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Fo

Convectio n

CHE2163 Laboratory Report

9/17/2010

I. Title Page

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ii

II. Table of Contents

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I. II. III.

Title Page ........................................................................................................................ii Table of Contents ...................................................................................................... iii Table of figures ........................................................................................................... List of Graphs.............................................................................................................. List of Tables............................................................................................................... VI. Summary

v IV. v V. v

....................................................................................................................vi 1. Introduction........................................................................................................................ 1 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 2. 3. Background information .......................................................................................... 1 Relevant theories and Key equations....................................................................... 2 Motivation for study ................................................................................................ 4 Intended Scope ........................................................................................................ 4

Aims ................................................................................................................................... 5 Experimental Work ............................................................................................................ 6 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. Safety issues ............................................................................................................ 6 Description of apparatus .......................................................................................... 7 Diagram of apparatus............................................................................................... 9 Experimental Procedure ........................................................................................ 12

4.

Results and Discussion .................................................................................................... 14 4.1. 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Calculated Data...................................................................................................... 14 Discussion of trends and interpretation of graphs ................................................. 32 Comparison of Results........................................................................................... 34 Comparison with expectations............................................................................... 34 Errors ..................................................................................................................... 37 Difficulties/Limitations ......................................................................................... 38

5.

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Appendices....................................................................................................................... 39

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III. Table of figures

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Figure 1: Heat Convection example: Transfer of heat from a fire to the body.......................... 1 Figure 2: Heat Convection example: boiling of water ............................................................... 1 Figure 3: Free convection example: Water cycle ...................................................................... 2 Figure 4: Forced Convection example: Blowing a hot cup of coffee ........................................ 2 Figure 5: Free and forced convection apparatus (LS-17004) .................................................... 9 Figure 6: Finned Plate .............................................................................................................. 10 Figure 7: Digital Handheld Anemometer ................................................................................ 10

IV.

List of Graphs

Graph 1: Free Convection - Temperature Profile versus Time................................................ 15 Graph 2: Free convection - Surface temperature vs. Time ...................................................... 16 Graph 3: Forced convection - Temperature Profile versus Time (v = 0.6m/s) ........................ 20 Graph 4: Forced Convection - Surface temperature vs. Time (v = 0.6 m/s) ........................... 21 Graph 5: Forced convection - Temperature Profile versus Time (v = 0.9 m/s) ....................... 25 Graph 6: Forced convection - Surface temperature vs. Time (v = 0.9 m/s) ............................ 25 Graph 7: Forced convection - Temperature Profile versus Time (v = 1.2 m/s) ....................... 29 Graph 8: Forced Convection - Surface temperature vs. Time (v = 1.2 m/s) ........................... 29

V.

List of Tables

Table 1: Free convection: Temperature profile vs. Time ........................................................ 14 Table 2: Forced convection - Temperature profile vs. Time (v = 0.6 m/s) ............................. 20 Table 3: Forced Convection - Temperature Profile versus Time (v = 0.9 m/s) ....................... 24 Table 4: Forced Convection Temperature Profile vs. Time (v = 1.2 m/s) ............................ 29 Table 5: Forced Convection - Comparison of results .............................................................. 34

VI. Summary

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1. Introduction

1.1. Backg rou n d in f orm ation Heat transfer is the movement of heat from one place to another. When an object is at a different temperature from its surrounding temperature, the heat will move from the higher temperature to the lower temperature until the object and the surrounding have the same temperature. There are many modes of heat transfers, but the one that will be considered in the following experiment will be heat transfer through convection. Heat convection is the transfer of heat between an object and its surrounding due to fluid movement. An example of this phenomenon is the cooling of hot water; where hot water vapour is released into the atmosphere until it reaches the surrounding temperature. More examples include the heat obtained by a fireplace, the boiling of water, the transfer of heat from a hot water radiator etc. A few heat convection methods are illustrated below.

Figure 1: Heat Convection example: Transfer of heat from a fire to the body

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Heat convection can be divided into two categories. They are free convection and forced convection. Free convection is the movement of fluid due to the density difference

10

in the fluid and the surrounding. Forced convection is fluid motion which is generated by an external source such as a pump or a fan. The figures below include a few examples of free and forced convection.

