ngoi cng vo obitan ng.t ca ng.t lu hunh trng thi c bn v trng thi kch thch. - Trong hp cht vi nguyn t c s oxh nh hn, S c s oxh hay + ? - Trong hp cht vi nguyn t c s oxh ln hn, S c s oxh hay + ? - Rt ra nhn xt v s oxi ho ca S trong cc hp cht. Cc nhm bo co nhn xt Gv tng kt
3s
2

III. Tnh cht ho hc ca lu hunh: - Nguyn t lu hunh c 6e lp ngoi cng, trong c 2e c thn

khi phn ng vi kim loi v hiro (c m in nh hn) th lu hunh s c s oxh m ( 2). lu hunh phn ng vi cc phi 0 3d kim mnh hn O2, Cl2, F3p 2 4(c 2 ng thi s cbn) m in ln hn) 3s th lu (Tr hunh c s oxh dng (+4, +6)

3p

3d

(Tr ng thi cbn)


1

3s

3 3d 3p (Tr ng thi k ch th ch th nht)

3s

3d 3 3p (Tr ng thi k ch th ch th hai)

- So snh vi n cht O2. 1. Lu hunh l cht oxi ho th hin khi lu hunh td vi cht kh Hot ng 5: C nhn mnh hn n: 0 -2 S + 2e S a. Lu hunh tc dng vi kim loi to mui sunfua 0 +3 2 0 t0 2 Al + 3 S Hs t ly cc v d v vit ptpu, Al 2 S 3 t0 cn bng p 2 K + S K2 S 0 - Xc nh s oxi ho ca S trc t Ca + S CaS v sau phn ng. thng - Kt lun t/c oxi ho - kh ca S. Ch : Hg p vi S nhit Hg + S HgS ? Pu ny c ng dng g? ng dng: kh c Hg Gv nu tc hi ca Hg 178

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

?Vit ptpu

a. Lu hunh tc dng vi hiro 0 0 +1 2 t0 H2 S H 2 + S

2. Lu hunh l cht kh th hin khi lu hunh td vi cht oxi ho 0 +4 mnh hn n: : S S + 4e Hot ng 6: C nhn 0 +6 S S + 6e Hs t ly cc v d v vit ptpu, a. Lu hunh tc dng vi phi kim: cn bng p 0 0 +4 -2 - Xc nh s oxi ho ca S trc S + O2 S O2 v sau phn ng. 0 0 +6 -1 - Kt lun t/c oxi ho - kh ca S. S + 3F2 S F6 b. Tc dng vi hp chtc tnh oxi ho mnh: HNO3, KClO3, H2SO4 c ? D on ra cc sn phm S + 2H2SO4 c 3 SO2 +2H2O ? Cn bng cc phn ng theo 3S +2 KClO3 2KCl +3 SO2 phng php thng bng e Kt lun: ? Kt lun tnh cht oxi ho kh ca lu hunh

S l c S l c..oxh S l c.kh

Vy lu hunh va l cht oxi ho Hot ng 7: va l cht kh HS tm hiu SGK kt hp vi IV. ng dng ca lu hunh 0 +4 +6 -2 kin thc thc tin, rt ra ng SGK S S S dng ca lu hunh. GV b xung. S V. Trng thi t nhin v sn xut lu hunh GV thng bo: tng t oxi, lu - Lu hunh trong t nhin tn ti 2 hunh trong t nhin tn ti 2 dng: n cht v hp cht. dng: n cht v hp cht. - Dng h thng thit b nn nc Hs nghin cu sgk cho bit S siu nng (170oc) vo m lu hunh oc khai thc bng cch no y lu hunh nng chy ln mt t.
D. Cng c bi :

179

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hot ng 8: Dng mt s bi tp sau cng c bi hc. Bi 1: Nhit nh hng n cu to phn t lu hunh. Vit CTCT ca lu hunh cc nhit sau: a. 187oC (S n ) b. 119oC (S8 ) c. 1400oC (S2) d. 1700oC (S ) Bi 2: Xc nh tnh cht oxi ho - kh ca S trong cc phn ng sau: a) S + Fe FeS : Tnh oxi ho b) S + 6HNO3 H2SO4 + 6NO2 + 2H2O : Tnh kh c) S + 2H2SO4 , 3SO2 + 2H2O : Tnh kh d) S + 2Na Na2S : Tnh oxi ho Bi 3: Dy n cht no sau y va c tnh oxi ho va c tnh kh A. Cl2 , O3 , S B. S, Cl2, Br2 C. Na, F2 , S D. Br2 , O2 , Ca
E. Bi tp v nh : SGK (gio vin hng dn qua)

Ngy son : Ngy dy:

Tit 51: Bi thc hnh s 4 tnh cht ca oxi, lu hunh


i. mc tiu 1.Kin thc Bit c mc ch, cc bc tin hnh, k thut thc hin ca cc th nghim: + Tnh oxi ho ca oxi v lu hunh (tc dng ca H2 + CuO ; Fe + S). + Tnh kh ca lu hunh (tc dng ca S + O2) + S bin i trng thi ca lu hunh theo nhit . 2. K nng

180

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- S dng dng c v ho cht tin hnh an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. ii. Chun b 1. Dng c th nghim: Kp t ha cht: 1 ng nghim: 2 Mung t ha cht: 1 L thy tinh ming rng n cn: 1 Cp ng nghim : 1

- Gi ng nghim: 1

100 ml cha kh O2 2. Ha cht: Dy thp. Bt lu hunh. KMnO4. Than g. Bt st. iii. Tin trnh bi ging 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c. 3Thc hnh Hot ng ca thy & tr Hot ng 1 GV:trnh by ni dung thc hnh, ng thi hd cch tin hnh TNo nh sgk HS: q/s gv hd lm Tno GV:Treo bng ph ghi nd 4 TNo cn thc hnh GV: Chia nhm thc hnh. GV: GV: GV: GV: II.Thc hnh 1. Th nghim 1:Tnh oxi ho ca cc n cht oxi, lu hunh. a.Cch tin hnh: - t chy mt on dy thp xon trn ngn la n cn ri 181 Ni dung c bn I. Cch tin hnh

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

GV: GV: GV: GV: 1. Th nghim 1: oxi, lu hunh.

a nhanh vo bnh ng kh oxi. b.Hin tng: HS quan st hin tng: dy thp c nung nng chy trong oxi sng chi khng thnh ngn la, nng cht mu nu bn tung to

Tnh oxi ho ca cc n cht khng khi, to ra cc ht nh - Cn nh sch g hoc lau to ra xung quanh nh pho hoa. sch du m ph trn mt on l Fe3O4 dy thp. -PTPU:3FeO + 2O2O Fe+8/3 O4-2

- Un on dy thp thnh 2. Th nghim2: Tnh oxi ho ca hnh son l xo tng din S tch tip xc gia cc ho cht a. Cch tin hnh: khi phn ng ho hc xy ra. - Cho mt t hh bt st v S vo - Cm mt mu than bng ht y ng nghim. un nng ng u xanh vo u on dy nghim trn ngn la n cn cho tho v t nng mu than trc n khi p xy ra. khi cho vo l thu tinh ming b. Hin tng: rng cha kh oxi. Mi than s HS quan st hin tng: Hn hp bt chy trc to nhit lm st v lu hunh trong ng st nng ln. nghim c mu vng xm nht. - Cho mt t ct hoc nc di y Khi un nng trn ngn la n l thu tinh khi p xy ra, cn p xy ra mnh lit, to nhiu nhng git thp trn nng chy nhit lm rc hh v to thnh ri xung khng lm v l. hp cht FeS mu xm en. - Trong th nghim Fe + S nn to dng lng S nhiu hn lng Fe PTPU: Fe + S FeS tng din tch tip xc. Cn dng 3.Th nghim 3: Tnh kh ca lu ng nghim trung tnh, chu hunh nhit cao. 2. Th nghim 2. Tnh kh ca lu hunh. t lu hunh chy trong khng kh ri a vo bnh ng kh oxi. HS quan st hin tng: lu hunh 182

Oxi c iu ch v thu vo l chy trong oxi mnh lit hn

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

thu tinh ming rng, dung tch nhiu so vi ngoi khng kh, to khong 100 ml. S c un trong thnh khi mu trng, l kh mung ho cht trn ngn la SO2 c ln SO3. Kh SO2 mi hc, n cn. kh th, gy ho. 3. Th nghim 3: S bin i trng thi ca lu hunh theo nhit : 3. Th nghim 3: S bin i nhit : chu nhit cao. un nng lin tc mt t lu hunh n cn. sc ca lu hunh t lc u trng thi ca lu hunh theo trong ng nghim trn ngn la - Dng ng nghim trung tnh, HS quan st cc trng thi, mu - Dng cp g gi ng (cht rn, mu vng) n 3 giai nghim. Trong khi th nghim on tip theo (cht lng mu phi thng xuyn hng ming vng linh ng, qunh nht mu ng nghim v pha khng c nu, hi mu da cam). ngi trnh ht phi hi lu hunh c hi. D. bo co kt qu thc hnh 1. H v tn hc sinh:Lp:.. 2. Tn bi thc hnh. T T Tn TN Cch tin hnh TN Hin tng quan st c

Gii thch kt qu TN

E.Nhn xt v dn dChun b bi Hiro sunfua, SO2, SO3

183

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son : Ngy dy:

Tit 52 : hiro sunfua H2S. lu hunh ioxit SO2


Lu hunh trioxit SO3
I. Mc tiu

1.Yu cu hc sinh nm vng hiro sunfua l mt cht kh mnh . Vit c cc phng trnh phn ng minh ho 2. Nm c tnh cht ho hc ca a xt H2S , tnh tan ca cc mui sun fua 3. Bit cch nhn bit gc sun fua , vit c cc phng trnh phn ng
II. Chun b

- Sch gio khoa , sch gio vin , sch bi tp , sch nng cao - Phng php : m thoi gi m III. tin trnh bi ging: 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c : a) Vit cc ptp chng minh S va l mt cht o xh va l mt cht kh b) lm bi 5-95(sgk) 3. Bi mi Hat ng ca thy Hot ng ca tr I. Hiro sunfua H2S Hot ng 1 1. Tnh cht vt l: - Lu v tnh c hi ca H2S - Cht kh, c mi trng thi c kh ga, xc ng, thc c trng vt, nc thi nh my. - Rt c v t tan trong nc - Trng thi? mi c trng? - nng hn KK ( - T khi so vi KK? 34 d = 1,17 ) H S - Tnh tan trong nc? 2 29 KK Hot ng 2 2. Tnh cht ho hc: ? Khi hiro sunfua tan trong nc a. Tnh axit yu: th to thnh dung dch c - Dung dch axit sunfuhiric tnh g - Tnh axit rt yu (yu hn - Tn gi ca axit? 184

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- So snh mc axit vi axit cacbonic - L axit my ln axit? c th to ra nhng mui no? ? Nu tch cht ho hc chung ca axit ? Hs vit ptpu minh ho H2S vit c PTP to nn mui trung ho v mui axit.

