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S11

S11
(1989)
(Rev. 1
1993)
(Rev.2
Nov.2001)
(Rev.3
June
2003)
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.3 2003
v
Longitudinal strength standard
S11.1 Application
This requirement applies only to steel ships of length 90 m and greater in unrestricted service. For ships
having one or more of the following characteristics, special additional considerations will be given by
each Classification Society.
(i) Proportion L/B 5, B/D 2,5
(ii) Length L 500 m
(iii) Block coefficient Cb < 0,6
(iv) Large deck opening
(v) Ships with large flare
(vi) Carriage of heated cargoes
(vii) Unusual type or design
For bulk carriers with notation BC-A, BC-B or BC-C, as defined in UR S25, this UR is to be complied
with by ships contracted for construction on or after 1 July 2003. For other ships, this revision of this UR
is to be complied with by ships contracted for construction on or after 1 July 2004.
S11.2 Loads
S11.2.1 Still water bending moment and shear force
S11.2.1.1 General
Still water bending moments, Ms (kN-m), and still water shear forces, Fs (kN), are to be calculated at
each section along the ship length for design cargo and ballast loading conditions as specified in
S11.2.1.2.
For these calculations, downward loads are assumed to be taken as positive values, and are to be
integrated in the forward direction from the aft end of L. The sign conventions of Ms and Fs are as shown
in Fig. 1.
S11.2.1.2 Design loading Conditions
In general, the following design cargo and ballast loading conditions, based on amount of bunker, fresh
water and stores at departure and arrival, are to be considered for the Ms and Fs calculations. Where the
amount and disposition of consumables at any intermediate stage of the voyage are considered more
severe, calculations for such intermediate conditions are to be submitted in addition to those for departure
and arrival conditions. Also, where any ballasting and/or deballasting is intended during voyage,
calculations of the intermediate condition just before and just after ballasting and/or deballasting any
ballast tank are to be submitted and where approved included in the loading manual for guidance.
Aft Fore
(+) Fs:
(+) Ms:
Fig. 1 Sign Conventions of MS and Fs
S11-1
General cargo ships, container ships, roll-on/roll-off and refrigerated cargo carriers, bulk carriers, ore
carriers:
Homogeneous loading conditions at maximum draught
Ballast conditions
Special loading conditions e.g., container or light load conditions at less than the maximum
draught, heavy cargo, empty holds or non-homogeneous cargo conditions, deck cargo conditions,
etc., where applicable.
_ All loading conditions specified in UR S25 Section 4 for bulk carriers with notation BC-A, BC-B
or BC-C, as applicable.
Oil tankers:
Homogeneous loading conditions (excluding dry and clean ballast tanks) and ballast or part
loaded conditions
Any specified non-uniform distribution of loading
Mid-voyage conditions relating to tank cleaning or other operations where these differ
significantly from the ballast conditions.
Chemical tankers:
Conditions as specified for oil tankers
Conditions for high density or segregated cargo.
Liquefied gas carriers:
Homogeneous loading conditions for all approved cargoes
Ballast conditions
Cargo conditions where one or more tanks are empty or partially filled or where more than one
type of cargo having significantly different densities are carried.
Combination Carriers:
Conditions as specified for oil tankers and cargo ships.
S11.2.1.3 Partially filled ballast tanks in ballast loading conditions
Ballast loading conditions involving partially filled peak and/or other ballast tanks at departure, arrival or
during intermediate conditions are not permitted to be used as design conditions unless:
design stress limits are satisfied for all filling levels between empty and full, and
for bulk carriers, UR S17, as applicable, is complied with for all filling levels between empty and
full.
However, for the purpose of design, it will be acceptable if, in each condition at departure, arrival and,
where required by S11.2.1.2, any intermediate condition, the tanks intended to be partially filled are
assumed to be empty and full. In addition, the specified partly filled level in the intended condition is to
be considered.
S11.2.1.4 Partially filled ballast tanks in cargo loading conditions
In cargo loading conditions, the requirement in S11.2.1.3. applies to the peak tanks only.
S11.2.2 Wave loads
S11.2.2.1 Wave bending moment
The wave bending moments, Mw, at each section along the ship length are given by the following
formulae:
Mw (+) = + 190 M C L
2
B Cb x 10
-3
(kN - m) ... For positive moment
Mw (+) = - 110 M C L
2
B (Cb + 0,7) x 10
-3
(kN - m) ... For negative moment
where, M = Distribution factor given in Fig. 2
C = 10,75 for 90 L 300
or 10,75 for 300 < L < 350
or 10,75 for 350 L 500
L = Length of the ships in metres, defined by S2
B = Greatest moulded breadth in metres
Cb = Block coefficient, defined by S2, but not to be taken less than 0,6
S11
S11
contd
[ ]
1.5
300 - L
100
[
]
1.5
L - 350
150
v
S11-2 IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.3 2003
S11
S11 2.2.2 Wave shear force
The wave shear forces, Fw, at each section along the length of the ship are given by the following
formulae:
Fw (+) = + 30 F1 C L B (Cb + 0,7) x 10
-2
(kN) ... For positive shear force
Fw () = 30 F2 C L B (Cb + 0,7) x 10
-2
(kN) ... For negative shear force
Where, F1, F2 = Distribution factors given in Figs. 3 and 4
C, L, B, Cb = As specified in S11.2.2.1
S11
contd
0
1,0
0,0 0,4 0,65 1,0
M
Aft
end of L
Forward
end of L
Distance from the aft end of L in terms of L
Fig. 2 Distribution factor M
0
1,0
0,0 0,4 0,85 1,0
F1
Aft
end of L
Forward
end of L
Distance from the aft end of L in terms of L
Fig. 3 Distribution factor F1
0,6 0,7 0,3 0,2
0,7
0,92 x 190 Cb
110 (Cb + 0,7)
v
S11-3
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.3 2003
S11
S11.3 Bending strength
S11.3.1 Bending strength amidships
S11 3.1.1 Section modulus
(i) Hull section modulus, Z, calculated in accordance with S5, is not to be less than the values given
by the following formula in way of 0,4 L midships for the still water bending moments Ms given
in S11.2.1.1 and the wave bending moments Mw given in S11.2.2.1, respectively:
where, = permissable bending stress = 175 /k (N/mm
2
)
k = 1,0 for ordinary hull structural steel
k < 1,0 for higher tensile steel according to S4.
(ii) In any case, the longitudinal strength of the ship is to be in compliance with S7.
S11 3.1.2 Moment of inertia
Moment of inertia of hull section at the midship point is not to be less than
I
min
= 3CL
3
B (Cb + 0,7) (cm
4
)
Where C, L, B, Cb = As specified in S11.2.2.1.
S11.3.2 Bending strength outside amidships.
The required bending strength outside 0,4 L amidships is to be determined at the discretion of each
Classification Society.
S11.4 Shearing strength
S11.4.1 General
The thickness requirements given in S11.4.2 or S11.4.3 apply unless smaller values are proved
satisfactory by a method of direct stress calculation approved by each Classification Society, where the
S11
contd
0
0,92
0,0 0,4 0,85 1,0
F2
Aft
end of L
Forward
end of L
Distance from the aft end of L in terms of L
Fig. 4 Distribution factor F2
0,6 0,7 0,3 0,2
0,7
190 Cb
110 (Cb + 0,7)
v
Ms Mw
cm
+
x 10
3