Figure 4: Forced Convection example: Blowing a hot cup of coffee

1.2. Rele van t th eori es an d Ke y equ ation s This experiment was divided into two parts; namely, free and forced convection. Using the results obtained, the Nusselt number (Nu), Rayleigh number (Ra), and Prandtl number (Pr) will first be calculated for free convection. This will be followed by the calculation of the Reynolds number (Re), Nusselt and Prandtl number for forced convection. The convection heat coefficient cooling. The equation is as follows: was calculated using Newtons law of

Where ,

Equation (1)

The Prandtl Number (Pr) relates the kinematic viscosity with the specific heat , dynamic viscosity

It is a dimensionless number and since it does not change with the fin or flat plate length, it is not subscripted with the length scale. In heat transfer problems the Prandtl number controls the relative thickness of momentum and the thermal boundary layers. I.e. when the Pr is small, the heat diffuses quickly compared to the velocity (momentum). The equation for the Prandtl number is as follows: (Prandtl Number, 2010)

relates the convective heat transfer coefficient, and the characteristic length

unity, i.e. convection and conduction of similar magnitude, is characteristic of a laminar flow. The larger the Nusselt number, it corresponds to a more active convection with turbulent flow. The equation of the Nusselt number is as follows: (Nusselt Number, 2010)

Equation (3)

is a dimensionless number related to the buoyancy and the Prandtl Number. The Grashof number is the , the surface temperature, and the kinematic viscosity, , the .

driven flow which is also known as free convection. This number is the multiplication of measure of the ratio of buoyancy forces to viscous forces and relates the acceleration due , The thermal expansion coefficient, , the characteristic length fluid temperature

When the Rayleigh number is below the critical number of that fluid, heat transfer is primarily in the form of conduction. When it exceeds the critical value, heat transfer is

primarily in the form of convection. The equation of the Rayleigh number is as follows: (Rayleigh Number, 2010)

Equation (4)

is a dimensionless number which gives the ratio of the dynamics viscosity, , . It can also be related to the kinematic

inertia and viscous forces. This number relates the density, and the characteristic length

Equation (5)

The main motivation to conduct this experiment was the opportunity to apply our theoretical knowledge on fins practically. By doing this we were able to analyse and study the phenomena of free and forced convection. Furthermore, we managed to compare the coefficient of heat transfer using the equation of a flat plate to the expected value for a fin. Also by calculating the numbers mentioned above we were able to get a better idea of the type of flow of the system.

1.4. In ten de d S c op e The scope of this experiment is to calculate the heat transfer coefficients with temperature profiles and a heat flux in a rectangular air duct fitted with a finned plate surface. By calculating the experimental heat transfer coefficient and the theoretical heat transfer coefficient we are able to analyse the comparison and errors of the experiment. The rest of the report includes the objectives, experimental procedure, results and discussion and the conclusion of our experiment.

2. Aims

The aim of this experiment is to make a comparison between the theoretical and experimental value obtained for the convection heat transfer coefficient For free convection, we have compared the Nusselt number so as to determine the

percentage error of the experiment in comparison to the theory. In this case the rate of heat transfer will be constant throughout the experiment. Therefore we will obtain one value for each of the numbers. For forced convection, we have found the convection heat transfer coefficient through the Reynolds number as well as the Nusselt Number. Just as before the rate of heat transfer will be constant but the velocities will change. Therefore, we will obtain more than one value for each of the numbers. As a result, the values will be plotted in order to obtain a pattern in the data.

