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International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication and Information Technology (ICICI) 2005 Proc.

,
August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia

Measuring Quality of Black Tea From Theaflavins Analysis


Using Secondary Measurement

Melania S. Muntini1), Yul Y. Nazaruddin2), The Houw Liong 3), Lienda Handojo4)
1)
Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) Surabaya, Indonesia
2)
Department of Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
3)
Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
4)
Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia
Phone/Fax: +62-22-2508138
E-mail: melania@students.tf.itb.ac.id, yul@tf.itb.ac.id

Abstract – Theaflavins (Tf) is a key compound that involving withering, rolling, fermentation,
significantly contributes in the quality of black tea. drying and sieving. Fermentation is one of
It undergoes a series of chemical changes during
the fermentation process. Fermentation is one of the the most critical processes in black tea
most critical processes in black tea processing. processing. During black tea fermentation,
There are many parameters that significantly an enzymatic oxidation of tea polyphenols,
influenced the process including room temperature, especially tea chatechins takes place,
thickness of greendhool, and duration of the leading to a formation of a series of
process. In general, it is difficult to measure
theaflavins directly as it involves some chemical coloured chemical compounds, among
analysis and enzymes for pigment. An alternative other, such as Theaflavins (Tfs) that
approach, theaflavins is measured indirectly and determines the characteristics of the black
inferred from easily made process measurements or tea liquors.[1,2,3,6,7,8]. Tfs of the black
secondary measurements. This inferential method of tea depends on several The parameters that
measurements employs a scheme which is called a
virtual sensor, which is realized by integrating has significantly effects in the fermentation
artificial neural networks with the Extended Kalman process, i.e. room temperature, thickness of
Filter algorithm. Secondary variables are several greendhool, and duration of the process.
parameters of fermentation process and results of
color analysis of tea liquid, whereas primary Understanding the relationship of liquors
variable is Theaflavins. The data for implementing
this proposed technique were obtained by colour to black tea quality would be
conducting several real-time experiments at black interesting for development of methods to
tea factory in Indonesian Tea and Cinchona identify black tea quality, chemically and
Research Institute (PPTK Gambung), West Java. physically. In general, it is difficult to
Results show how the quality of black tea can be measure theaflavins directly as it involves
infered indirectly using the proposed technique.The
mean and variance of error between the obtained some chemical analysis and enzymes for
output of virtual sensor algorithm and the output pigment. An alternative approach is
chemical analysis of theflavins were 1,81 x 10 -4 proposed in this research, in which
and 5,07 x 10-6 respectively. theaflavins is measured indirectly and
inferred from easily made process
Keywords – artificial neural network, black tea,
Extended Kalman Filter, indirect measurements, measurement or secondary measurement.
Theaflavins, virtual sensor.

I. INTRODUCTION II. SECONDARY MEASUREMENTS

Black tea is a fermented tea and it is the In the complex process, some variables
one of popular beverages in the world. may be easy or hard to be measured. A
Black tea manufactured is carried out by a primary variable is a process variable that
series of processes on fresh tea leaves, hard to be measured, while a secondary

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International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication and Information Technology (ICICI) 2005 Proc.,
August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia

variable is an easier one. The direct network because it were proposed in order
measurement is used to measure secondary to deal with the nonlinear systems.
variables. The secondary variables must be
related to primary variables, because the Figure 2 illustrates the block diagram of
primary variables are measured indirectly virtual sensor algorithm or secondary
and inferred from them. This inferential measurement in measuring of secondary
method of measurements employs a variables.
scheme that is called secondary
measurement or virtual sensor[9]. Virtual
sensor is realized by integrating Artificial
Neural Networks with Extended Kalman
Filter (EKF) algorithm. Neural Networks
are general tools in modelling nonlinear
function since its ability to approximate
any nonlinear functions with any desired
accuracy.