Hot ng 3 ? Da vo s oxh ca lu hunh trong hp cht d on tnh cht ho hc ca kh H2S

? Vit cc ptp ? Xc nh vai tr ca cc cht trong p - GV b sung thm mt s phn ng H2S + nc clo. H2S + hp cht c tnh oxi ho mnh: KMnO4 Hs ln bng vit ptpu

axit cacbonic) - C th to ra 2 loi mui: + Mui trung ho: Na2S ; CaS ; FeS + Mui axit: NaHS, Ba(HS)2 H2S +NaOH NaHS + H2O H2S +2 NaOH Na2S + 2 H2O +. Tc dng vi dng dch mui H2S + Pb(NO3)2 = PbSen + 2HNO3 +.Tc dng vi kim loi mnh H2S + 2Na = Na2S + H2 b. Tnh kh mnh: - Nguyn t S trong H2S c s oxh thp nht ( 2) H2S c tnh kh mnh. -2 0 S S + 2e S S + 6e + Tc dng vi o xi - O xh chm
t 2 H 2 S + O 2 2 H2 O + 2S - hiro sunfua chy trong khng kh vi ngn la mu xanh ( p t chy hon ton ) t 2 H 2 S + 3 O 2 2 H2 O + 2 -2 0
0

-2

+4

-2

-2

-2

S O2 b.Tc dng vi halogen, brom + t H2S trong kh Cl2, Br2 Hot ng 4 H2S + Cl2 --> 2HCl + S - GV yu cu h/s c sch gio + Sc kh H S vo dung nc 2 khoa, hng dn hc sinh rt ra brom hoc nc clo kt lun. H2S + 4Cl2 + 4H2O = H2SO4 + 8HCl H2S + 4Br2 + 4H2O = H2SO4 + 8HCl Kh H2S lm mtmu nc brom Hot ng 5 --> ng dng dng nhn - Trng thi, mi c trng? c bit H S 2 tnh? 185

+4

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- T khi so vi KK? tnh tan trong nc? Gv cung cp: - Cc mui Na2S, K2S, BaS, CaS tan trong nc cn cc mui sun fua khc khng tan - Mt s mui sun fua khc khng tan v c mu c trng .v d : CuS, PbS en ; CdS vng ; MnS hng

c. Tc dng vi hp cht c tnh o xh mnh H2S + H2SO4 = SO2 + 2H2O + S H2S + SO2 -->3 S + 2H2O 3. Trng thi t nhin iu ch: - H2S c kh ga, xc ng, thc vt, nc thi nh my. - iu ch: FeS + 2 HCl FeCl2 + H2S 4. Nhn bit mui sun fua Dng dung dch mui Pb(NO3)2 hoc Cu(NO3)2 nhn bit gc sun fua ( hin tng kt ta en ) H2S + Pb(NO3)2 = PbSen + 2HNO3 Na2S + Cu(NO3)2 = CuSen + 2NaNO3

D. Cng c dn d 1 Bng phng php ho hc hy nhn bit cc cht ng ring bit sau NaCl , CaS , HCl, KOH , NaNO3 2 Hon thnh dy chuyn ho sau : S ZnS H2S SO2 SO3 H2SO4 BaSO4 S SO2 E. Bi tp v nh: SGK

186

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son :10/3/08 Ngy dy: /3/08

Tit 53 : hiro sunfua H2S. lu hunh ioxit SO2


Lu hunh trioxit SO3
i. Mc tiu

1. kin thc. - Bit tnh cht v- Vai tr oxh kh ca SO2? t l v tnh cht ho hc ca SO2 v SO3. So snh tnh cht ca SO2v SO3 - Yu cu hc sinh hiu v nm vng tnh kh v tnh oxh ca SO2 2 K nng . - Vit phng trnh ho hc th hin tnh oxh ca SO3. Tnh kh v tnh oxh ca SO2 - k nng gii bt v oxit axit tc dng vi dd kim.
ii. Chun b

- Sch gio khoa , sch gio vin , sch bi tp , sch nng cao - Phng php : m thoi gi m Iii tin trnh bi ging: 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c : - Vit cc ptp chng minh H2S l cht kh v l axit yu? - Lm bi tp 3 sgk 3. Bi mi Hot ng ca thy v tr - c cc tn khc nhau ca SO2? ni dung c bn II. Lu hunh i oxit: SO2 *TnSO2 +Lu hunh ioxt +Anhirt sunfur +Kh sunfur + Lu hunh IV oxit 1. Tnh cht vt l: 187

Hot ng1 : C nhn

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

-Trng thi, mi c trng? c - Kh khng mu, mi hc, rt tnh? c. -T khi so vi KK? tnh tan trong Nng hn KK v ( nc? 64 dSO2 = = 2, 2 )
KK

29

- Tan nhiu trong nc. 2. Tnh cht ho hc: Hot ng 2 SO2 : Nguyn t S trong SO2 c s - T s oxi ho ca S trong hp oxh trung gian (+ 4) cht SO2 hy d on cc tnh +L mt oxit axit yu cht ha hc ca n? +4 0 2 + L cht oxi ho: S --> S , S + l ch kh: S --> S a. Lu hunh ioxit l oxit axit yu * Tan trong nc to axit tng ng SO2 + H2O H2SO3 (axit sunfur) H2SO3 l mt axit khng bn - Tnh axit yu (mnh hn axit H2S v axit cacbonic) - Khng bn, d phn hu to SO2 *Tc dng vi dung dch baz to 2 loi mui: + mui trung ho: Na2SO3 , CaSO3 + mui axit: NaHSO3, Ba(HSO3)2 SO2 + NaOH NaHSO3 SO2 + 2NaOH Na2SO3 + H2O * Tc dng vi oxt baz tan SO2 + CaO CaSO3 ( canxi sunft ) b. SO2 l cht va c tnh kh va c tnh oxiho. *) SO2 c tnh o xh th hin khi tc dng vi cht kh mnh hn n +4 -2 0 SO2 + 2H2S 3S + 2 H2O * Lu hunh ioxit l cht kh th hin khi tc dng vi cht oxi ho mnh hn n: O2, nc Cl2, Br2, dd KMnO4 188
+4 +6

GV:SO2l 1 oxit axit vy oxit axit tnh cht ho hc chung no? HS: tan trong H2O to axit, td vi ba z, oxt baz - Gi tn axit thu c khi SO2 tan trong nc? tnh axit mnh hay yu?

Tu thuc vo t l s mol ca SO2 v NaOH m cho ra nhng mui khc nhau

Hot ng 3 GV:S trong SO2 c s oxh = bao nhiu? Soxiho +4 trung gian gim xung 0, -2 kh nng thu e v tng ln +6 nhng e - Khi nhng e , thu e th hin tnh cht no? - GV hng dn HS lm TN SO2 + ddKMnO4, ddBr2 Yu cu h/s vit phng trnh ho

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

hc, gii thch. Lu : SO2 + H2S phn ng lm sch mi trng.

+4 +6

Hot ng 4: GV: y/c hs c ng dng GV: cho BT sau: - T cc cht: H2S, MgSO3, S, b) iu ch: FeS2, O2, dd axit H2SO4. Vit cc * Trong PTN: phn ng trao i phng trnh phn ng to ra Na SO + H2SO4 Na2SO4+ 2 3 SO2. SO2+H2O MgSO3+ H2SO4 MgSO4+ * Trong CN: phn ng oxiho - kh SO2+H2O t0 S + O2 SO2 0 t S + O2 SO 2 t0 4FeS2 + 11O2 2Fe2O3 + 0 t 2H2S + 3O2 2SO + 2H O 2 2 8SO2 0 t 4FeS2 + 11O2 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2 T phn ng iu ch SO2 lm nguyn tc /c SO2 trong phng th nghim. a ra phng php iu ch SO2 trong CN ( ch k phn ng). GV: Ta sang 1 hp cht na ca S II. Lu hunh trioxit: SO3 Hot ng 5 : GV: Tng t SO2, SO3 cng c cc * Gi tn:- Lu hunh trioxit - Lu hunh VI oxit tn gi khc ?Gi tn gi khc ca - Anhirit sunfuric SO3? 1. Tnh cht : GV: y/c hs c t/c vt l - SO3 l oxit ba z hay oxit axit? a. Tnh cht vt l (sgk) nu t/c ho hc chung ca 1 oxit b. Tnh cht ho hc - Tan v hn trong nc v trong axit axit? sunfuric GV: y/c hs vit soxh ca SO3 ? SO3 + H2O H2SO4 HS: S trong SO3 c s oxh +6 th hin tnh oxh bxt tnh oxh - SO3 l mt oxit axit mnh; ca SO3 ta nghin cu bi H2 SO4 SO3 + MgO MgSO4 ( SO3 + HI I2 + H2SO3) SO3 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + H2O HS: nu t/c vt l 2. ng dng v sn xut : (SGK) GV: /c SO3 bng cch oxh SO2 y/c hs vit ptpu 4. Cng c dn d - Hng dn HS tm tt trng tm ca bi hc: + H2S l axit yu, l cht kh mnh. 189

SO2 + Br2 + 2H2O 2HBr + H2SO4 2 SO2 + O2 2SO3 3. ng dng v iu ch: a) ng dng: (SGK)

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

+ SO2 va c tnh kh va c tnh oxi ho. + SO3 l oxit axit mnh Vit phng trnh phn ng, xc nh r vai tr oxh kh ca cc cht: H2S + SO2 H2S + Br2 + H2O SO2 + Br2 + H2O SO2 + KMnO4 + H2O SO2 + O2 *. Bi tp v nh: SGK - Hng dn HS lm cc BT trang 138, 139 SGK - a ra gi : SO2 c th tc dng vi cht no trong cc cht sau: dd HCl , dd NaOH, Na2O, CO2 - Hng dn HS chn NaOH v Na2O SO2 l oxit axit

190

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son : /3/08 Ngy dy: /3/08

Tit 54 : Axit sururic. Mui sunfat


i. Mc tiu

1Kin thc: -Yu cu hc sinh bit : + Tnh cht vt l ca axit sunfuric, cch pha long axit sunfuric + A xt H2SO4long l mt a xt mnh c y tnh cht chung ca axt. Vit c cc phng trnh phn ng minh ho + H2SO4,n c tnh oxh mnh - HS hiu: + H2SO4long c tnh axit gy ra bi ion H+v tnh oxh v quyt nh bi ion H+ + H2SO4 c nng c tnh oxh mnh gy bi gc SO2-4 trong S c soxh cao nht +6 2.K nng : - K nng pha long H2SO4 - Quan st TNo, rt ra nhn xt v tnh cht - Vit pthh ca H2SO4 vi cc cht
ii. Chun b

- Ho cht: H2 SO4 , H2 SO4n Cu, Fe. - D/c: ng nghim, n cn, .


iii.tin trnh bi ging

1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c : Trnh by tnh cht ho hc SO2? 3.Bi mi Hot ng ca thy v tr Hot ng 1: C nhn Da vo cu hnh e ca nguyn t S trng thi kch thch s oxi ha cc i ca S l +6 h/s xut cng thc cu to ca H2SO4. ni dung c bn I. Cng thc phn t Cng thc cu to\
H H O S O O O H O S H O O O

hay

Lu hunh c s oxh cc i = + 6 II. Tnh cht vt l - H2SO4 l cht lng , khng bay Hot ng 2: Tnh cht vt l hi , ko mu d = 1,86g/ml - Cho hc sinh xem l ng axit - t0s = 3370C. H2SO4 ht nc H2SO4 c nhn xt?. mnh v to nhit ln - Pha long a xt theo ng qui 191

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

* GV lm TN hng dn HS cch ho tan H2SO4 c bng nc theo quy trnh: rt t t axit vo nc. (nhc nh HS tuyt i khng lm ngc li) Hot ng 3: - Nu tnh cht chung ca axit? + Qu tm hng. + Kim loi hot ng H2. + Oxit baz, baz. + Mui (mui ca axit yu, hoc sn phm c cht kt ta) HS t vit phng trnh phn ng .

tc l rt axt t t vo nc v khng c lm ngc li III. Tnh cht ho hc 1.Dung dch axt H2SO4long : - L mt axt mnh c y tnh cht ho hc ca mt axt mnh - Tc dng vi cht ch th mu Qu tm --> hng Phenol phtalein --> khng mu - Tc dng vi baz to mui v nc H2SO4 + Cu(OH)2 CuSO4 + 2H2O - Tc dng vi oxt baz H2SO4 + ZnO ZnSO4 + H2O - Tc dng vi mui H2SO4 + Na2SO3 Na2SO4 +SO2 + H2O - Tc dng vi kim loi ng trc hiro --> mui ca kim loi c s oxi ho thp + H2 H2SO4 + Mg MgSO4 + Gv gii thch tnh oxi ho ca H2 H2SO4 long v H2SO4 c H2SO4 + Fe FeSO4 + H2 * Ch : Nu kim loi c nhiu s Vit ptp: oxh khi tc dng vi H2SO4long th H2SO4 long + Fe kim loi b oxh n s oxh thp H2SO4 c + Cu 2. Tnh cht ca H2SO4c : C H2SO4 c + Fe y tnh cht ho hc ca H2SO4 long + Cu - Xc nh cht oxi ho v cht axit mnh v c tnh oxi ho mnh khi tc dng vi kim loi, phi kim v kh? => T Gv cht li trong H2SO4 vi cc hp cht c tnh kh long tnh oxi ho l do H c x a.Tc dng vi Kim loi ( Tr Au, Pt) 0 +6 t +2 +4 oxi ho l +1. Trong H2SO4 c th tnh oxi ho l do ton b Cu + 2H2SO4 CuSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O phn t
0

Hs vit sn phm 2Fe+ 6H2SO4Fe2(SO4)3+ Gv hng dn hs cn bng phn 3SO2+ 6H2O ng theo phng php thng bng (c) e Na + H2SO4 c Na2SO4 + --> Chuyn tr H2SO4 c bng H2S + H2O 192

+6

(c)

t0 +3

+4

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

cc thng bng Fe hoc Al

- Da vo trng thi s oxi ho hy d on sn phm? Cn bng phn ng - Vit ptpu soxh: H2SO4 c + Fe2O3 H2SO4 c FeO

TN vit axit c ln giy hoc nh axit vo ng knh HS nhn xt: giy rch, ng ho than.