3. Experimental Work

2. 3. 3.1. S afet y is su es It is an undisputable fact that safety comes first in every aspect of our lives, particularly when an experiment is being conducted. Professionalism must prevail in every undertaking to elude any possible hazard. Therefore, a few precautions and golden rules have to be adhered duly at all times. Firstly, only students with proper attires are permitted into the lab. Laboratory dress code is strictly practiced; all students must don up in lab coats and covered shoes as these attires are designed to protect students should any accidents occur. Besides that, locations of safety aids are identified prior to the conduction of the experiment. Usage of fire extinguishers, emergency bells, emergency shower, emergency route and first aid kit must be integrated into ones mind. Experiments as such require undivided attention and patience as it subjects to cooling and heating of an element to steady state. Often, some individuals may perceive it as dull and time consuming, causing them to lose concentration and further exposed to underlying dangers. Therefore, air circulation in the lab must be kept at a comfortable level with the help of fans and air conditioners. Besides that, ample space must be provided in the workspace for students mobility. In accordance to that, the workspace must be kept neat and number of students permitted into the lab must be limited at all times. Moreover, students must master the theory of free and forced convection before the commencement of the lab session. Also, the setup of the experimental apparatus must be done appropriately. A good setup of the experimental apparatus is arranged systematically so that nothing intertwines or impedes the progress of the experiment. Therefore, all experimental apparatus, such as the stopwatch was positioned at a strategic location. Besides that, the nuts and bolts (M) securing the heat plate must be tightly secured to reduce any possible inaccuracies such as heat loss, posed. Whilst conducting the experiment, students are prohibited from

touching the heat plate (P) or air duct (B) as it may inflict burns and blisters. Besides that, the fan (A) of the apparatus (LS-17004) was kept out of reach to avoid potentially harmful cuts. First aid are carried out immediately should any misfortune occurs. Any injury must be reported instantaneously, so that any possible threats are under medical attention. Apart from that, the fan (A) is switched off when conducting the free convection experiment. It is imperative to only remove heat plate from chamber after the heat plate has been cooled down to avoid burns from occurring. Moreover, the handheld digital anemometer (Q) should be handled dexterously, with extreme care as the probe (R) is exceptionally fragile and tremendously costly to replace. The handheld digital anemometer is positioned suitably once the temperature and air velocity is noted down. Before the temperature readings are recorded, the temperature probe must be in contact with the heat plate surface. Besides this, the electrical power source should be disconnected when the heat socket is connected to the power source in order to prevent a short circuit. Consequently, students should never attempt to change the setting of the digital power meter.

In this experiment, the free and forced convection apparatus (LS-17004 Lotus) is developed for the demonstration of free and forced convection phenomena. The apparatus mainly consists of a vertical air duct and a control panel. Inside the convection chamber, there is a compartment where different heated surfaces can be fitted in to determine its heat convection coefficients. Under our case study, we are given the task to scrutinize finned plate as shown in Figure 3. The finned plate is attached to an electrical heating element which in this scenario functions as the heat source. In the free convection experiment, a handheld digital anemometer was used to measure the initial temperature of the heater. Then, probes of the free and forced convection apparatus (LS-17004 Lotus) were inserted into its respective hole to

calculate its respective temperature point from time to time. The digital screen of control panel displays the temperature points at that specific time. For forced convection, air is fed into the duct by the fan which is placed at the top of the air ducts. Air flow or rather air circulation is generated when the fan is switched on as air is drawn out concurrently from the top of the air duct. Before the commencement of forced convection, the handheld digital anemometer was used to measure the initial temperature of the heater and the velocity of air flow which functions as the manipulated variable. The air velocity is adjusted using the fan speed regulator function found in the control panel.

N B

M C L K

H D E F G

Legend

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Fan Air duct Temperature probes Timer Fan speed regulator Fan switch Temperature switch (T1, T2, T3) ON/OFF Switch Power regulator Power meter Temperature points (T1, T2, T3) indicator Temperature (Ts) indicator Bolts and buts Heater Placement Fins Heater Plate Digital handheld Anemometer Digital handheld Anemometer probe

