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Economics of Space Exploration

Bill Gibson

UVM Fall 2012

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Hohmann transfer orbit.svg - illustration of a Hohmann transfer orbit 10/14/11 6:03 PM

!v'

3 1 R' O !v R

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/Hohmann_transfer_orbit.svg

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Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Velocity changes are are tangent to the initial and nal orbits (changes magnitude of velocity but not direction).

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Velocity changes are are tangent to the initial and nal orbits (changes magnitude of velocity but not direction). Burns are short (2-5 min) compared with length of orbit. Treat them as if they were instantaneous.

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Velocity changes are are tangent to the initial and nal orbits (changes magnitude of velocity but not direction). Burns are short (2-5 min) compared with length of orbit. Treat them as if they were instantaneous. Coapsidal orbits: two elliptical orbits have their major axes aligned.

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Velocity changes are are tangent to the initial and nal orbits (changes magnitude of velocity but not direction). Burns are short (2-5 min) compared with length of orbit. Treat them as if they were instantaneous. Coapsidal orbits: two elliptical orbits have their major axes aligned. Whenever we add or subtract V , we change the orbits specic mechanical energy and hence its semi-major axis.

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Velocity changes are are tangent to the initial and nal orbits (changes magnitude of velocity but not direction). Burns are short (2-5 min) compared with length of orbit. Treat them as if they were instantaneous. Coapsidal orbits: two elliptical orbits have their major axes aligned. Whenever we add or subtract V , we change the orbits specic mechanical energy and hence its semi-major axis. Example How do we calculate the burns?

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Velocity changes are are tangent to the initial and nal orbits (changes magnitude of velocity but not direction). Burns are short (2-5 min) compared with length of orbit. Treat them as if they were instantaneous. Coapsidal orbits: two elliptical orbits have their major axes aligned. Whenever we add or subtract V , we change the orbits specic mechanical energy and hence its semi-major axis. Example How do we calculate the burns? Answer: It is a two-step procedure!

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Conservation of energy states that the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy remains constant 0 = V 2 GM 2 r

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Conservation of energy states that the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy remains constant 0 = V 2 GM 2 r

From Keplers Law (this is derived from conservation of angular momentum). rp vp = ra va where ra = radius at apoapsis and rp at periapsis

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Conservation of energy states that the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy remains constant 0 = V 2 GM 2 r

From Keplers Law (this is derived from conservation of angular momentum). rp vp = ra va where ra = radius at apoapsis and rp at periapsis At the two points, apogee and perigee of the orbit, we have conservation of energy PE1 + KE1 = PE2 + KE2

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Conservation of energy states that the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy remains constant 0 = V 2 GM 2 r

From Keplers Law (this is derived from conservation of angular momentum). rp vp = ra va where ra = radius at apoapsis and rp at periapsis At the two points, apogee and perigee of the orbit, we have conservation of energy PE1 + KE1 = PE2 + KE2 This is all we need to calculate the required burn
Bill Gibson University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Substituting
2 2 mvp GMm mva GMm = 2 rp 2 ra

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Substituting
2 2 mvp GMm mva GMm = 2 rp 2 ra

Next cancel out the mass and rearrange the terms:


2 2 vp va = 2GM (

1 1 ) rp ra

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer
Substituting
2 2 mvp GMm mva GMm = 2 rp 2 ra

Next cancel out the mass and rearrange the terms:


2 2 vp va = 2GM (

1 1 ) rp ra
ra va rp

Substitute Keplers second law: vp =

2v 2 ra 1 1 a 2 va = 2GM ( ) 2 rp rp ra

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

The math
Simplify to nd
2 va

2GM ( r1 p
2 a (r 2 rp

1 ra )

1)
2 rp 2) ra

2rp GM (ra + rp ) ra 2GMrp (1


2 (1 ra rp ra ) rp rp ra )(1 + ra )

=
2 vp =

2GMrp (1
2 (1 ra

rp ra )

2GMrp ra (ra + rp )

2GMra rp (rp + ra )
2 rp 2rp GM 2GMra / = 2 ra (ra + rp ) ra rp (rp + ra )

2 2 va = vp

va =

rp vp ra

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

The math
Simplify to nd
2 va

2GM ( r1 p
2 a (r 2 rp

1 ra )

1)
2 rp 2) ra

2rp GM (ra + rp ) ra 2GMrp (1


2 (1 ra rp ra ) rp rp ra )(1 + ra )

=
2 vp =

2GMrp (1
2 (1 ra

rp ra )

2GMrp ra (ra + rp )

2GMra rp (rp + ra )
2 rp 2rp GM 2GMra / = 2 ra (ra + rp ) ra rp (rp + ra )

2 2 va = vp

va =

rp vp ra

Done!
Bill Gibson University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer example


Example A spacecraft is in a circular earth orbit with an altitude of 150 statute miles. Calculate the v s required to change to a circular orbit with an altitude of 250 statute miles. GM = 3.99221 1014 Nm2 /kg and Re = 6.378 106 m Use the basic equation for circular orbits v =

GM /r .

