Measuring Quality of Black Tea From Theaflavins Analysis
Using Secondary Measurement
Melania S. Muntini1), Yul Y. Nazaruddin2), The Houw Liong 3), Lienda Handojo4)
1) Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) Surabaya, Indonesia
2) Department of Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
3) Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia
Phone/Fax: +62-22-2508138
E-mail: melania@students.tf.itb.ac.id, yul@tf.itb.ac.id

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Measuring Quality of Black Tea From Theaflavins Analysis
Using Secondary Measurement
Melania S. Muntini1), Yul Y. Nazaruddin2), The Houw Liong 3), Lienda Handojo4)
1) Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) Surabaya, Indonesia
2) Department of Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
3) Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia
Phone/Fax: +62-22-2508138
E-mail: melania@students.tf.itb.ac.id, yul@tf.itb.ac.id

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia

Using Secondary Measurement

Melania S. Muntini1), Yul Y. Nazaruddin2), The Houw Liong 3), Lienda Handojo4)

1)

Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) Surabaya, Indonesia

2)

Department of Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

3)

Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia

4)

Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung

Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia

Phone/Fax: +62-22-2508138

E-mail: melania@students.tf.itb.ac.id, yul@tf.itb.ac.id

Abstract – Theaflavins (Tf) is a key compound that involving withering, rolling, fermentation,

significantly contributes in the quality of black tea. drying and sieving. Fermentation is one of

It undergoes a series of chemical changes during

the fermentation process. Fermentation is one of the the most critical processes in black tea

most critical processes in black tea processing. processing. During black tea fermentation,

There are many parameters that significantly an enzymatic oxidation of tea polyphenols,

influenced the process including room temperature, especially tea chatechins takes place,

thickness of greendhool, and duration of the leading to a formation of a series of

process. In general, it is difficult to measure

theaflavins directly as it involves some chemical coloured chemical compounds, among

analysis and enzymes for pigment. An alternative other, such as Theaflavins (Tfs) that

approach, theaflavins is measured indirectly and determines the characteristics of the black

inferred from easily made process measurements or tea liquors.[1,2,3,6,7,8]. Tfs of the black

secondary measurements. This inferential method of tea depends on several The parameters that

measurements employs a scheme which is called a

virtual sensor, which is realized by integrating has significantly effects in the fermentation

artificial neural networks with the Extended Kalman process, i.e. room temperature, thickness of

Filter algorithm. Secondary variables are several greendhool, and duration of the process.

parameters of fermentation process and results of

color analysis of tea liquid, whereas primary Understanding the relationship of liquors

variable is Theaflavins. The data for implementing

this proposed technique were obtained by colour to black tea quality would be

conducting several real-time experiments at black interesting for development of methods to

tea factory in Indonesian Tea and Cinchona identify black tea quality, chemically and

Research Institute (PPTK Gambung), West Java. physically. In general, it is difficult to

Results show how the quality of black tea can be measure theaflavins directly as it involves

infered indirectly using the proposed technique.The

mean and variance of error between the obtained some chemical analysis and enzymes for

output of virtual sensor algorithm and the output pigment. An alternative approach is

chemical analysis of theflavins were 1,81 x 10 -4 proposed in this research, in which

and 5,07 x 10-6 respectively. theaflavins is measured indirectly and

inferred from easily made process

Keywords – artificial neural network, black tea,

Extended Kalman Filter, indirect measurements, measurement or secondary measurement.

Theaflavins, virtual sensor.

Black tea is a fermented tea and it is the In the complex process, some variables

one of popular beverages in the world. may be easy or hard to be measured. A

Black tea manufactured is carried out by a primary variable is a process variable that

series of processes on fresh tea leaves, hard to be measured, while a secondary

117

International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication and Information Technology (ICICI) 2005 Proc.,

August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia

variable is an easier one. The direct network because it were proposed in order

measurement is used to measure secondary to deal with the nonlinear systems.

variables. The secondary variables must be

related to primary variables, because the Figure 2 illustrates the block diagram of

primary variables are measured indirectly virtual sensor algorithm or secondary

and inferred from them. This inferential measurement in measuring of secondary

method of measurements employs a variables.

scheme that is called secondary

measurement or virtual sensor[9]. Virtual

sensor is realized by integrating Artificial

Neural Networks with Extended Kalman

Filter (EKF) algorithm. Neural Networks

are general tools in modelling nonlinear

function since its ability to approximate

any nonlinear functions with any desired

accuracy.

used in this research is restricted to Direct Fig. 2. Structure of secondary

Recurrent Neural Network (DRNN). measurement

DRNN structure consisting of three layers,

input, hidden and output layer respectively, Suppose θ represents all trainable

has been applied in modeling of the parameters of the network (i.e. the weights

process. The neural networks structure of and biases), the model can be rewrite as