3.4.1. Free Convection Experiment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The LS-17004-FFC Free and forced convection apparatus was placed on a level table. The adjustable levelling feet was adjusted if necessary. Three pins plug to the 240VAC was plugged to the main power supply. The power supply was activated The power supply unit in front of the control panel was switched on. The shape and the dimensions of the finned plate(O) was measured and recorded. The finned plate was fixed tightly to the heater placement(N) with the bolts and nuts(M) provided. The finned plate heater cable was connected to the heater socket which was located at the back of the control panel. The digital handheld temperature probe and meter(Q) was used to measure the initial temperature of the heater by putting the temperature probe into temperature point. It was ensured that the probe was touching the surface of the heater and the fan was switched off before the readings were taken down. 8. 9. 10. 11. The power supplied was regulated to 100W by turning the power regulator. For every 5 minutes elapsed, the heater plate surface temperature and the temperature points was recorded. The experiment was continued until steady state was achieved. A graph of time against temperature difference was plotted for the different temperature point. T1, T2, T3 respectively. 12. 13. The overall coefficient for the heater was calculated. The Nusselt number, Nu, Rayleigh number, Ra and Prandtl number Pr was calculated.

3.4.2. Forced Convection Experiment 1. 2. 3. The same apparatus set up was assembled as the one in free convection experiment. The power supplied was regulated to 100W by turning the power regulator. The digital handheld anemometer probe(R) was inserted into the side opening of the air duct where the temperature points were. The initial temperature of the heater was taken down with probe touching the heater surface. Then, the desired wind speed was adjusted with the help of the handheld anemometer probe(Q). 4. For every 30 seconds elapsed, the temperature at different points T1, T2 ,T3 was taken down. 5. 6. 7. 8. The experiment was continued until steady state is achieved. The experiment was repeated with wind speed regulated to 0.9m/s and 1.2 m/s respectively, by repeating steps 4 and 5. The overall coefficient for all the heaters was calculated. The Nusselt number, Nu, Rayleigh number, Ra and Prandtl number Pr for all the cases was determined and a graph of Nusselt number versus Rayleigh number was plotted.

4. 4.1. Calcu lat ed Data Free Convection Power = 100W = 24.1C = 297.1 K

Time (min) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 36 48 39 .8 .7 .8 40 40 43 .3 .5 .3 43 43 46 .0 .1 .4 45 45 48 .6 .4 .8 47 47 50 .8 .5 .7 49 49 52 .6 .6 .6 50 50 55 .6 .5 .0 51. 51 55 81 .5 .8 51 51 56 .5 .7 .7 51 52 57 .8 .3 .1 Table 1: Free convection: Temperature profile vs. Time

90 80 70 60 50 40 Tsurface 30 Log. (T2) Log. (T2) Linaire (T3) T1 T2 T3

50 .0 55 .4 60 .1 64 .2 67 .7 71 .3 74 .0 76 .2 77 .4 77 .7

20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40

50

75

St ea

dy State 70

Time (min) 65

60

55

500

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Graph 2: Free convection - Surface temperature vs. Time

4.1.1. Assumptions The following assumptions were assumed for this experiment: A vertical flat plate was assumed to be used Steady state condition

Negligible radiation effect Negligible heat conduction from the air duct and the plate Ideal gas behaviour

4.1.2. Experimental Values The experimental value of h can be calculated using the following formula: Using Equation (1);

Total surface area of fins exposed is: A = 6 [ 2(8.7 0.6 ) + 2 (10.8 8.7 ) + 2 (0.6 10.8) ]= 1267.97 = 0.127

Assuming the total surface area of the fins exposed is equal to a vertical plate area, since the assumption taken in these calculations is that a vertical flat plate was used. The average value of = 67.4 C = 340.4 K Thus, calculating for the value of h gives : was calculated using Microsoft Excel,

4.1.3. Calculation of the Nusselt Number, Rayleigh Number and Prandtl Number (Incropera, 2007) Thermo physical properties of Air at Atmospheric Pressure At = = 318.75 K :

W/m.K

Density of air, = 1.099 kg/ Assuming that air is an ideal gas and calculated using the following formula: is the absolute temperature, can be

4.1.4. Theoretical calculations The Rayleigh Number was found to be . Thus, it is laminar flow. For laminar flow, C = 0.59 and n = . Thus, the following equation is used as Ra Using equation (9.27) which was in the interval of