KL: Axit H2SO4 oxiho hu ht cc KL (tr Au, Pt). Al, Fe, Cr th ng vi H2SO4 c, ngui. b. Tc dng vi phi kim 2H2SO4, c + S 3SO2 + 2H2O 2H2SO4 + C 2H2O + 2SO2 + CO2 H2SO4 c + P SO2 + H3PO4 + H2O c. Oxi ho1s hp cht c tnh kh Hp cht st (II): FeO, FeCO3 Fe(OH)2, Fe3O4, FeS, FeS2, hp cht sunfua, HI, HBr . . . H2SO4, c + 2HI I2 + 2H2O + SO2 H2SO4, c + H2S SO2 + 2H2O + S H2SO4, c + FeCO3 Fe2(SO4)3+ SO2+ H2O + CO2 H2SO4, c + FeS2 Fe2(SO4)3+ SO2+ H2O *. Tnh ho nc C12H22O11 + H2SO4 C + H2SO4.nH2O C + H2SO4 c --> CO2 + SO2 + H2O Kh CO2, SO2 bay ln si bt, y C tro ra ngoi H2SO4 c tan v hn vo SO3 to thnh olum ( H2SO4.nSO3) c nng > 100%

4. Cng c dn d Vit ptp xy ra khi cho H2SO4 ,n ln lt tc dng vi Fe, Cu, FeCO3, FeS, HBr, Fe(OH)3 , Fe(OH)2 5. Bi tp v nh: SGK - Hng dn HS lm cc BT sgk

193

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son :16/3/08 Ngy dy:18/3/08

Tit 55 : Axit sururic. Mui sunfat(tip theo)


i. Mc tiu:

1.Kin thc: 194

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- Hc sinh bit ng dng cc cng on chnh ca sn xut a xt H2SO4, tnh cht ca mui sunfat v nhn bit gc SO4 22. K nng : -Phn bit mui sun ft, axit sunfuric vi cc axit v mui khc. - Tnh nng hoc khi lng dd H2SO4, mui sunfat tham gia hoc to thnh trong phn ng. 3. Gio dc : - Vai tr ca axit H2SO4 i vi nn kinh t quc dn
II. Chun b

- Sch gio khoa , sch gio vin , sch bi tp , sch nng cao - Th nghim nhn bit ion SO2-4 - Tranh v s sn xut H2SO4 III. Cc bc ln lp : 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c : - So snh tnh cht ho hc H2SO4 long v H2SO4 c ? 3.Bi mi Hat ng ca thy v tr ni dung - GV:H2SO4 ho cht quan trng IV. ng dng: trong nhiu ngnh SX. xut axit H2SO4 trong cng SGK trang141. * Phng php tip xc
t S + O2 SO2
0 0

GV: s dng tranh v s sn V. Sn xut axit sunfuric nghip v gii thiu phng php Bc 1: Sn xut SO2 tip xc. - Trong cng nghip sn xut H2SO4 qua my giai on? - c th s dng nhng nguyn liu no ? ti sao? Vit ptpu? hoc
t 4FeS2 + 11O2 8SO2 + 2Fe2O3

Bc 2:Sn xut SO3 2SO2 + O2


5

V2O

Bc 3: Sn xut0 H2SO4 98% H2SO4 c H2SO4.nSO3

t0

2 SO3

- Hp th SO3 bng H2SO4 c + nSO3

H2SO4.nSO3 +nH2O (n+1) * GV cho HS lm bi tp: H2SO4


(oleum)

T S v mt s ho cht cn - Pha long oleum bng nc. 195

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

thit, vit phng trnh phn ng c th to ra axit H2SO4 ? - HS: S SO2 SO3 H2SO4 - GV: C th thay S bng cht no khc? - Mui sunfat l nc mui ca axit no? c my loi mui: mui axit, mui trung ho. VD: Na2SO4, VI. Mui sunfat v nhn bit ion CaSO4 NaHSO4, Ca(HSO4)2
SO 2 4

c hai lai mui sunfat:

GV : S dng bng tnh tan, cc + Mui trung ho cha ion SO42 em hy xc nh mt s mui + Mui axit cha ion HSO4 sunfat khng tan. - Cc mui sunfat u tan tr GV lu bn ca cc mui BaSO4, SrSO4, PbSO4 khng tan sunfat v kt lun : nn s dng ion Ba2+ lm thuc th nhn
bit ion SO 2 4 .

- Nhn bit: Dng dung dch mui bari hoc Ba(OH)2 H2SO4 + BaCl2 BaSO4 trng + 2HCl Na2SO4 + trng+2NaCl BaCl2 BaSO4

- HS lm th nghim H2SO4 + BaCl2 BaSO4 trng + 2HCl Na2SO4 + BaCl2 BaSO4


trng+ 2NaCl

4. Cng c dn d Cu 1: Khi pha long H2SO4 c khng c cho nc t t v axit v rt nguy him .V : a) H2SO4 c c tnh oxi ha mnh s oxi ha nc to ra oxi b) H2SO4 c tan trong nc v phh vi nc c) H2SO4 c tan trong nc to ra mt lng nhit ln. d) H2SO4 c d b bay hi. Cu 2: Khng nh no sau y sai : A. ch H2SO4 c c tnh oxi ha mnh 196

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

B. ch H2SO4 c mi c tnh oxi ha C. H2SO4 long c tnh oxi ha. D. H2SO4 c hay long u c th th hin tnh oxi ha. Cu 3: C th dng H2SO4 lm kh c kh no cho sau y: A. SO2 B.H2S C. CO2 D. NH3 5. Bi tp v nh: SGK - Hng dn HS lm cc BT sgk

Ngy son : 18/3/08 Ngy dy:20/3/08 I. Mc ch yu cu 1. Kin thc Bit : Oxi v lu hunh l nhng nguyn t phi kim c tnh oxi ha mnh, trong oxi c tnh oxi ha mnh hn lu hunh ; Hai dng th hnh ca nguyn t oxi l oxi v ozon. Hiu : Mi quan h gia cu to nguyn t, m in, s oxi ha ca cc nguyn t vi nhng tnh cht ha hc ca oxi, lu hunh ; Tnh cht ha hc c bn ca hp cht ca lu hunh ph thuc vo trng thi s oxi ha ca nguyn t lu hunh trong hp cht. 2.K nng - Lp cc phng trnh ho hc lin quan n n cht v hp cht ca S v O2 - Vit cu hnh e nguyn t ca S,O - Gii cc bi tp nh lng nh tnh v cc hp cht ca S Gii thch c hin tng thc t c lin quan n tnh cht ca lu hunh v hp cht ca n. II- Chun b: Phn l thuyt : GV c th son trc h thng cu hi, giao cho HS chun b trc. Sau y l mt s gi : Cu 1 : So snh cu to nguyn t , m in ca oxi v lu hunh. Cu 2 : So snh tnh cht ho hc ca cc n cht : 197

Tit 56 +57 :

Luyn tp : Oxi v lu hunh

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

a) Oxi v lu hunh . b) oxi v ozon Vit cc pthh minh ho . Cu 3 : Cc hp cht quan trng ca S l nhng hp cht no (CT, tn gi ) ? Lp bng tm tt cu to, s oxi ho, tnh cht ho hc ca chng (tham kho bng tm tt trong SGK ). Phn bi tp. Yu cu HS lm trc cc bi tp trong SGK. GV c th chun b thm bi tp trc nghim nh gi di y. III. Tin trnh bi ging: 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c : 3.Bi mi Hot ng GV v hs Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp GV : Chng ta nghin cu v cc nguyn t nhm oxi v cc hp cht ca chng. Bi hc hm nay s gip ta cng c li nhng kin thc hc, xem xt chng mt cch c h thng v vn dng kin thc gii mt s bi tp. HS nm c mc tiu v nh hng bi hc. Hot ng 2 : Kin thc cn nm vng GV : Trc ht ta xem xt v cc nguyn t quan trng nht trong nhm IVA l oxi v lu hunh. Em hy so snh cu to lp electron ngoi cng, m in v s oxi ho ca O, S ? GV nn hng dn HS k bng so snh. Oxi cu hnh e m in Ni dung

Lu hunh 3s 3p4
2

3,4 (<F)

2,8 (< F ,O , Cl)

GV : Cu to quyt nh n tnh cht ho hc ca cc cht. Em hy : 1. So snh tnh cht ho hc ca nguyn t oxi v nguyn t S (n cht oxi v n cht S) ?

CH electr on

-u c 6 e lp ngoi cng, 2 e c thn. -C m in tng i ln O-2, S-2. O S c phn lp d khng c cc trng thi c kch thch: phn 3s23p33d1 S+4 lp d 3s1 3p33d2S+6

II Tnh cht cc hp cht ca lu hunh 198

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

HS trnh by ni dung cu hi 1 theo bng mu do GV hng dn, tho lun, b sung kin thc cho nhau, cui cng rt ra kl 2. Vit cc PTHH chng minh tnh cht ho hc ca oxi v lu hunh ?

Ging nhau

GV : Oxi v lu hunh to thnh nhiu hp cht quan trng. Sau y chng ta s h thng li cc hp cht ca oxi v lu hunh c hc trong chng. -Trnh by t/c ho hc c bn ca 1.H2S Tnh kh mnh: H2S? gii thch? ly VD ? - Nguyn t S trong H2S c s oxh thp nht ( 2) H2S c tnh kh mnh. -2 0 S S + 2e S S + 6e 2H2S + O2 2S + 2H2O 2H2S + 3O2 2S O2 + 2H2O - Trnh by tnh cht ho hc ca 2.SO va th hin tnh oxh va th 2 SO2? gii thch? ly VD ? hin tnh kh - Nguyn t S trong SO2 c s oxh trung gian (+ 4) +L mt oxit axit yu +4 0 2 + L cht oxi ho: S --> S , S + l cht kh: S --> S a. Tnh oxh: 2H2S + O2 2S + 2H2O b. Tnh kh: SO2 + Br2 + 2H2O 2HBr + H2SO4 199
+4 +6

Khc nhau

n n cht S cht oxi (O2,O3 ) -Tnh oxi ho mnh OO-2, SS-2 Th hin : Tc dng mnh vi kim loi, H2, hp cht. -Th t tnh oxi ho : O3 > O2 > S + O3 tc dng vi Ag, dd KI + O2 tc dng vi cc cht d dng hn S, oxi ho c S v hp cht ca S nh H2S, mui sunua. -C tnh kh : Khng S0 S+4,S+6 c -Th hin: tnh Tc dng vi kh O2,F2,H2SO4c,