The structure of neural networks that is


used in this research is restricted to Direct Fig. 2. Structure of secondary
Recurrent Neural Network (DRNN). measurement
DRNN structure consisting of three layers,
input, hidden and output layer respectively, Suppose θ represents all trainable
has been applied in modeling of the parameters of the network (i.e. the weights
process. The neural networks structure of and biases), the model can be rewrite as
DRNN can be seen in Fig. 1. follows :

x 1 ( t + 1) = f 1 ( x1 ( t ), Z ( t + 1), θ 1 ( t ),
11
Wj
(4)
W jk
10 I ( t + 1)) + ξ 1 t )
Wj
21
x 2 (t + 1) = f 2 ( f1 (.),θ 2 (t )) + ξ 2 (t ) (5)
I n (k) Y (n)
Z ( t + 1) = Z ( t ) + ζ ( t ) (6)
y (t ) = x 2 (t ) + v (t ) (7)
X j (n)
where weight and biases at hidden and
S j (n)
1b
output layer are θ1, θ2 respectively,
Wj
{ξ1(t)}and {ξ2(t)} are zero-mean Gaussian
White Noise sequence uncorrelated with
Fig. 1. A DRNN structure
{v(t)} and with a pre assigned positive
definite Var[ζ(t)] = S(t). Based on
It gives the following relation
x(t ) = [x1 (t ) x 2 (t ) Z (t )] , the estimation
T
(1)
N
S j (n) = ∑Wjk Ik (n) +Wj X j (n −1) +Wj
10 11 1b

k=1
M
(2)
of [
xˆ (t ) = xˆ1 (t ) xˆ 2 (t ) Zˆ (t ) can
T
be ]

21
Y (n) = W j Xj ( n ) obtained. After linearization, the model
j=0
can be described using the following state
X j ( n ) = f ( S j ( n )) (3) model
x(t + 1) = F (t ) x(t ) + G(t )ξ (t ) (8)
where I, W, b, and f are input, weight at y (t ) = H (t ) x (t ) + ν (t ) (9)
hidden layer, weight, bias and activation
function. Extended Kalman Filter where {ξ(t)} and {v(t)} are assumed to be
Algorithm is used in training the neural uncorrelated zero-mean Gaussian White
Noise sequences. F(t), G(t), and H(t) are

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International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication and Information Technology (ICICI) 2005 Proc.,
August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia

assumed to be known matrix-valued. The


Extended Kalman Filter procedures to III.3. Fermentation
estimate the state are as follows The greendholl were fermented in the 1.5 x
1 x 1.75 m3 mini-plant process with
[
K(t) = P(t | t − 1)H(t)T R(t) + H(t)P(t | t − 1)H(t)T (10) ] temperature variation between 18 – 260C.
P (t | t ) = P (t | t − 1) − K (t ) H (t ) P (t | t − 1) (11) The first experiment assumed that the
⎡ xˆ1 (t ) ⎤ ⎡ xˆ1 (t | t − 1) ⎤
temperature was about 180C, the second
⎢ xˆ (t )⎥ = ⎢ xˆ (t | t − 1)⎥ + K (t )[ y (t ) − H (t ) xˆ (t | t − 1)] about 220C and the third experiment about
⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ 260C. Duration of fermentation was 5, 20,
⎢⎣ Zˆ (t ) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ Zˆ (t | t − 1) ⎥⎦
30 minutes and continues at every 10
(12) minutes interval until 150 minutes, each for
This paper will show how Extended a greendholl thickness of about 4, 6, 9 and
Kalman Filter can be applied as secondary 12 cm. The chemical contents of the black
measurement for theaflavins analysis, tea were investigated after fermentation
which is the one of tea quality indication. process with various operation conditions
including duration, room temperature and
thickness of greendholl. Fermentation
III. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS process was stopped by drying greendholl
in mini-dryer under inlet and outlet
III.1. Data collections temperature of 1100C and 900C
For the purpose of modelling, a mini-plant respectively.
of fermentation process has been designed
and implemented during the experiment. III.4. Theaflavin analysis
The research was conducted at Indonesian The black tea was analyzed by Robert
Tea and Cinchona Research Institute Smith method [8] to obtain Tf. This
(PPTK Gambung), West Java and the tea method applies maximum difference
powder was collected from the black tea between maximum length visible wave 380
factory of this institute. The tea leaf for nm and 460 nm. Metanol or i-butil metil
processing was obtained from tea keton solution was used to dissolve
plantation of clone Gambung 14-17 at the extraction of black tea [6]
altitude of 1400 m. The tea plants were
allowed to overgrow so that it was possible III.5. Results
to pluck up to four leaves and a bud. One indicators of black tea quality is colour
quality. Usually colour quality measured
III.2. Processing of black tea using by tea tasters with visual inspection.
orthodox method Theaflavins is ones of chemical compounds
Tea leaves were heaped in a whitering that influenced the black tea quality,
through to a thickness of about 20 – 35 cm particularly in colour quality. Besides, it
and a constant air flow at hygrometer also influences on liquor and taste. The
difference of 1- 20C was maintained for up proposed method that used in the research
14 h. The leaves after whitering were is to measure Tf using indirect
subjected to orthodox rolling for up to 60 measurement employing an algorithm
min in a three-cranck single action roller. integrating Artificial Neural Network with
The machine rolled leaves were fired at Extended Kalman Filter algorithm. Tf
900C for 30 min to obtain black tea content was analyzed using this algorithm,
containing about 3% moisture. Greendholl in which Tf is unmeasured input on virtual
is tea leaves after whitering and rolling sensor. Measurable inputs are several
proceed before fermentation. parameters that have significantly effects
during fermentation process, including
room temperature, thickness of greendhool,