Where,

Thus,

= = 23.45 %

Forced Convection

Time (s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360

40.0 40.2 40.4 40.5 40.7 40.9 41.0 41.3 41.3 41.5 41.5 41.7 41.7

27.8 27.8 27.8 27.8 27.9 27.9 28.1 28.1 28.2 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.4

29.3 29.2 29.5 29.5 29.4 29.7 29.7 29.8 29.9 29.9 30.0 30.1 30.1

31.1 31.2 31.3 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6 31.7 31.8 31.8 31.9 32.0 32.0

Tsurface T1 T2 T3

Surface temperature vs. Time 41.8 41.6 41.4 41.2 Steady State

41 Time (min) 40.8 40.6 40.4 40.2 40 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Graph 4: Forced Convection - Surface temperature vs. Time (v = 0.6 m/s)

Total surface area of fins exposed is, A = 6 [ 2(8.7 0.6 ) + 2 (10.8 8.7 ) + 2 (0.6 10.8) ]= 1267.97 = 0.127

Assuming the total surface area of the fins exposed is equal to a vertical plate area, since the assumption taken in these calculations is that a vertical flat plate was used. The average value of was calculated using Microsoft Excel,

4.1.6. Calculation of Prandtl Number, Nusselt Number and Reynolds Number Thermo physical properties of Air at Atmospheric Pressure: From Appendix .. Table A.4, Using interpolation at a v = 0.6 m/s and

Pr number = 0.7062 Using the equation below taken from Chapter 7 section 7.4.1 of the prescribed text book, Reynolds number is calculated:

Where from table 7.3 of Appendix 2, following the assumption of a vertical flat plate, C = 0.228 and m = 0.731

To obtain

, =

= = 120.30 %

Time (s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360

31.8 32.0 32.2 32.6 32.6 32.8 33.0 33.2 33.4 33.6 33.7 33.8 33.8

28.8 28.8 28.8 28.8 29.0 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.4 29.4 29.7 29.7 29.7

26.5 26.5 26.6 26.7 26.8 26.7 27.0 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.3 27.3

31.3 31.4 31.6 31.8 32.1 31.9 32.5 32.6 32.8 33.0 33.2 33.5 33.5

(T3)

33.8 33.6 33.4 33.2 Time (min) 33 32.8 32.6 32.4 32.2 32 31.80 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 tate

Graph 6: Forced convection - Surface temperature vs. Time (v = 0.9 m/s)

4.1.7. Experimental Values The experimental value of h can be calculated using the following formula Using Equation (1);

Total surface area of fins exposed is, A = 6 [ 2(8.7 0.6 ) + 2 (10.8 8.7 ) + 2 (0.6 10.8) ]= 1267.97 = 0.127

Assuming the total surface area of the fins exposed is equal to a vertical plate area, since the assumption taken in these calculations is that a vertical flat plate was used. The average value of = 32.9 C = 305.96 K Thus, calculating for the value of h gives: was calculated using Microsoft Excel,

4.1.8. Calculation of Prandtl Number, Nusselt Number and Reynolds Number Thermo physical properties of Air at Atmospheric Pressure: From Table A.4, of Appendix 1 Using interpolation at a v = 0.9 m/s and

Pr number = 0.7069 Using the equation below taken from Chapter 7 section 7.4.1 of the prescribed text book, Reynolds number is calculated Using Equation (5);

4.1.9. Theoretical Calculations Using equation 7.52 below, Nusselt number is calculated:

Where from table 7.3, following the assumption of a vertical flat plate, C = 0.228 and m = 0.731

To obtain the

, =

119.12 = = 29.00

= = 147.72 %

Time (s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 31.8 32.1 32.2 32.5 32.6 32.8 32.9 33.1 33.2 33.5 33.5 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.7 26.8 26.8 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 25.9 25.9 26.0 25.9 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.4 26.5 26.5 29.2 29.4 29.4 29.7 29.9 30.0 30.2 30.3 30.5 30.6 30.8

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 400 100 500 200 300 Tsurface T1 T2 T3 Linaire (Tsurface) Linaire (T1) Linaire (T2) Linaire (T3)

Graph 7: Forced convection - Temperature Profile versus Time (v = 1.2 m/s) Surface temperature vs. Time 34.5