-2

+4

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

3.SO3 v axt H2SO4 a.SO3 - Trnh by tnh cht ho hc ca - SO3 l oxit axit , tc dng vi H 2O, td SO3? gii thch? ly VD ? vi oxitbaz, ba z, b. H2SO4 - axt H2SO4long : L mt a xt mnh c y tnh cht ho hc ca mt - V sao H2SO4 ch c tnh oxh ? a xt mnh thnh phn no ng vi tr l - axt H2SO4 c C y tnh cht oxh trong H2SO4 long v cht ho hc ca axit mnh v c tnh H2SO4c? oxi ho mnh khi tc dng vi kim loi, phi kim v vi cc hp cht c tnh kh gii phng kh SO2, S, H2S v c tnh ho nc mnh Hot ng 3 : Tng kt v vn dng HS thc hin bi tp trang 192 SGK. Hy khoanh trn trc mt ch ci A, B, C, D trc phng n chn ng trong cc cu sau : Cu1: Cc nguyn t oxi, ozon, lu hunh u: A. ch c tnh oxi ho. B. l nhng cht oxi ha mnh. C. c tnh oxi ho. D. tnh oxi ho v tnh kh. Cu 2: Trong cc hp cht lu hunh c th c cc s oxi ha sau: A.-2 ; B.+4 ; +6. C.-2 ; 0 ; +4 ; +6. D.-2 ; +2 ;+4 ; +6. Cu 3: Cu hnh electron no sau y l cu hnh e trng thi c bn ca S A.1s22s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 B. .1s22s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 3d1 C. 1s22s2 2p6 3s1 3p3 3d2 d. B v C. Cu 4: Trong cc hp cht (tr hp cht vi clo v trong peoxit ) oxi u c s oxi ha l -2 v A. oxi c m in ln. B. oxi c 6 e lp ngoi cng. C. oxi c 4 e lp ngoi cng v c m in ln. D. oxi c 6 e lp ngoi cng v c m in ln. Cu 5: Khi thu kh oxi trong PTN c th thu theo cch sau: A. ri ch khng kh v p bnh B.ri ch nc. ri ch khng kh v nga bnh D. B v C. Cu 6: Trong cng nghip c th iu ch oxi bng cch: A. in phn nc. B. Phn hu H2O2 C. Nhit phn KMnO4 c xc tc MnO2 D. Nhit phn KClO3 c xc tc MnO2 Cu 7: Oxi v ozon l hai dng th hnh v : A. cng l n cht c to ra t cng mt nguyn t. B. chng c cng thc phn t khc nhau. C.c cng thc cu to khc nhau. D. c khi lng khc nhau Cu 8: Ozon c tnh oxi ha mnh hn oxi v : 200

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

A. Ozon tc dng c vi Ag ngay iu kin thng B. Ozon tc dng c vi dd KI ngay iu kin thng. C. Phn t ozon khng bn c th phn hu to ra nguyn t oxi D. Ozon c cu to phn t c bit. Cu 9: Chn cu sai trong cc cu sau: A. Cc dng th hnh ca S c th bin i qua li vi nhau. B. Cc dng th hnh ca S khc nhau mt s tnh cht vt l. C. Cc dng th hnh ca S khc nhau mt s tnh cht ho hc. D. Tnh cht vt l ca S b nh hng bi nht Cu 10: Chn cu sai trong cc cu sau: A. S tc dng vi kim loi th hin tnh oxi ha. B. S tc dng vi phi kim th hin tnh kh C. S tc dng vi H2 th hin tnh kh D. S khng ch tc dng c vi n cht m cn tc dung c vi hp cht. Cu 14: Mun loi b tp cht SO2 ra khi hn hp kh SO2 v CO2 ta c th: A. Cho hn hp qua dd Na2CO3 va . B. Cho hh qua dd Brom d C. Cho hh qua dd nc vi trong d D. Cho hh qua dd NaOH. Cu 15: SO2 v CO2 u c th : A. th hin tnh axit. C. Th hin tnh kh Cu 16: C th nhn bit ion S2- bng : A.dd CuCl2 B. dd FeCl2 C. dd HCl D .dd H2SO4 long Cu 17 :Cho bit phn ng ho hc: H2S + Cl2 + H2O -> H2SO4 + HCl. Cu no sau y phn nh ng tnh cht ca p : A. H2S l cht oxi ho, Cl2 l cht kh. ha. C. H2O l cht oxi ho, Cl2 l cht kh. cht kh. Cu 18: Bc tip xc vi khng kh c H2S b bin i thnh Ag2S mu en theo pt: Ag + H2S + O2 -> Ag2S + H2O . Cu no phn nh ng tnh cht ca p: A. Ag l cht oxi ha, H2S l cht kh. cht kh. 201 B. Oxi l cht oxi ha, H2S l D. H2O l cht oxi ho, H2 S l B. H2S l cht kh, Cl2 l cht oxi B.Th hin tnh oxi ha. D.Tc dng vi nc.

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

C. Ag l cht kh, H2 S l cht oxi ha. kh.

D. Oxi l cht oxi ha, Ag l cht

Cu 19: C th tn ti ng thi cc kh sau trong cng mt bnh A. H2S v SO2 B. O2 v Cl2 A. Na2S v CuCl2 nguy him .V : A. H2SO4 c c tnh oxi ha mnh s oxi ha nc to ra oxi B. H2SO4 c tan trong nc v phh vi nc C. H2SO4 c tan trong nc to ra mt lng nhit ln. D. H2SO4 c d b bay hi. Cu 22. Cho cc dung dch b mt nhn gm: Na2S, Na2SO4, Na2SO3, NaCl, Thuc th dng nhn bit chng ln lt l. A . Dung dch BaCl2, dung dch HCl, dung dch CuCl2 B . Dung dch AgNO3. C .Dung dch BaCl2, dung dch AgNO3. D . Dung dch Pb(NO 3)2, dung dch BaCl2 Cu 23. Thuc th duy nht dng phn bit cc dung dch b mt nhn: HCl, NaOH, NaCl, BaCl2, H2SO4, NaSO4 l: A - Qu tm B - Phnolphtalin C - Bt Fe D - Dung dch AgNO3. Cu 24. Thuc th duy nht phn bit cc dung dch b mt nhn gm: HCl, NaOH, BaCl2, H2SO4, NaSO4. A - Dung dch Ba (OH)2 B - Qu tm. C - PhnolphtalinD - Dung dch AgNO3. Cu 25. Ch dng 2 thuc th phn bit 4 cht bt: CaCO3, Na2CO3, BaSO4, Na2SO4. C th dng: A - Nc, dung dch NaOH B - Dung dch HCl, H2O C - H2O v dung dch HCl D - C B v C Cu 26. Hy ghp cc na phng trnh phn ng ct 2 vi na phng trnh phn ng ct 1 cho ph hp. Ct 1 Ct 2 1) Fe2(SO4)3 + H2O + SO2 a - Fe + H2SO4 l 2) ZnSO4 + S + H2O b - Fe + H2SO4 3) ZnSO4 + H2O + H2O c - Zn + H2SO4 4) FeSO4 + H2 d - Zn + H2SO4 /n 5) Khng c hin tng e - Fe + H2SO4 /n Cu 27. Dy kim loi phn ng c vi dung dch H2SO4- long l: A - Cu, Zn, Na C - K, Mg, Al, Fe, Zn. B - Ag, Ba, Fe, Sn D - Au, Pt, Al 202 C. HI v Cl2 D. SO2 v O2 D.H2S v CuSO4 Cu 20: C th tn ti ng thi cc cht sau trong cng mt dung dch B. Na2S v BaCl2 C.H2S v PbCl2 Cu 21: Khi pha long H2SO4 c khng c cho nc t t v axit v rt

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Cu 28. Trn 100ml dung dch H2SO4 20% (d = 1,14) vi 400g dung dch BaCl2 5,2%. Khi lng cht kt ta v cc cht trong dung dch thu c l: A. 46,6g v BaCl2 d C. 23,3g v H2SO4 d B. 46,6g v H2SO4 d D. 23,3g v BaCl2 d Cu 29: Cho 427,5g dung dch Ba(OH)2 20% vo 200g dung dch H2SO4 lc b kt ta. trung ho nc lc ngi ta phi dng 125ml dung dch NaOH 25% (d = 1,28) nng % ca H2SO4 trong dung dch u l: A. 51% C. 49% B. 40% D. 53% 4. bi tp v nh: Cc bi tp trong sch gio khoa.

Ngy son :24/3/08 Ngy dy: /3/08

Tit 59: Bi thc hnh s 5 tnh cht cc hp cht ca lu hunh


i. mc tiu 1.Kin thc Cng c v khc sukin thc v: - Tnh kh ca H2S - Tnh kh v tnh oxh ca SO2 - Tnh oxh ca H2SO4 2. K nng 203

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- Tin hnh th nghim an ton, thnh cng cc th nghim trn. - Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc PTHH. - Vit tng trnh th nghim. ii. Chun b 1. Dng c th nghim: cho cc nhm - Kp t ha cht, n cn , cp ng nghim, gi ng nghim, - ng nghim c nhnh, ng dn thu tinh hoc ng vut, nt cao su c khoan l, nt cao su ko khoan l Mung t ha cht L thy tinh ming rng 100 ml c np knh y, ng dn nt cao

su di 2. Ha cht: dd H2SO4 c, dd HCl, dd Br2, FeS, l Cu, dd Na2SO3 iii. Tin trnh bi ging 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c. 3Thc hnh Hot ng ca thy & tr Hot ng 1 GV:trnh by ni dung thc hnh, ng thi hd cch tin hnh TNo nh sgk HS: q/s gv hd lm TNo, cch lp d/c th nghim GV:Treo bng ph ghi nd 4 TNo cn thc hnh GV: Chia nhm thc hnh. H1. Th nghim 1: nghim ptpu II.Thc hnh 1. Th nghim 1: iu ch v a.Cch tin hnh: - t kh H2S thot ra t ng vut Ni dung c bn I. Cch tin hnh

HS: cc nhm tin hnh th chng minh tnh kh ca H2S GV:Y/c q/s hin tng xy ra, vit - Lp d/c iu ch H2S(h6.8) GV:Lu : H2S l cht kh khng nhn 204

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

mu mi trng thi rt kh chu v b.Hin tng: rt c. lm TNo cn thn, t FeS + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2S chy kh m bo an ton H2S +3O2 2SO2 + 2H2O 2. Th nghim2: Tnh SO2 a. Cch tin hnh: iu ch H2. Th nghim 2: SO2(H6.5sgk-137). Dn kh SO2 GV: hd hs ng nghim c nhnh vo dd Br2 tin hnh th nghm (iu ch b. Hin tng: SO2H6.5sgk-137) -Hin tng:mu ca ddBr2 nht HS: quan st hin tng,vit ptpu? dn Lu kh SO2 ko mu , mi hc , PTPU: rt c .Lm th nghim phi H2SO4 + Na2SO3 Na2SO4 +SO2 + H2O cn thn SO2 + Br2 + 2H2O 2HBr + H2SO4 3.Th nghim 3: Tnh oxh ca lu kh ca

H3. Th nghim 3.

GV: hd hs ng nghim c nhnh hunh ioxit tin hnh th nghm (iu ch a. Cch tin hnh: iu ch SO2H6.5sgk-137) Dn kh SO2 SO2(H6.5sgk-137). Dn kh SO2 vo dd H2S vo dd H2S HS: quan st hin tng,vit ptpu? b. Hin tng:dd trong ng nghim b vn c mu vng. 2H2S +SO2 3S + 2H2O 4. Th nghim 4: Tnh oxh ca H2SO4 H4. Th nghim 4: GV: hd lm nh sgk HS: quan st hin tng,vit ptpu? a. Cch tin hnh : Nh vi git H2SO4 c vo ng nghinn. cho mt vi l ng nh vo un nh b. Hin tng: -Hin tng dd trong ng nghim chuyn sang mu xanh - C kh bay ra mi xc nu th qu tm m chuyn sang mu 205

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ptpu:
0 +6 t0 +2 +4

Cu + 2H2SO4 CuSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O

H5. bo co kt qu thc hnh 1. H v tn hc sinh:Lp:.. 2. Tn bi thc hnh. T T Tn TN Cch tin hnh TN Hin tng quan st c

Gii thch kt qu TN

4.Nhn xt v dn d: - Hc chng 5,6 gi sau kim tra 45 pht

206

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son :30/3/08 Ngy dy: 1/4/08 Chng 7: Tc phn ng v cn bng ha hc

Tit 61: Tc phn ng ho hc


I. Mc tiu bi hc 1. Kin thc - Nm c cc khi nim : + Tc phn ng, tc trung bnh ca phn ng. + Cht xc tc - Hiu cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng ha hc : + Nng cc cht tham gia phn ng. + p sut ca cc cht kh tham gia phn ng. + Nhit ca h phn ng. + Kch thc ht, din tch b mt trong cc phn ng trong h d th. + Cht xc tc. 2. K nng: - Bit vn dng:Thay di nng , p sut, nhit , din tch b mt thay i tc phn ng. Dng cht xc tc tng tc phn ng.
II. Chun b

- Ha cht : dung dch BaCl2 0,1 mol/l, dung dch H2SO4 0,1 mol/l, dung dch Na2S2O3 0,1 mol/l, dung dch HCl 0,1 mol/l, nc ct, dung dch H2O2 th trng, MnO2, vi (CaCO3) - Dng c : 10 cc 100,0 ml trong c hai cc chu nhit, hai ng ong 25 ml, n cn v gi n cn. - Bng 7.1 c phng ln kh A4 trong trng hp khng c my tnh v my chiu projector. - Chun b cc phiu hc tp, v chun b ni dung, bi gii ca cc phiu hc tp III. Tin trnh bi ging 1. n nh lp 207

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

2. Kim tra bi c : 3. Bi mi

tr

Hot ng ca thy v

Ni dung c bn

Hot ng 1. T chc tnh hung hc tp GV tin hnh th nghim : TN: Ly hai cc 100 ml, cc th nht ly 25 m1 dung dch Na2S2O3 0,1 mol/l, cc th hai 25 ml dung dch BaCl2 0,1 mol/l. ng thi ly hai cc mi cc ly 25 ml dung dch H2SO4 0,1 mol/l, t t vo hai cc cha dung dch BaCl2 v dung dch Na2S2O3. - GV nhn xt kin ca HS v rt ra kt lun. - HS quan st tc kt ta trong mi cc, rt ra nhn xt v vit cc phng trnh ho hc cho mi th nghim.