( )
3
S11-4
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.3 2003
S11
calculated shear stress is not to exceed 110/k (N/mm
2
).
S11.4.2 Shearing strength for ships without effective longitudinal bulkheads
(i) The thickness of side shell is not to be less than the values given by the following formula for the
still water shear forces Fs given in S11.2.1.1 and the wave shear forces Fw given in S11.2.2.2,
respectively:
t = x 10
2
(mm)
where, I = Moment of inertia in cm
4
about the horizontal neutral axis at the section under consideration
S = First moment in cm
3
, about the neutral axis, of the area of the effective longitudinal
members between the vertical level at which the shear stress is being determined and the
vertical extremity of effective longitudinal members, taken at the section under
consideration
= permissible shear stress = 110/k (N/mm
2
)
k = As specified in S11.3.1.1 (i)
(ii) The value of Fs may be corrected for the direct transmission of forces to the transverse bulkheads
at the discretion of each Classification Society.
S11.4.3 Shearing strength for ships with two effective longitudinal bulkheads
The thickness of side shell and longitudinal bulkheads are not to be less than the values given by the
following formulae:
For side shell:
t = x 10
2
(mm)
For longitudinal bulkheads:
t = x 10
2
(mm)
where, = ratio of shear force shared by the longitudinal bulkhead to the total shear force, and given by
each Classification Society.
Fsh, Fbl = shear force acting upon the side shell plating and longitudinal bulkhead plating,
respectively, due to local loads, and given by each Classification Society, subject to the sign
convention specified in S11.2.1.1
S, I, = As specified in S11.4.2 (i)
S11
contd
0,5 Fs + Fw