Time (min) 33

32.5

32

31.50

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Surface Temperature (K) Graph 8: Forced Convection - Surface temperature vs. Time (v = 1.2 m/s)

4.1.10. Experimental Values The experimental value of h can be calculated using the following formula: Using Equation (1)

Total surface area of fins exposed is : A = 6 [ 2(8.7 0.6 ) + 2 (10.8 8.7 ) + 2 (0.6 10.8) ]= 1267.97 = 0.127

Assuming the total surface area of the fins exposed is equal to a vertical plate area, since the assumption taken in these calculations is that a vertical flat plate was used. The average value of = 33.11 C = 306.11 K Thus, calculating for the value of h gives, was calculated using Microsoft Excel,

Calculating for Prandtl Number, Nusselt Number and Reynolds Number: Thermo physical properties of Air at Atmospheric Pressure: From Table A.4, of Appendix 1 Using interpolation at a v = 0.9 m/s and

Pr number = 0.7069 Using the equation below taken from Chapter 7 section 7.4.1 of the prescribed text book, Reynolds number is calculated, Using Equation (5);

4.1.11. Theoretical Calculations Using equation 7.52 below, Nusselt number is calculated,

Where from table 7.3, following the assumption of a vertical flat plate, C = 0.228 and m = 0.731

To obtain the

, =

147.0 =

31

= 35.80

31

Percentage error of h = = 1 2 3 4 4.1 4.2 Dis cu s sion o f tr en ds an d in ter pret ation o f graph s

For free convection, the rate of heat transfer was held constant while the temperature of the surface of the fin was measured with time. The surface temperature of the fin increased exponentially with time. Therefore we can say that the surface temperature is proportional to time. Once the temperature reached its steady state, it was used to calculate all the dimensionless groups which were dependent on the fin length, i.e. Nusselt Number, Rayleigh Number and Reynolds Number. Graph 1 is the increment of the temperature profiles, T1, T2, T3 and surface temperature with time. This shows that temperature is directly proportional to time during free convection. The surface temperature changes more rapidly with time whereas the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 increase less rapidly with a similar pace. As the graph illustrates, 45

This is because Tsurface is nearest to the vertical plate and T3, T2 and T1 follow respectively. This is shown in the figure below.

This pattern of temperature increments are seen during force convection as well. The progress of the surface temperature with time is seen more clearly in Graph 2. Here the surface temperature increases exponentially until it reaches the steady state. The time taken for the free convection experiment spans from 0 50 minutes and the temperatures range from approximately 30 80 K. Graph 3 shows the temperature patterns during forced convection at a velocity of 0.6 m/s. Here the surface temperature starts at a higher level in comparison to T1, T2 and T3 even though it increases in a similar pace. All the temperatures increase linearly but due to various types of errors the experimental values do not produce a perfectly linear graph. This is seen in Graph 4 where the surface temperature ultimately reaches steady state. The time taken for the two forced convection graphs span from 0 400 seconds and the temperatures range from 25 45 K. The surface temperature in Graph 5 increases linearly at a similar pace as the rest of the temperature values. Here the temperatures are taken during forced convection at a velocity at 0.9 m/s. This shows that as velocity increases the values of the temperature tend to produce similar patterns. Graph 6 explains the increment of surface temperature and shows how it 46

enters steady state clearly. The temperatures of these two graphs span from 25 35 K and the time taken is between 0 and 400 seconds. Graph 5 shows the same temperature patterns for a velocity of 1.2 m/s as seen previously for the forced convection velocities at 0.6 and 0.9 m/s. Graph 6 shows a linear increment of surface temperature until it reaches its steady state. The temperatures of these two graphs span from 25 35 K and the time taken is between 0 and 400 seconds. 4.3 ts Com parison of Resu l

Velocity (m/s) 0.6 0.9 1.2 21.43 29.00 35.80 109.96 295.00 296.98

Re

4.4

90

47

velocity of air

Heat Transfer coefficient, h 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 1,2 1,4 Velocity of air (m/s) 0,8 1

48

As the above graph shows, the experiment values of the heat transfer coefficient do no coincide perfectly with the expect values. Theoretically, the graph of heat transfer coefficient against the velocity of air should ne linear but due to certain unavoidable errors this is not so.