I. Khi nim v tc phn ng 1. Th nghim BaCl2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2HCl Na2S2O3+H2SO4Na2SO4+SO2+S + H2O Phn ng (1) xut hin kt ta mu trng ngay BaSO4 Phn ng (2) sau mt lt mi xut hin kt ta mu trng c ca S Nng ca H2SO4, BaCl2, Na2S2O3 gim dn theo thi gian. Nng ca HCl v Na2SO4 tng dn theo thi gian. * Kt lun: Ni chung cc phn ng ha hc khc nhau xy ra vi mc nhanh chm khc nhau. nh gi mc nhanh chm khc nhau ngi ta dng i lng tc phn ng so snh 2. Tc phn ng - Tc phn ng l bin thin nng ca mt trong cc cht phn ng hoc sn phm trong mt n v thi gian Tc phn ng xc nh c trong khong thi gian t t1 n t2 l tc trung bnh ca phn ng. Tc phn ng xc nh c trong mt thi im c th (v d ti t = 120 giy) l tc tc thi ca phn ng ( ). 208

Hot ng 2 : Tc phn ng - GV gip HS phn bit khi nim tc trung bnh v tc tc thi: + V, trong khong thi gian c nhng lc phn ng xy ra vi tc khc nhau.

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Hot ng 3. Tc trung bnh ca phn ng GV cho HS c SGK phn gii thiu cch tnh tc trung bnh ca phn ng v phn xt th d tnh tc phn ng trung bnh ca phn ng. + Tc phn ng xc nh c trong mt thi im c th (v d ti t = 120 giy) l tc tc thi ca phn ng ( ). GV : cng hs xy dng cng thc tnh * Cng thc tng qut tnh tc trung bnh: a.Tc phn ng tnh theo cht A : thi im t1 nng cht A l C1 mol/l. thi im t2 nng cht A l C2 mol/l( C2< C1 v qu trnh din ra phn ng nng cht A gim dn) C1- C2 C 2- C1 C v = = =t2 - t 1 t2 - t t b.Tc phn ng tnh theo cht B : thi im t1 nng cht B l C1'mol/l. thi im t2 nng cht B l C2' mol/l(C2'> C1' v nng cht B tng theo thi gian xy ra) C2'- C1' HS : p dng lm 1 s vd v = =+
C

t t 2 - t1 VD1 : tnh tc phn ng trung bnh theo Br2 trong khong 50 giy p sau. Lc u nng Br2 l 0,0120 mol/l.sau 50 giy nng l0,0101 mol/l : Br2 + HCOOH 2HBr + CO2
v= C Br2 t = (0,0120 - 0,0101)mol /l = 50s

3,80.10 5 mol/(l.s)

VD2: Khi bt u phn ng nng mt cht l 0,024 mol/l sau 10 giy nng cht l 0,022mol/ l .Tnh tc trung bnhca phn 209

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

ng C2'- C1' v = =+ t 2 - t1 = 0,024- 0,022 10


C

mol/ls

GV: nu cu hi - Trong nhng trng hp di y, yu t no nh hng n tc phn ng ? a) S chy din ra mnh v nhanh hn khi a lu hunh ang chy ngoi khng kh vo l ng kh oxi. b) Khi cn bp than, ngi ta y np bp l lm cho phn ng chy ca than chm li. c) Phn ng oxi ho lu hunh ioxit to thnh lu hunh trioxit din ra nhanh hn khi c mt vanai oxit (V2O5). d) Nhm bt tc dng vi dd axit clohiric nhanh hn so vi nhm dy. e) Thp bn hn nu c sn chng g. Hot ng 5. nh hng ca nng . - GV tin hnh th nghim : TN: Ly hai cc 100 ml, cc th nht (cc A) ly 25 ml dung dch Na2S2O3 0,1 mol/l, cc th hai (cc B) 10 ml dung dch Na2S2O3 0,1 mol/l v 15 ml nc ct. ng thi ly hai cc mi cc ly 25 ml dung dch H2SO4 0,1 mol/l t t vo hai cc cha dung dch Na2S2O3 c nng khc nhau trn. HS :quan st tc kt ta trong mi cc, rt ra nhn xt. Hot ng 6. nh hng ca p sut. - GV cho HS c SGK v gii

II. Cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng

1. nh hng ca nng . - Kt lun : Trong cc A nng Na2S2O3 0,1 ln hn cc B ng thi ta thy tc to kt ta cc A ln hn cc B.

Vy khi tng nng cht phn

ng th tc phn ng tng.

2. nh hng ca p sut.

210

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

thch ti sao khi tng p sut th tc phn ng : 2HI H2 + I2 li tng? - HS c SGK - GV nhn xt v gii thch li nu cn. - Trong hn hp kh ( cng iu kin nhit v trong cng th tch) mi quan h gia nng v p sut ring ca tng kh trong hn hp nh th no ? ? Khi tng p sut chung ca h th nng v p sut ca chng thay i nh th no ? ?. Khi tng p sut ca h th tc phn ng thay i nh th no ?

Khi tng p sut ng ngha vi vic tng nng ca cc cht kh, do p sut tng lm tc phn ng tng.

4. Cng c : Gv nhc li cc kin thc c bn : Tc phn ng, cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng 5.Hng dn hc : c tip bi Hy in cc thng tin vo cc ch trng, nhn xt cch xc nh cc thng tin : Thng tin Mt ngi i xe my t H Ni n Hi Dng (qung ng 66 km) ht 1 gi 20 pht, sau i tip t Hi Dng n Hi Phng (qung ng 50 km) cng ht 1 gi 20 pht. Trn 500 ml dd NaOH nng 0,02 mol/l vi 500 ml dd CH3COOC2H5 0,02 mol/l. Sau 5 pht nng NaOH trong dd xc nh c l 0,005 mol/l, cn sau 10 pht th nng NaOH cn li l 0,003 mol/l. (Coi th tch hn hp l khng i trong sut qu trnh phn ng) Kt qu Tc trung bnh t H Ni n Hi Dng (km.h1): Tc trung bnh t Hi Dng n Hi Phng (km.h1): Tc trung bnh t H Ni n Hi Phng (km.h1) : Tc trung bnh ca phn ng trong 5 pht u l (mol.l1,s1) : Tc trung bnh ca phn ng trong 5 pht tip theo l (mol.l1,s1) : Tc trung bnh ca phn ng trong 10 pht phn ng l (mol.l1,s1) :

211

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

IV. Thng tin b sung

1 Trong phn ng ha hc nng ca cc cht tham gia phn ng thay i lin tc, do tc phn ng thay i theothi gian phn ng. V vy ngi ta c th s dng tc phn ng tc thi thay cho tc phn ng trung bnh. Th d i vi phn ng : A1 + A2 A3 + A4 Gi s ti thi im t nng ca cc cht ln lt l [A1], [A2], [A3], [A4] v thi im t + t nng ca cc cht l [A 1] + [A1], [A2] + [A2], [A3] + [A3], [A4] + [A4] trong [A1], [A2] < 0 cn [A3], [A4]>0 Khi tc trung bnh ca phn ng c tnh :
v=

v tc tc thi ca phn ng c xc nh :
v = lim v =
t0

[A 1] [A 2] [A 3] [A 4] = = = t t t t

Trong trng hp tng qut : 1A1 + 1A2 + 1A1 + 2A2 + cho tc phn ng lun lun n gi th tc phn ng c tnh theo biu thc sau :
v= 1 d[A i ] 1 d[A 'i ] = , i dt i dt

d[A 1] d[A 2 ] d[A 3] d[A 4 ] = = = dt dt dt dt

Trong h n v SI, n v ca tc phn ng c quy c l : mol.m 3 1 .s . Tuy nhin ty theo tc phn ng thc t ang xt m biu din con s khng qu nh m cng khng qu ln. 2. Phng trnh ng hc ca phn ng ha hc : i vi cc phn ng n gin th tc phn ng c tnh theo biu thc sau : 212

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

1A1 + 1A2 + 1A1 + 2A2 +


i =s 1 d[A i ] 1 d[A 'i ] v= = , = k. [ A i ] i dt i dt i =1 i

trong k l hng s tc phn ng, [A i] l nng cht tham gia phn ng th i ti thi im xt tc phn ng, i l h s cn bng ca cht th i tham gia phn ng, s l tng s cht tham gia phn ng ca phn ng ang xt.

Ngy son : 31/3/08 Ngy dy:2/4/08

Tit 62:
I. Mc tiu bi hc 1. Kin thc:

Tc phn ng ho hc

213

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- Nm c cc khi nim : + Tc phn ng, tc trung bnh ca phn ng. Cht xc tc - Hiu cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng ha hc : + Nng cc cht tham gia phn ng. + p sut ca cc cht kh tham gia phn ng. + Nhit ca h phn ng. + Kch thc ht, din tch b mt thay i tc phn ng . + Cht xc tc. 2. K nng: - Bit vn dng:Thay i nng , p sut, nhit , din tch b mt thay i tc phn ng. Dng cht xc tc tng tc phn ng. - Ha cht : dung dch BaCl2 0,1 mol/l, dung dch H2SO4 0,1 mol/l, dung dch Na2S2O3 0,1 mol/l, dung dch HCl 0,1 mol/l, nc ct, dung dch H2O2 th trng, MnO2, vi (CaCO3) - Dng c : 10 cc 100,0 ml trong c hai cc chu nhit, hai ng ong 25 ml, n cn v gi n cn. III. Tin trnh bi ging 1. n nh lp 2. Kim tra bi c : Th no l tc phn ng, lm bi tp s 1, 2 trong sgk 3. Bi mi Hot ng ca thy v tr ni dung II. Cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng GV hng dn HS tin hnh th 3.nh hng ca nhit nghim : - Th nghim: (SGK- 152) Cc th nht (cc A) ly 25 ml dd *Khi nhit tng, tc Na2S2O3 0,1 mol/l + 25 ml dd chuyn ng ca cc tiu phn H2SO4 0,1 mol/l, un nng tng, dn n s ln va chm - Cc th hai (cc B) 25 ml dd tng, tc phn ng tng. Na2S2O3 0,1 mol/l. un nng nh Vy khi tng nhit phn ng + 25 ml dd H2SO4 0,1 mol/l, un th tc phn ng tng. nng. HS: q/s nx hin tng xy ra ( cc B xut hin mu trng c sm hn) kl v nh hng ca nhit 4.nh hng ca din tch b mt GV hng dn HS tin hnh th - Th nghim: (SGK- 152) nghim - Cc(a) ly 25 ml dd axit HCl 6% + vi c dng khi - Cc(b) ly 25 ml dd axit HCl 6% + vi ht nh *Vy khi tng din tch bn mt 214
II. Chun b:

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

HS quan st tc thot kh trong mi cc, rt ra nhn xt. GV nhn xt kin ca HS v rt ra kt lun. Trong cc cho CaCO3 c kch thc ht ln nn tng din tch b mt nh hn dn n s tip xc gia CaCO3 vi axit HCl t hn, tc thot kh chm hn. VD: 1. Trong thc t ti sao khi lm than t ong un bp ngi ta li lm nhiu l? 2. Khi nung vi ngi ta thng p thnh c 3 5 cm, m khng tng ln hay nghin vi thnh bt trc khi nung? GV hng dn tin hnh th nghim: Ly hai ng nghim, mi ng nghim ly 2 3 ml dd axit H2O2 th trng. Thm vo ng nghim th hai mt t bt MnO2. Trong cc cho MnO2 c kh thot ra mnh hn, lng MnO2 khng thay i so vi trc khi cho vo phn ng. 2H2O2 2H2O + O2 HS c SGK => Rt ra kt lun HS: c ngha 4.Cng c

cht phn ng ,th tc phn ng tng.