119
International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication and Information Technology (ICICI) 2005 Proc.,
August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia

and duration of the process. The output of figure 2. Moreover, Tf contents of black tea
virtual sensor is model of colour quality. are denoted by Z(t) in eq (8) – eq (13).
Output system is color quality, which is Tf contents will be obtained when the
obtained from the digital photo of color model and system produced the same
inspection of tea liquid and it was analyzed output or the error between them is
using the software. Data of output system acceptable. Using the virtual sensor
were obtained from previous research (6). algorithm, the model of Tf can be
Comparison between the model of color developed.
quality and output system is shown in
figure 3.

Fig. 3. Comparison between model and system


of color quality

Validation of model and output system was


done using statistical properties. Fig. 5. Output of the process and model

Output system that obtained from the first


experiment (with temperature 180C) yields
the smallest Root Means Square Error
(RMSE) which is equal to 0.00031. The
validation of secondary measurement result
and the system, which is the Tf content of
the black tea for fermentation process at
temperature 180C and thickness of wetness
Fig. 4. Error model and system of colour
of tea 9 cm, is shown in Fig. 5.
quality

Furthermore, the proposed scheme was run


IV. CONCLUSION
using on-line system and output of this
algorithm will be used to predict un-
An alternative method to measure Tf using
measurable input. In the research, the
model is assumed to be perfect and work indirect measurement or secondary
properly. On initial running of the measurement has been proposed and
algorithm, there was an error between presented in this paper. Secondary
output model and output system because measurement was accomplished using
integration of Neural Networks and
the model accepts less input than the
system, i.e. unmeasurable input. Based on Extended Kalman Filter. The results show
the error, Tf can be analyzed using that the proposed method could be applied
recursive manner. The above procedure can to analysis Theaflavins contents in black
be viewed as prediction of Tf as shown in tea. Based on Theaflavins contents, the
quality of black tea, in particular colour
quality of infusion, can be measured.

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International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication and Information Technology (ICICI) 2005 Proc.,
August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia

V. REFERENCES

[1]. Liang, Y, Lu, J, et al.,”Estimation of Black


Tea Quality by Analysis of Chemical
Composition and Color Difference of Tea
Infusions”, Journal of Elsevier Food
Chemistry, vol. 80 (2003), p.283-290
[2]. Su,Y.L, Leung,L.K, et al., “Stability of Tea
Theaflavins and Catechins”, Journal of
Elsevier Food Chemistry, vol. 83 (2003),
p.189-195
[3]. Obanda,M,Owour,P.O,et al.,”Changes in
Thearubugin fractions and Theaflavins Lvels
due to Variations in Processing Conditions
and Their Influence on Black Tea Liquor
Brightness and Total Color”, Journal of
Elsevier Food Chemistry, vol. 85 (2004),
p.163-173
[4]. Temple, Van Boxtel, “Modelling of
Fluidized-bed Drying of Black Tea”, Journal
of Agricultural Engineering Research, vol 74
(1999), pp.203-212
[5]. Instruksi kerja Pengolahan Teh, PTP.
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Joni, Santosa, R. ”Kadar Tearubigin dan
Tanin pada Proses Fermentasi Teh Hitam”.
Proceed. Seminar Nasional dan Pertemuan
Patpi, Yogyakarta, 22-23 July 2003
[7]. Owuor, P.O. and Obanda, Martin, ,
“Comparative Responses in Plain Black Tea
Quality Parameters of Different Tea Clones to
Fermentation Temperature and Duration”,
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[8]. Roberts E. H. and R.S. Smith,
“Spectrophotometry Measurement of
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