3 2,5 log (Nu/Pr) 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 3,55 3,6 3,65 3,9 log Re 3,7 3,95 3,75 3,8 3,85

Theoretically even though the log values of (nu/Pr vs. The log value of Re should be linear the experimental results do not give a perfectly linear graph.

49

3,55

3,6

3,85

3,65

3,7

3,95

3,75

3,8

50

The experimental results of the above graph are almost similar to the expected theoretical results. But due to certain errors the obtained points do not contribute to a linear graph. But since we use the best fit graph at instances such as these we could achieve the graph were

R = 0,99

expecting.

160 140 120 Nusselt number 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 10000 2000 4000 Reynolds number 6000 8000

reynolds number

y = 0,0144x + 30,049 92

51

350

reynolds number

300 Nusselt number 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 1000 2000 7000 3000 8000 Reynolds Number 4000 9000 5000 6000

Graph 12 and 13 show the comparison between the expected and the obtained graph using the experimental results. Graph 12 was calculated using the theoretical value of

, whereas, the experimental value was calculated using . This equation uses the experimental heat transfer coefficient. Therefore, the experimental graph does not give perfectly linear points.

4.5

Errors Errors are inevitably prevalent in any experiment. Nevertheless, it is best to keep it as

minimal as possible. The discrepancies of data are due to a few assumptions made in the calculation of theoretical forces. These assumptions made paradoxically do not happen in the real world. One of the many assumptions made was the negligence of heat conduction through the air duct. Contrary to that theory, heat loss to surrounding would hugely influence the final result as huge amount of energy might have been lost to the surrounding before the calculation was done. Consequently, affects the convection heat transfer coefficient. In addition, heat loss may have happened at the back of the heat plate as the outer layer may not be perfectly insulated. Not to forget, the opening present at the temperature points of the wall

of air duct may disrupt the data accuracy. This is because; the openings may affect the temperature and the properties of the air, especially when forced convection was carried out. This error could be reduced by closing any opening present as tight as possible. Insulation of the system could also be improved. Besides that, the system was assumed to reach steady state when the slightest visible temperature could still be observed. The effect of such assumptions cannot be totally ignored, as it might contribute to discrepancies of results. Moreover, the experiment conducted may have been different from the standard conditions where the table of coefficient was set up. The constantly changing humidity and temperature in the air conditioned lab may affect the consistency of data yielded. Factors stated above may clarify the discrepancies of experimental and theoretical data.

4.6 ns

Dif ficu lti es/Lim itatio Contrasting from errors, limitations are mistakes present due to governing parameters

beyond our control which further explains the differences between the experimental values and theoretical. One of the main reasons is human limitation. This problem surfaced due to time lag. Time lags sets in as human do not have that most immediate and accurate response to time the stop watch and record down the data, concurrently. Nevertheless, this error can be reduced by repeating the experiments and conducting them with the same method, consistently. Another limitation present was the air humidity. The humidity of air might be different at any time of the experiments especially the free and forced convection experiments. This humidity although not taken into great importance, does affect the results because temperature gradients exist. Consequently, defy the notion to set Tinfinity as a constant as temperature distribution was occurring rapidly from time to time. The key to tackle these limitations is to perform the experiment several times consistently in a closed lab with stagnant air of constant air humidity and air velocity.

5. Appendices

Appen di x 1

6. References

Incropera, F. D. (2007). In Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer (6th Edition ed., pp. 371-377). New Jersy: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd. Nusselt Number. (17 08, 2010). Retrieved 13 09, 2010, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nusselt_number Prandtl Number. (04 09, 2010). Retrieved 13 09, 2010, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prandtl_number Rayleigh Number. (03 09, 2010). Retrieved 13 09, 2010, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rayleigh_number Reynolds Number. (10 09, 2010). Retrieved 13 09, 2010, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reynolds_number

7. Nomenclature list

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