5. nh hng ca cht xc tc - Th nghim: (SGK- 153) * Vy cht xc tc l cht lm tng tc phn ng v khng tiu hao trong phn ng.

III. ngha thc tin ca tc phn ng (SKG -153)

Nhng cu sau, cu no ng()? cu no sai(S)? A. Khi tng nng cht phn ng, tc phn ng tng. B. Tc phn ng khng ph thuc vo nng ca cht phn ng. C. Vi nhng phn ng c cht kh tham gia, khi tng p sut, tc phn ng tng l do nng ca cc cht kh tng ln. D. Tc ca phn ng khng ph thuc vo nhit . 215

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

E. Khi tng nhit , tc phn ng tng. G. Cht xc tc l cht lm tng tc phn ng , nhng cn li sau khi phn ng 5. Hng dn hc: Hc bi v lm bi nh:

Ngy son : 6/4/08 Ngy dy:8/4/08

Tit 63: Bi thc hnh s 6


Tc phn ng ho hc
I. Mc tiu .

Bit mc ch, cch tin hnh cc th nghim : nh hng ca nng n tc phn ng ; nh hng ca nhit n tc phn ng ; nh hng ca din tch tip xc n tc phn ng. S dng dng c, ha cht v thc hin cc th nghim an ton, thnh cng. Quan st cc hin tng xy ra, vn dng kin thc hc gii thch, vit phng trnh ha hc ca phn ng.
II. Chun b.

1. Dng c ng nghim Gi ng nghim Kp g ng nh git Kp ha cht n cn 2. Ha cht Dung dch HCl nng 18% v nng 6%. Dung dch H2SO4 long, nng 15%. Ht Zn kim loi. Mi nhm th nghim c chun b thm mt mu km kch thc nh hn bng cch chn nhng vin km nh hoc p v tng vin km thnh nhng mnh nh hn. Dng c, ha cht cho HS thc hin th nghim theo nhm ph hp vi s lng HS v ph hp iu kin phng th nghim ca trng. n tp nhng kin thc c lin quan n cc th nghim trong bi thc hnh. Nghin cu trc bit dng c, ha cht, cch lm tng th nghim.
iii. Tin trnh bi ging

1. n nh lp 216

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

2. Kim tra bi c. 3Thc hnh Hot ng ca thy & tr Hot ng 1.(7 ph) GV:trnh by ni dung thc hnh, ng thi hd cch tin hnh TNo nh sgk HS: q/s gv hd lm Th nghim GV:Treo bng ph ghi nd 4 TNo cn thc hnh GV: Chia nhm thc hnh. II.Thc hnh H1. Th nghim 1: .(10 ph) nghim ptpu GV:Lu : HCl l axit mnh lm th nghim phi cn thn. 1. Th nghim 1: nh hng ca a.Cch tin hnh: - ng 1: cha 3ml dd HCl 18% - ng2: cha 3ml dd HCl 6% Cho ng thi vo 2 ng nghim 1 ht Zn c kch thc ging nhau b.Hin tng: lng bt kh H2 thot ra 2 ng nghim khc nhau. ( ng 1 nhamh hn ng 2) 2. Th nghim2: nh hng ca nhit n tc phn ng a. Cch tin hnh: - Ly 2 ng nghim H2. Th nghim 2: .(10 ph) GV: hd hs lm th nghim ng1: cha 3ml dd H2SO4 15% ng 2: cha 3ml dd H2SO4 15% HS: cc nhm tin hnh th nng n tc phn ng GV:Y/c q/s hin tng xy ra, vit Ly 2 ng nghim Ni dung c bn I. Cch tin hnh

HS: quan st hin tng,vit ptpu? - un dd trong ng 1 gn si Lu .Lm th nghim vi axit phi Cho ng thi vo 2 ng cn thn nghim 1 ht Zn c kch thc ging nhau b. Hin tng: ng 1 si bt kh 217

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

nhamh hn ng 2 *kl: Tng nhit , tc phn ng tng 3.Th nghim 3: nh hng ca din tch b mt cht rn n H3. Th nghim 3.(10 ph) GV: hd hs tin hnh th nghm HS: quan st hin tng,vit ptpu? tc phn ng. a. Cch tin hnh:- chun b 2 mu Zn c kl = nhau nhng kch thc khc nhau - Ly 2 ng nghim ng1: cha 3ml dd H2SO4 15% +1 ht Zn c kch thc nh ng 2: cha 3ml dd H2SO4 15% + 1 ht Zn c kch thc ln hn b. Hin tng: ng 2 si bt kh nhamh hn ng 1 *kl: Tng din tch b mt cht rn, tc phn ng tng III. Kt qu - Vit tng trnh theo ni dung hng dn H5. bo co kt qu thc hnh(8ph) 1. H v tn hc sinh:Lp:.. 2. Tn bi thc hnh. T T Tn TN Cch tin hnh TN Hin tng quan st c

Gii thch kt qu TN

- Y/c hc sinh thu dn d/c , ho cht ,v sinh phng th nghim 218

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

4.Nhn xt v dn d: - Tip tc vit tng trnh - Chun b bi tip theo

Ngy son : 21/4/08 Ngy dy : 23/4/08

Tit 68+ 69 :

n tp hc k II

I. Mc tiu bi hc: - Oxi v lu hunh l nhng nguyn t phi kim c tnh oxi ha mnh, trong oxi c tnh oxi ha mnh hn lu hunh ; Hai dng th hnh ca nguyn t oxi l oxi v ozon. c im cu to lp e ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t halogen, cu to ca phn t halogen. - S bin thin tnh cht ca cc n cht halogen v hp cht halogen khi i t flo n iot - Nguyn tc chung ca phng php iu ch halogen Hiu : Mi quan h gia cu to nguyn t, m in, s oxi ha ca cc nguyn t vi nhng tnh cht ha hc ca nguyn t halogen, oxi, lu hunh ; Tnh cht ha hc c bn ca hp cht ca lu hunh ph thuc vo trng thi s oxi ha ca nguyn t lu hunh trong hp cht II. Chun b : - SGK, Sch bi tp, sch gii ton III. Tin trnh bi ging 1. n nh t chc. 2. Kim tra bi c: trong qu trnh n tp 3. Bi mi: Hot ng ca thy & tr Ni dung c bn Hs t n tp A. L thuyt I.Phn ng oxiho- kh GV:y/c hs nhc li ni dung kin 1. Phn ng ho hc: thc quan trng chng IV - Phn ng khng phi l phn 219

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

ng oxiho-kh( ko c s thay HS: nh li kin thc hc tr li i s oxh) - Phn ng oxiho- kh (c s thay i s oxh ) +Cht kh: + Cht oxiho + Phn ng oxiho- kh Gv ch y/c nhc li cc kin thc + Lp pthh ca phn ng oxihoquan trng ca chng V kh HS: nh li kin thc hc tho II. ChngV nhm halogen lun nhm tr li 1. Cc halogen d nhn thm 1 e t ti cu hnh e bn vng ca kh him. Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca cc halogen l tnh oxi ho mnh X 2 + 2 e --> 2X Cu hnh e tng t ca lp ngoi cng l nguyn nhn lm cho cc halogen ging nhau v tnh cht - T F I tnh phi kim v kh nng oxh gim dn. - Flo lun c s OXH 1 trong hp Hiu c th no l mui hn cht. tp. - Cl, Br, I c s o xh c trng l Cht bt mu trng, c mi xc -1 trong H.C vi kim loi v hiro. ca kh clo? Ngoi ra cn c s o xh l : +1, +3, +5, +7 trong H.C vi oxi 2. Hp cht c oxi ca clo a. Nc Javen: Clorua vi c tnh oxiho mnh Kh Cl2 tc dng vi dd NaOH l, ngui CaOCl2 +2HCl CaCl2 + Cl2 0 1 +1 +H2O Cl2+ 2NaOH NaCl + NaClO+ Trong KK m: H2O 2CaOCl2 + CO2 + H2O (Natriclorua + Natri CaCl2 + hipoclorit) CaCO3+2HClO hay nc Gia-ven S to thnh HClO lm cho b. Clorua vi: clorua vi c tnh ty mu, st Cl2 tc dng vi vi ti hoc sa trng, ty u. vi 30 c - Trnh by tnh cht c trng ca cc hp cht ca lu hunh? ti Cl2 + Ca(OH)2 CaOCl2 + H2O Clorua vi sao? ly v d? GV: Chia nhm y/c mi nhm lm
0

220

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

1hp cht ca S HS: Tho lun tr li nhm khc nx b sung GV: nx b sung

III. ChngVI oxi Lu hunh - u c 6 e lp ngoi cng, 2 e c thn. - C m in tng i ln O-2, S-2. 1.H2S Tnh kh mnh: - Nguyn t S trong H2S c s oxh thp nht ( 2) H2S c tnh kh mnh. -2 0 S S + 2e
-2

S S + 6e

+4

2.SO2 : Nguyn t S trong SO2 c s oxh trung gian (+ 4) +L mt oxit axit yu +4 0 2 + L cht oxi ho: S --> S , S + l ch kh: S --> S 3. H2SO4 a. Axt H2SO4long : L mt a xt mnh c y tnh cht ho hc ca mt a xt mnh b.Axt H2SO4 c: C u tnh cht ho hc ca axit mnh v c tnh oxi ho mnh khi tc dng vi kim loi, phi kim v vi cc hp cht c tnh kh gii phn kh SO2, S, H2S vc tnh ho nc mnh IV.Tc phn ng v cn bng ho hc GVcng hs ln lt cha 1s bt cng c kin thc hc 1.nh ngha: Tc phn ng 2. Cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng (Nng , p sut, nhit , in tch b mt, cht xc tc) 3. Nguyn l chuyn dch cn bng ho hc Cc yu t nh hng n cn bng ho hc 221
+4 +6

- Nu /n tc phn ng, cc yu t a/hng n tc phn ng ? Nguyn l chuyn dch cn bng ho hc? HS: suy ngh tho lun nhm nh tr li cu hi

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

( Nng , p sut, nhit ) B. Bi tp

Cu 1 : Cho bit phn ng ho hc: H2S + Cl2 + H2O -> H2SO4 + HCl. Cu no sau y phn nh ng tnh cht ca p : A. H2S l cht oxi ho, Cl2 l cht kh. B. H2S l cht kh, Cl2 l cht oxi ha. C. H2O l cht oxi ho, Cl2 l cht kh. D. H2O l cht oxi ho, H2 S l cht kh. Cu 2. Khi sc SO2 vo dung dch H2S th A - Dung dch b vn c mu vng. B - Khng c hin tng g. C - Dung dch chuyn thnh mu nu en. D - To thnh cht rn mu . Cu 3. C 2 bnh ng kh H2S, SO2 nhn bit 2 kh ngi ta dng thuc th l: A - Dn tng kh qua dung dch Pb(NO3)2. B - Dung dch NaCl. C - Dung dch brom D - Dung dch HCl. Cu 4. Kh sunfur l cht c: A - Tnh kh mnh B L mt oxit axit yu C - Va c tnh xi ho, va c tnh kh D - C C v B Cu5. Phn ng no sau y SO2 ng vai tr l cht oxi ho: A. SO2 + Na2O Na2SO3 B. SO 2 + 2 H2S 3 S + 2 H2O C. SO2 + H2O + Br2 2HBr +H2SO4 D. 5SO2 + 2KMnO4 + 2H2O K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 2H2SO4 Cu6. Trong cc phn ng, phn ng no cht tham gia l axit sunfuric c? A. H2SO4 + Cu CuSO4 + H2O + SO2 B. H2SO4 + Zn ZnSO4 + H2 C. H2SO4 + Fe(OH)2 FeSO4 + H2O D. H2SO4 + Na2CO3 Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2 Cu7. Phng php dng iu ch xi trong cng nghip l: A - in phn nc B - Nhit phn NaNO3 C - Chng ct phn on khng kh lng D. C A v C 222