DRNN can be seen in Fig. 1. follows :

x 1 ( t + 1) = f 1 ( x1 ( t ), Z ( t + 1), θ 1 ( t ),

11

Wj

(4)

W jk

10 I ( t + 1)) + ξ 1 t )

Wj

21

x 2 (t + 1) = f 2 ( f1 (.),θ 2 (t )) + ξ 2 (t ) (5)

I n (k) Y (n)

Z ( t + 1) = Z ( t ) + ζ ( t ) (6)

y (t ) = x 2 (t ) + v (t ) (7)

X j (n)

where weight and biases at hidden and

S j (n)

1b

output layer are θ1, θ2 respectively,

Wj

{ξ1(t)}and {ξ2(t)} are zero-mean Gaussian

White Noise sequence uncorrelated with

Fig. 1. A DRNN structure

{v(t)} and with a pre assigned positive

definite Var[ζ(t)] = S(t). Based on

It gives the following relation

x(t ) = [x1 (t ) x 2 (t ) Z (t )] , the estimation

T

(1)

N

S j (n) = ∑Wjk Ik (n) +Wj X j (n −1) +Wj

10 11 1b

k=1

M

(2)

of [

xˆ (t ) = xˆ1 (t ) xˆ 2 (t ) Zˆ (t ) can

T

be ]

∑

21

Y (n) = W j Xj ( n ) obtained. After linearization, the model

j=0

can be described using the following state

X j ( n ) = f ( S j ( n )) (3) model

x(t + 1) = F (t ) x(t ) + G(t )ξ (t ) (8)

where I, W, b, and f are input, weight at y (t ) = H (t ) x (t ) + ν (t ) (9)

hidden layer, weight, bias and activation

function. Extended Kalman Filter where {ξ(t)} and {v(t)} are assumed to be

Algorithm is used in training the neural uncorrelated zero-mean Gaussian White

Noise sequences. F(t), G(t), and H(t) are

118

International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication and Information Technology (ICICI) 2005 Proc.,

August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia

Extended Kalman Filter procedures to III.3. Fermentation

estimate the state are as follows The greendholl were fermented in the 1.5 x

1 x 1.75 m3 mini-plant process with

[

K(t) = P(t | t − 1)H(t)T R(t) + H(t)P(t | t − 1)H(t)T (10) ] temperature variation between 18 – 260C.

P (t | t ) = P (t | t − 1) − K (t ) H (t ) P (t | t − 1) (11) The first experiment assumed that the

⎡ xˆ1 (t ) ⎤ ⎡ xˆ1 (t | t − 1) ⎤

temperature was about 180C, the second

⎢ xˆ (t )⎥ = ⎢ xˆ (t | t − 1)⎥ + K (t )[ y (t ) − H (t ) xˆ (t | t − 1)] about 220C and the third experiment about

⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ 260C. Duration of fermentation was 5, 20,

⎢⎣ Zˆ (t ) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ Zˆ (t | t − 1) ⎥⎦

30 minutes and continues at every 10

(12) minutes interval until 150 minutes, each for

This paper will show how Extended a greendholl thickness of about 4, 6, 9 and

Kalman Filter can be applied as secondary 12 cm. The chemical contents of the black

measurement for theaflavins analysis, tea were investigated after fermentation

which is the one of tea quality indication. process with various operation conditions

including duration, room temperature and

thickness of greendholl. Fermentation

III. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS process was stopped by drying greendholl

in mini-dryer under inlet and outlet

III.1. Data collections temperature of 1100C and 900C

For the purpose of modelling, a mini-plant respectively.

of fermentation process has been designed

and implemented during the experiment. III.4. Theaflavin analysis

The research was conducted at Indonesian The black tea was analyzed by Robert

Tea and Cinchona Research Institute Smith method [8] to obtain Tf. This

(PPTK Gambung), West Java and the tea method applies maximum difference

powder was collected from the black tea between maximum length visible wave 380

factory of this institute. The tea leaf for nm and 460 nm. Metanol or i-butil metil

processing was obtained from tea keton solution was used to dissolve

plantation of clone Gambung 14-17 at the extraction of black tea [6]

altitude of 1400 m. The tea plants were

allowed to overgrow so that it was possible III.5. Results

to pluck up to four leaves and a bud. One indicators of black tea quality is colour

quality. Usually colour quality measured

III.2. Processing of black tea using by tea tasters with visual inspection.

orthodox method Theaflavins is ones of chemical compounds

Tea leaves were heaped in a whitering that influenced the black tea quality,

through to a thickness of about 20 – 35 cm particularly in colour quality. Besides, it

and a constant air flow at hygrometer also influences on liquor and taste. The

difference of 1- 20C was maintained for up proposed method that used in the research