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer example


Example A spacecraft is in a circular earth orbit with an altitude of 150 statute miles. Calculate the v s required to change to a circular orbit with an altitude of 250 statute miles. GM = 3.99221 1014 Nm2 /kg and Re = 6.378 106 m Use the basic equation for circular orbits v =

GM /r .

Given that the perigee has to be the 150mile orbit rp = r1 = (6.378 106 m + (150mi )1609.3 m ) = 6.619 4 106 m mi

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer example


Example A spacecraft is in a circular earth orbit with an altitude of 150 statute miles. Calculate the v s required to change to a circular orbit with an altitude of 250 statute miles. GM = 3.99221 1014 Nm2 /kg and Re = 6.378 106 m Use the basic equation for circular orbits v =

GM /r .

Given that the perigee has to be the 150mile orbit rp = r1 = (6.378 106 m + (150mi )1609.3 Apogee has to be the 250mi orbit ra = r2 = (6.378 106 m + (250mi )1609.3 m ) = 6.7803 106 m mi m ) = 6.619 4 106 m mi

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer example

For the lower orbit the velocity is: m3 m /(6.6194 106 m )]0.5 = 7766 2 s s

vlow = [(3.99221 1014 )

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer example

For the lower orbit the velocity is: m3 m /(6.6194 106 m )]0.5 = 7766 2 s s

vlow = [(3.99221 1014 )

Now do the second higher orbit vhigh = [(3.99221 1014 m3 m /(6.7803 106 m )]0.5 = 7673.3 s2 s

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Hohmann transfer example

For the lower orbit the velocity is: m3 m /(6.6194 106 m )]0.5 = 7766 2 s s

vlow = [(3.99221 1014 )

Now do the second higher orbit vhigh = [(3.99221 1014 m3 m /(6.7803 106 m )]0.5 = 7673.3 s2 s

Note that higher orbit is slower.

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Solution

Now apply the equations above for the elliptical transfer orbit: va = 2GMrp ra (ra + rp )
3

2(3.99221 1014 m )(6.6194 106 m) s2 6 (6.7803 10 m)(6.6194 106 m + 6.7803 106 m) m = 7627.1 s

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Solution

Now apply the equations above for the elliptical transfer orbit: vp

2GMra rp (ra + rp )
3

2(3.99221 1014 m )(6.7803 106 m) s2 6 (6.6194 10 m)(6.6194 106 m + 6.7803 106 m) m = 7812.5 s

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Solution

m m v (1st burn) = vp v1 = 7812.5 m s 7766.0 s = 46. 5 s .

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Solution

m m v (1st burn) = vp v1 = 7812.5 m s 7766.0 s = 46. 5 s . m m v (2nd burn) = v2 va = 7673. 3 m s 7627.1 s = 46. 2 s

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Time of Flight

Hohmann transfer fuel ecient but not economically ecient!

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Time of Flight

Hohmann transfer fuel ecient but not economically ecient! It can take a long time...things can go wrong

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Time of Flight

Hohmann transfer fuel ecient but not economically ecient! It can take a long time...things can go wrong Radiation, solar storms, psychological problems, food, water...

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Time of Flight

Hohmann transfer fuel ecient but not economically ecient! It can take a long time...things can go wrong Radiation, solar storms, psychological problems, food, water... T = P /2 =
a3 GM

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Time of Flight

Hohmann transfer fuel ecient but not economically ecient! It can take a long time...things can go wrong Radiation, solar storms, psychological problems, food, water... T = P /2 =
a3 GM

a is the semi-major axis

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Time of Flight

Hohmann transfer fuel ecient but not economically ecient! It can take a long time...things can go wrong Radiation, solar storms, psychological problems, food, water... T = P /2 =
a3 GM

a is the semi-major axis Example What is the time of ight in this problem?

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont

Time of Flight

Hohmann transfer fuel ecient but not economically ecient! It can take a long time...things can go wrong Radiation, solar storms, psychological problems, food, water... T = P /2 =
a3 GM

a is the semi-major axis Example What is the time of ight in this problem? Answer: calculate!

Bill Gibson

University of Vermont