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Cu8. Hir sunfua l mt cht A - C tnh kh mnh B- C tnh xi ho yu C - C tnh xi ho mnh D - C tnh axt yu Cu9. T bt Fe, S, dung dch HCl c th c my cch iu ch c H2S. A .1 B. 2 C. 3 D .4 Cu 10. SO2 l mt trong nhng kh gy nhim mi trng v: A. SO2 l cht c mi hc, nng hn khng kh. B. SO2 l kh c tan trong nc ma to thnh axt gy ra s n mn kim loi. C. SO2 va c tnh cht kh va c tnh xi ho. D. SO2 l mt xit axit Cu 11. Cp cht no sau y tn ti trong hn hp nhit thng. A.HCl v H2S B . H2S v Cl2 C.SO2 v H2S D . SO2 v O2 Cu 12: Tnh cht st trng v ty mu ca nc Gia- ven l do nguyn nhn no sau y: A. Do cht NaClO phn hu ra oxi c tnh oxi ho mnh B. Do cht NaClO phn hu ra Cl2 c tnh oxi ho mnh C. Do trong cht NaClO, nguyn t Cl c s oxi ho l +1, th hin tnh oxi ho mnh D. Do cht NaCl trong nc Giaven c tnh ty mu v st trng Cu 13 Phn t ca cc n cht halogen c kiu lin kt: A. Cng ho tr c cc B. Tinh th. C. Ion. D. Cng ho tr khng cc Cu 14: Cho dy axit HF, HCl, HBr, HI. Theo chiu t tri sang phi tnh cht axit bin i nh sau: A. Tng B. Gim C. Khng thay i D. Va tng va gim Cu 15: Trong s cc hiro halogenua, cht no sau y c tnh kh mnh nht ? A. HF B. HBr C. HCl D. HI Cu 16: Hy la chn phng php iu ch kh HCl trong phng th nghim t cc ho cht u sau: A. Thu phn mui AlCl3 B. Tng hp t H2 v Cl2 C. Clo tc dng vi nc D. NaCl tinh th v H2SO4 c Cu 16: Chn cu ng trong s cc cu sau y. Phn ng ha hc gia hiro v clo xy ra iu kin: 223

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

A. trong bng ti, nhit thng. B. c chiu sng. C. nhit thp. D. trong bng ti. C. Do HCl d bay hi, ht m to ra cc git nh axit HCl. D. Do HCl tan trong nc n mc bo ha. Cu17 : Cho 15,8g KMnO4 tc dng vi dung dch HCl m c. Th tch kh clo thu c iu kin tiu chun l: A. 5,6 lit. B. 0,56 lit. C. 0,28 lit. D. 2,8 lit. Cu18: Phn ng ha hc no sau y chng t HCl c tnh kh? A. HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O B. HCl + Mg MgCl2 + H2 C. 4HCl + MnO2 MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O D. HCl + NH 3 NH4Cl Cu19: Tnh xi ho ca cc Halgen gim dn theo th t sau: A. Cl2 < F2 < Br2 < I2 C. F2 < Cl2 < Br2 < I2 B. I2 < Br2 < Cl2 < F2 D. F2 < Br2 < I2 < Cl2 E. Cl2 < Br2 < F2 < I2 Cu20: Nguyn tc chung iu ch clo trong phng th nghim l: A. Dng cht giu Clo nhit phn ra Cl2. B. Dng Flo y Clo ra khi dung dch mui ca n. C. Cho HCl c tc dng vi cc cht xi ho mnh D. in phn cc mui clorua. Cu 21: Nc Javen c iu ch bng cch: A. Cho Clo tc dng vi nc B. Cho Clo tc dng vi dung dch Ca(OH)2 C. Cho Clo sc vo dung dch NaOH D. Cho Clo vo dung dch NaOH ri un nng Cu 22: Thuc th c trng nhn bit ra hp cht halogenua trong dung dch l: A. Dung dch Ba(OH)2C. Dung dch Cu(NO3)2 B. Dung dch AgNO3 D. Dung dch Ba(NO3)2 Cu23. Axit HCl c th phn ng c vi cc cht trong dy no sau y? A. Cu, CuO, Ca(OH)2, AgNO3. B. Fe3O4, CuO, CaO, NaOH, CaCO3. C. Zn, Na2SO4, Ba(OH)2, qu tm. D. MnO2, Cu, BaSO4, qu tm. Cu24: Dung dch axit no sau y khng th cha trong bnh thu tinh A. HF B. HCl C. HBr D. HI Cu25: Ho tan 2,24 lt kh hidro clorua (KTC) vo 46,35 gam nc thu c dung dch HCl c nng phn trm ca HCl 224

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

A. 7,3% D. 6,7%

B. 73%

C. 67%

Cu26 : Cho 15,8g KMnO4 tc dng vi dung dch HCl m c. Th tch kh clo thu c iu kin tiu chun l: A. 5,6 lit. B. 0,56 lit. C. 0,28 lit. D. 2,8 lit. Cu27: Tnh khi lng Clo tc dng vi kim loi Al to ra 26,7 gam AlCl3 Gii 2 Al + 3 Cl2 --> 2AlCl3 mol 2 3 2 0.2 0.3 0.2 S mol AlCl3 l : 26,7/133.5=0.2 mol T ptpu --> s mol ca Clo p: 0.3mol Khi lng ca Clo pu: 0.3x71 = 21.3 gam Bi28: Cho 26,6g hn hp KCl v NaCl ha tan vo nc c 50g dung dch. Cho dung dch trn tc dng va vi dung dch AgNO 3 thu c 57,4g kt ta. % Khi lng mi mui trong hn hp KCl, NaCl Bi29: Ha tan 11 gam hn hp bt 2 kim loi Al, Fe vo dung dch HCl d thu c 8,96l H2 (KTC). Khi lng mi kim loi Cu30: Nung nng 17,7g hn hp bt cc kim loi Zn v Fe trong bt S d (hiu sut phn ng l 100%). Ho tan hon ton cht rn thu c sau phn ng vo dung dch H2SO4 d thy c 6,72 lt kh (KTC) bay ra. Khi lng mi kim loi Zn, Fe A. 36,72%; 63,28% B. 48,2%; 51,8% C. 52,1%; 47,9% D. Kt qu khc. Cu 31:.Mt hn hp gm 13 gam Zn v 5,6 gam Fe tc dng ci dung dch H2SO4 long, d. Th tch kh hiro thu c ktc c gii phng sau phn ng l: A. 4,48 lt B. 2,24 lt C. 6,72 lt D. 67,2 lt Cu 32: Cho 7,8 gam hn hp kim loi Mg v Al tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 long, d. Khi phn ng kt thc thu c 8,96 lt kh ktc. Khi lng mi kim loi trong hn hp ban u ln lt l: A. 5,4 v 2,4 B. 2,4 v 5,4 g C. 1,2 g v 6,8 gam D. 5,1 g v 2,7 g Cu 33: Hn hp kh A gm c O2 v O3, t khi ca A so vi hir l 18, % th tch ca O2 v O3 trong hn hp l: A - 60% ; 40% B - 65% ; 35% C - 75% ; 25 % D - 80% ; 20% Cu34:Sc 2,24 lt SO2 ( ktc ) vo 100ml dung dch NaOH 3M. Cc cht c trong dung dch sau phn ng l: 225

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

A. Na2SO3, NaOH, H2O B. NaHSO3, H2O C. Na2SO3, H2O D. Na2SO3, NaHSO3, H2O Cu35: Thm t t dung dch BaCl2 vo 300ml dung dch Na2SO4 1M cho n khi khi lng kt ta bt u khng i th dng li, ht 50ml. Nng mol/l ca dung dch BaCl2 l: A. 6,0M. B. 0,6M. C. 0,06M. D. 0,006M 4.Cng c : Nhc li kin thc quan trng v yu cu hc sinh hc bi 5. Bi tp v nh : Hs lm bi v chun b bi tp gio vin cho theo cng Hc cc kin thc quan trng, tit sau thi hc k II

Ngy son : 8/4/08 Ngy dy : 10/4/08

Tit 64 : cn bng ho hc ( tit 1)


I. McTIU BI HC:

1.Kin thc : Bit c: - nh ngha phn ng thun nghch v nu th d . - Khi nim v cn bng ho hc v nu th d. - Khi nim v s chuyn dch cn bng ho hc v nu th d. - Ni dung nguyn l L sa- t- li v c th ho trong mi trng hp c th. 2. K nng - D on c chiu chuyn dch cn bng ho hc trong nhng iu kin c th. - Vn dng c cc yu t nh hng n cn bng ho hc xut cch tng hiu sut phn ng trong trng hp c th. II. Chun b . Gv : - pht - Phng to H 7.4 v 7.5 (sgk) 226

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

HS : n tp v tc phn ng III. Tin trnh bi ging 1. n nh t chc. 2. Kim tra bi c: 3.Bi mi: Vo bi: GV a ra phiu hc tp s 1: Trong cc phn ng sau y, phn ng no xy ra, phn ng no khng xy ra? a) 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2 e) 2Ag2O 4Ag + O2 b) 2KCl + 3O2 2KClO3 f) 4Ag + O2 2Ag2O c) CaCO3 CaO + CO2 g) 2HI H2 + I2 d) CO2 + CaO CaCO3 h) H2 + I2 2HI - HS: (a) xy ra cn (b) khng xy ra (c) v (d) u xy ra (e) xy ra cn (f) khng xy ra (g) v (h) u xy ra - GV kt lun: Trong mt iu kin nht nh, c phn ng xy ra theo c 2 chiu, nhng c phn ng ch xy ra theo mt chiu. Phn ng nh th gi l phn ng mt chiu. ng thi, nhng phn ng xy ra theo c 2 chiu s nh hng ti hiu sut phn ng ca mt chiu no . Lnh vc nghin cu v vn ny l cn bng ho hc. Hot ng ca thy & tr GV: a ra 2 phn ng KClO3 KCl + O2 v Cl2 + H2O HCl + HClO c nu r 1 phn ng mt chiu v mt phn ng thun nghch, yu cu HS xc nh li v vit phng trnh ho hc (lu HS vit mi tn hoc ). Ni dung I. Phn ng mt chiu, phn ng thun nghch v cn bng ha hc 1. Phn ng mt chiu phn ng mt chiu MnO 2KCl + 3O2 2KClO3 t Trong iu kin ny, KCl v O2 sinh ra khng tc dng c vi nhau to KClO3 , dng mt mi tn ch chiu phn ng. 2. Phn ng thun nghch phn ng thun nghch ng HCl + HClO Cl2 + HPhn 2O thun
0 2

Nhn xt: iu kin thng, Cl2 phn ng vi H2O to HCl v HClO, ng thi HCl v HClO sinh ra cng tc dng li vi nhau to li Cl2 v H2O, dng 2 mi tn

Phn ng thun nghch l nhng phn ng ngc chiu nhau trong cng mt iu kin ti mi thi im phn ng lun c mt 227

Phn ng nghch

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

ngc chiu nhau thay cho 1 mi tn. Gv ly v d khc: SO2 tc dng vi O2

ng thi cc cht tham gia phn ng v cc cht to thnh v hiu sut phn ng < 100% Gi s c phn ng thun nghch C +D A + B + Tc phn ng khi xy ra theo chiu thun: t = kt [A].[B] + Tc phn ng khi xy ra - Tnh tc phn ng thun v theo chiu nghch: n = kn [C]. phn ng nghch theo nng ? [D] (trong : v : tc phn ng k : h s t l c trng ca phn ng [A] , [B] nng ca A,B tnh bng mol /l) + n mt thi im, t = n phn ng t ti mt trng thi -Tnh tc phn ng thun v gi l cn bng ho hc. phn ng nghch ca phn ng 3. Cn bng ha hc trn? Th d: H2(k) + I2(k) 2HI (k) t = kt [H2].[I2] n = kn [HI] 2 Khi mi cho H2 vo I2 lc ny t ln nht , n = 0. Sau mt thi gian Khi mi cho H2 vo I2 lc ny tc nng ca HI tng v nng phn ng H2 + I2 2HI l ca H2, I2 gim nn t gim dn ln nht sau t phn ng ny cn vn tng dn. gim dn theo thi gian do nng n mt thi im no khi vt ca H2 v I2 gim dn. Trong = vn th phn ng t ti trng khi thi im ban u thi cn bng nng cc cht nng ca HI bng 0 nn tc khng thay i nhng phn ng phn ng nghch 2HI H2 + vn tip tc xy ra. I2 bng 0, sau nng HI tng dn nn tc phn ng v nghch tng dn. Khi tc ca hai phn ng bng nhau, ngha Tc phn ng: H + I 2 2 l c bao nhiu mol HI hnh 2HI thnh do phn ng thun th Tc phn ng: 2HI by nhiu mol HI b phn hu H2 + I2 theo phn ng nghch. Trng thi t 228

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

ny ca phn ng thun nghch c gi l cn bng ho hc.