14 h. The leaves after whitering were is to measure Tf using indirect

subjected to orthodox rolling for up to 60 measurement employing an algorithm

min in a three-cranck single action roller. integrating Artificial Neural Network with

The machine rolled leaves were fired at Extended Kalman Filter algorithm. Tf

900C for 30 min to obtain black tea content was analyzed using this algorithm,

containing about 3% moisture. Greendholl in which Tf is unmeasured input on virtual

is tea leaves after whitering and rolling sensor. Measurable inputs are several

proceed before fermentation. parameters that have significantly effects

during fermentation process, including

room temperature, thickness of greendhool,

119

International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication and Information Technology (ICICI) 2005 Proc.,

August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia

and duration of the process. The output of figure 2. Moreover, Tf contents of black tea

virtual sensor is model of colour quality. are denoted by Z(t) in eq (8) – eq (13).

Output system is color quality, which is Tf contents will be obtained when the

obtained from the digital photo of color model and system produced the same

inspection of tea liquid and it was analyzed output or the error between them is

using the software. Data of output system acceptable. Using the virtual sensor

were obtained from previous research (6). algorithm, the model of Tf can be

Comparison between the model of color developed.

quality and output system is shown in

figure 3.

of color quality

done using statistical properties. Fig. 5. Output of the process and model

experiment (with temperature 180C) yields

the smallest Root Means Square Error

(RMSE) which is equal to 0.00031. The

validation of secondary measurement result

and the system, which is the Tf content of

the black tea for fermentation process at

temperature 180C and thickness of wetness

Fig. 4. Error model and system of colour

of tea 9 cm, is shown in Fig. 5.

quality

IV. CONCLUSION

using on-line system and output of this

algorithm will be used to predict un-

An alternative method to measure Tf using

measurable input. In the research, the

model is assumed to be perfect and work indirect measurement or secondary

properly. On initial running of the measurement has been proposed and

algorithm, there was an error between presented in this paper. Secondary

output model and output system because measurement was accomplished using

integration of Neural Networks and

the model accepts less input than the

system, i.e. unmeasurable input. Based on Extended Kalman Filter. The results show

the error, Tf can be analyzed using that the proposed method could be applied

recursive manner. The above procedure can to analysis Theaflavins contents in black

be viewed as prediction of Tf as shown in tea. Based on Theaflavins contents, the

quality of black tea, in particular colour

quality of infusion, can be measured.

120

International Conference on Instrumentation, Communication and Information Technology (ICICI) 2005 Proc.,

August 3 -5 , 2005, Bandung, Indonesia

V. REFERENCES

Tea Quality by Analysis of Chemical

Composition and Color Difference of Tea

Infusions”, Journal of Elsevier Food

Chemistry, vol. 80 (2003), p.283-290

[2]. Su,Y.L, Leung,L.K, et al., “Stability of Tea

Theaflavins and Catechins”, Journal of

Elsevier Food Chemistry, vol. 83 (2003),

p.189-195

[3]. Obanda,M,Owour,P.O,et al.,”Changes in

Thearubugin fractions and Theaflavins Lvels

due to Variations in Processing Conditions

and Their Influence on Black Tea Liquor

Brightness and Total Color”, Journal of

Elsevier Food Chemistry, vol. 85 (2004),

p.163-173

[4]. Temple, Van Boxtel, “Modelling of

Fluidized-bed Drying of Black Tea”, Journal

of Agricultural Engineering Research, vol 74

(1999), pp.203-212

[5]. Instruksi kerja Pengolahan Teh, PTP.

Nusantara VIII Perkebunan Ciater, 1998

[6]. Muntini, M.S, Handojo, L, Nazaruddin,Y.Y,

Joni, Santosa, R. ”Kadar Tearubigin dan

Tanin pada Proses Fermentasi Teh Hitam”.

Proceed. Seminar Nasional dan Pertemuan

Patpi, Yogyakarta, 22-23 July 2003

[7]. Owuor, P.O. and Obanda, Martin, ,

“Comparative Responses in Plain Black Tea

Quality Parameters of Different Tea Clones to

Fermentation Temperature and Duration”,

Journal of Elsevier Food Chemistry, vol. 72

(2001), p.319-327

[8]. Roberts E. H. and R.S. Smith,

“Spectrophotometry Measurement of

Theaflavins and Thearubigins in Black Tea

Liquor”, in Assesments of Quality in Teas,

1961

[9]. Habtom, Ressom, “Dynamik System and

Virtual Sensor Modeling Using Neural

Network”, Fortschritt-Berichte VDI, Reihe 8,

Nr.771, 1999

[10]. Werkhoven, J.,”Tea Processing”, Food and

Agricultural Organization of the United

Nations, Rome, 1974

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