GV : m t th nghim, y/c : - HS vit p, n/x tc p, mu sc ng a,b ,gii thch GV: b sung

Vy: Cn bng ha hc l trng thi ca phn ng thun nghch khi tc phn ng thun bng tc phn ng nghch (Vthun =Vnghch). Cn bn ho hc l mt cn bng ng v ti trng thi cn bng th phn ng thun nghch vn tip tc xy ra. II. S chuyn dch cn bng ho hc 1 .Th nghim ( sgk) 2 nh ngha: (SGK)

4. Cng c : -Th no l phn ng thun nghch, cn bng ho hc ? - Hs ly mt vi v d v phn ng thun nghch ? 5. Bi tp v nh : SGK

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Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

Ngy son :14 /4/08 Ngy dy :16 /4/08

Tit 65 : cn bng ho hc ( tip theo)


I. McTIU BI HC:

1.Kin thc : Bit c: - Khi nim v s chuyn dch cn bng ho hc v nu th d. - HS hiu cc yu t nh hng n cn bng ho hc. - Ni dung nguyn l L sa- t- li v c th ho trong mi trng hp c th. 2. K nng - D on c chiu chuyn dch cn bng ho hc trong nhng iu kin c th. - Vn dng c cc yu t nh hng n cn bng ho hc xut cch tng hiu sut phn ng trong trng hp c th. II. Chun b . Gv : - Th nghim CM nh hng ca p sut n cn bng - Phng to H 7.6 (sgk) HS : - n tp phn ng thun nghch, cn bng ho hc . - Chuyn dch cn bng ho hc III. Tin trnh bi ging 1. n nh t chc. 2. Kim tra bi c: 3.Bi mi: Hot ng ca thy & tr Ni dung GV: s dng pp m thoi GV:Xt h cn bng sau trong phng kn to khng i: C(r) + CO2(k) 2CO( K) GV: h ang tt cn bng , hy nx v vt ,vn ? Nng cc cht trong phn ng thay i ntn? HS: tr li III. Cc yu t nh hng n cn bng ho hc. 1. nh hng ca nng Xt h cn bng sau trong phng kn to khng i: C(r) + CO2(k) 2CO( K) - vt = vn cc cht trong h khng i - Thm 1 lng CO2 nng CO2 230

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

tng vt > vn - vt tng CO2 phn ng thm vi C to ra CO vn thay i v sau 1 thi gian vt = vn - Nng CO2 cn bng mi gim i so vi cn bng c. * KL: Khi tng hoc gim nng 1 cht trong cn bng, th cn bng bao gi cng chuyn dch theo chiu lm gim hoc tng nng ca cht . GV: lm tnonh sgk h7.6 Lu : nu trong h cn bng c - y pt tng vo, th tch h cht rn th vic thm bt cht thay i th no? p sutt rn ko nh hng n cn bng. chung ca h tng hay gim? 2. nh hng ca p sut - Hs : th tch h gim i p Xt h cn bng trong xi lanh sut chung ca h tng ln kn c pt tng nhit thng - Cn bng ho hc chuyn v ko i: dch theo chiu no? HS :p sut cn bng ho hc chuyn dch theo chiu gim s mol kh N2O4 k 2NO2k - GV: lm tno khi h ang trng Ko mu nu thi cn bng nu ta ko pt tng ra th th tich chung ca h gim i hay tng ln? p sut chung ca h tng ln hay gim i? mu ca hn hp trong h nht hay m, chng t cn bng ho hc c chuyn dch theo chiu tng hay gim s mol kh? -HS : Khi gim p sut chung ca h th cn bng chuyn dch theo chiu tng s mol kh, chuyn dch theo chiu thun *KL: Khi tng hoc gim p sut lm gim tc dng ca vic gim chung ca h cn bng , th p sut cn bng bao gi cng chuyn Kl nh hng ca p sut dch theo chiu lm gim td ca vic tng hoc gim p sut . - Lu : nu phn ng c s mol kh hai v ca phng trnh o GV: n/cu a/hng ca t n bng nhau hoc phan r ng ko c cn bng ho hc ta hiu th cht kh, th p sut ko nh hGV: t vn Thm 1 lng CO2lc ny Vt=vn ko?vt tng vn c thay i ko? - trng thi cn bng mi nng CO2 so vi cn bng mi thay i ntn? - Hs: kl 231

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

no l p to nhit v p thu nhit -Cc p ho hc thng km theo s gii phng hoc hp th nng lng di dng nhit , ngi ta dng i lng nhit p k hiu H + H <O p to nhit + H>O p thu nhit - Da vo gi tr H hy cho bit y l p to nhit hay thu nhit? HS: tr li GV : khi hn hp kh ang trng thi cn bng , nhng bnh ng kh vo nc si mu nu ca hn hp kh m ln , v ngc li . Cn bng chuyn dch theo chiu no ? p thu nhit hay to nhit? HS rt ra kl

ng n cn bng 3. nh hng ca nhit . Xt p: 1. N2O4 k 2NO2k H = +58kj Ko mu nu to 2. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 H =+178kj 3. CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 H = 65kj

Kl: Khi tng nhit , cn bng chuyn dch theo chiu phn GV: trnh by sgk ng thu nhit . Khi gim nhit , cn bng chuyn dch theo GV : hiu r ngha ca tc chiu phn ng to nhit phn ng v cn bng ho *Nguyn l Lsa-t-li- : hc trong sn xut chng ta (SGKtr161) nghin cu qu trnh sn xut 4. Vai tr ca cht xc tc. SGK (sgk) IV. ngha ca tc phn ng v cn bng ho hc trong sn xut ho hc VD 1: trong qu trnh sn xut VD 1: trong qu trnh sn xut axit sufuric phi thc hin phn axit sufuric phi thc hin phn ng sau: ng sau: 2SO2 + O2 2 SO3 H< 2SO2 + O2 2 SO3 H< O O GV y/c hs rt ra cc c im cu p ny GV : k ny phn ng xy ra chm. Lm th no phn ng xy ra theo chiu thun , 232

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

thu c nhiu SO3? VD 2: trong CN amoniac c tng HS: suy ngh ( tng nng oxi hp theo phn ng sau: bng cch dng d k/kh . Nu N2 + 3H2 2NH3 H< O o gim t tc phn ng chm vy phi thc hin t0 hp l 450 0 C v dng thm xc tc) GV y/c tng t vd1Xt VD2 4. Cng c : - Nguyn l chuyn dch cn bng ? - nh hng ca cc yu t : nng , p sut, nhit ? 5. Bi tp v nh : 4,5,6,7,8 SGK

Ngy son :15 /4/08 Ngy dy :17 /4/08

tc phn ng v cn bng ho hc
I. McTIU BI HC:

Tit 66+67 : luyn tp

233

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

1.Kin thc : - Cng c kin thc v tc phn ng , cn bng ho hc ,chuyn dch cn bng ho hc . 2. K nng - Rn luyn cch vn dng cc yu t nh hng n tc phn ng ho hc - Rn luyn cch vn dng nguyn l chuyn dch cn bng L sat- li lm chuyn dch cn bng ho hc . II. Chun b . Gv : Hng dn hs chun b ni dung bi39 III. Tin trnh bi ging 1. n nh t chc. 2. Kim tra bi c: 3.Bi mi:

Hot ng ca thy & tr


GV: y/c cc nhm hs lit k cc yu t lm tng tc phn ng ? GV: y/c hs lm Bi tp:3,4

Ni dung
A. Kin thc cn nm vng 1. Tc phn ng tng khi : - Tng nng cht phn ng - Tng p sut phn ng ( nu l cht kh) - Tng nhit cho phn ng - Tng din tch b mt cho cht phn ng - C mt cht xc tc

Bi tp:3 C th dng nhng bin php g tng tc ca a s phn ng xy ra chm k thng? Bi tp 4: Trong cc cp phn ng sau p no c tc ln hn ?( nu ko ghi ch g thm l so snh trong cng k) a.Fe + CuSO4 (2M) v Fe + CuSO4 (4M) b. Zn + CuSO4 (2M & 25o C) v Zn + CuSO4 (2M & 50o C) c. Zn hat + CuSO4(2M) v Zn bt+ CuSO4 (2M) d.2H2 + O2 2H2O v 2H2 + O2 to , xt 2H2O HS ln bng lm. Hs khc nx b sung GV : t chc cho hs tho lun v cn bng ho hc

Bi tp:4 - Fe + CuSO4 (4M) c tc phn ng ln hn - Zn + CuSO4 (2M & 50o C) c tc phn ng ln hn - Zn bt+ CuSO4 (2M) c tc phn ng ln hn to , xt - 2H2 + O2 2H2O c tc phn ng ln hn 2. Cn bng ho hc: l trng thi ca phn ng thun nghch khi tc phn ng thun v tc phn ng nghch bng nhau 234

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

- Mt p thun nghch trng thi ntn c gi l cn bng ho hc ? - C th duy tr cn bng ho hc n ko bin i theo thi gian c ko ? Bng cch no? GV: t chc cho hs tho lun v s chuyn dch cn bng ho hc - Th no l s chuyn dch cn bng ho hc ? - Cc yu t lm chuyn dch cn bng? - Pht biu nguyn l lsa -tli?Vd?

3.S chuyn dch cn bng l s chuyn dch t trng thi cn bng ny sang trng thi cn bng khc do tc ng ca yu t bn ngoi ln cn bng.(c th hin trong nguyn l lsa -t- li: - Khi tng nng cht no (tr cht rn) trong cn bng h cn bng s chuyn dch theo chiu phn ng lm gim cht v ngc li - Khi tng p sut chung ca h cn bng ,cn bng s chuyn dch theo chiu phn ng c s mol kh t hn v ngc li - Khi tng t o cn bng s chuyn dch theo chiu phn ng thu nhit v ngc li B. Bi tp

GV: cho hs lm ln lt cc bi tp sgk (u bi c ghi trn bng ph) GV: chia 6 nhm y/cu hon thnh trong 5 pht : Nhm 1,2 lm Bi tp 1 Nhm 3,4 lm Bi tp 2 Nhm 5,6 lm Bi tp 5 Bi tp1: HS: tho lun 5pht. i din nhm tr li

Bi tp2:Cho bit cn bng sau c thc hin trong bnh kn: PCl5(k) PCl3(k) + Cl2(k) >O Bin php no sau y to nn

Bi tp1: Ni dung no th hin cc cu sau y l sai? /:A( Nhin liu chy tng kh quyn trn cao nhanh hn khi chy mt t) Bi tp2:Cho bit cn bng sau c thc hin trong bnh kn: PCl5(k) PCl3(k) + Cl2(k) >O Bin php no sau y to nn s tng lng PCl3trong cn bng? /n:d.( Tng nhit ) 235

Th Hnh - Trng THPT s 2 Lo Cai

s tng lng PCl3trong cn bng? a. Ly bt PCl5 ra b. Thm Cl2 Bi tp5: Cho bit phn ng vo thun nghch sau: c. Gim nhit d. Tng 2NaHCO3 (r) Na2CO3 +CO2(k) nhit +H2O >O HS: tho lun 5pht. i din - un nng nhm tr li - Ht ra CO2,,H2O ngoi Bi tp5: Cho bit phn ng thun nghch sau: 2NaHCO3 (r) Na2CO3 +CO2(k) +H2O >O C th dng bin php no chuyn ho nhanh v hon ton NaHCO3thnh Na2CO3 HS: tho lun 5pht. i din nhm tr li HS :cc nhm q/st nhn xt b sung GV: n/x b sung 4. Cng c : - GV y/c hs n tp theo ni dung gv yu cu chun b thi hc k 5. Bi tp v nh : 6,7 SGK

236