(0.5 - ) (Fs + Fw ) + Fsh

(Fs + Fw ) + Fbl

S
I
S
I
S
I
v
S11-5
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.3 2003
S 11.5 Buckling strength
S 11.5.1 Application
These requirements apply to plate panels and longitudinals subject to hull girder bending and shear
stresses.
S 11.5.2 Elastic buckling stresses
S 11.5.2.1 Elastic buckling of plates
1. Compression
The ideal elastic buckling stress is given by:
For plating with longitudinal stiffeners (parallel to compressive stress):
For plating with transverse stiffeners (perpendicular to compressive stress):
where
E = modulus of elasticity of material
= 2.06 x 10
5
N/mm
2
for steel
t
b
= net thickness, in mm, of plating, considering standard deductions equal to the values given in
the table here after:
S11
S11
cont'd

0.9m E
t
b
1000s

_
,

2
(N/mm
2
)
m =
8.4
+1.1
for 0 1 ( )
m = c 1+
s
l

_
,

1
]
1
2
2.1
+1.1
for 0 1 ( )
v
S11-6 IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.3 2003
S11
S11
cont'd
Structure Standard deduction Limit values min-max
(mm) (mm)
- Compartments carrying dry bulk 0.05 t 0.5 - 1
cargoes
- One side exposure to ballast and/or
liquid cargo
Vertical surfaces and surfaces sloped
at an angle greater than 25
o
to the
horizontal line
- One side exposure to ballast and/or
liquid cargo
Horizontal surfaces and surfaces
sloped at an angle less than 25
o
to the horizontal line
- Two side exposure to ballast and/or
liquid cargo 0.10 t 2 - 3
Vertical surfaces and surfaces sloped at
an angle greater than 25
o
to the
horizontal line
- Two side exposure to ballast and/or
liquid cargo
Horizontal surfaces and surfaces sloped 0.15 t 2 - 4
at an angle less than 25
o
to the horizontal
line
v
S11-7
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.3 2003
s = shorter side of plate panel, in m,
= longer side of plate panel, in m,
c = 1.3 when plating stiffened by floors or deep girders,
= 1.21 when stiffeners are angles or T-sections,
= 1.10 when stiffeners are bulb flats,
= 1.05 when stiffeners are flat bars,
= ratio between smallest and largest compressive a stress when linear variation across panel.
2. Shear
The ideal elastic buckling stress is given by:
E, t
b
, s and are given in 1.
S 11.5.2.2 Elastic buckling of longitudinals
1. Column buckling without rotation of the cross section
For the column buckling mode (perpendicular to plane of plating) the ideal elastic buckling stress is
given by:
I
a
= moment of inertia, in cm
4
, of longitudinal, including plate flange and calculated with thickness
as specified in S 11.5.2.1.1,
A = cross-sectional area, in cm
2
, of longitudinal, including plate flange and calculated with
thickness as specified in S 11.5.2.1.1,
= span, in m, of longitudinal,
A plate flange equal to the frame spacing may be included.
2. Torsional buckling mode
The ideal elastic buckling stress for the torsional mode is given by:
S11
S11
cont'd

E
0.9k
t
E
t
b
1000s

_
,

2
(N/mm
2
)
K
t
5.34 + 4
s
l

_
,

E
= 0.001E
I
a
Al
2
(N/mm
2
)
K =
Cl
4

4
EI
w
10
6

E


2
EL
w
10
4
I
p
l
2
m
2
+
K
m
2

_
,

+ 0.385E
I
t
I
p
(N/mm
2
)
v
S11-8
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.3 2003
m = number of half waves, given by the following table:
h
w
= web height, in mm,
t
w
= web thickness, in mm, considering standard deductions as specified in S 11.5.2.1.1,
b
f
= flange width, in mm,
t
f
= flange thickness, in mm, considering standard deductions as specified in S 11.5.2.1.1. For bulb
profiles the mean thickness of the bulb may be used.
S11
S11
cont'd
0< K < 4 4 < K < 36 36 < K < 144 (m-1)
2
m
2
<K m
2
(m+1)
2
m 1 2 3 m
I
p
polar moment of inertia, in cm
4
, of profile about connection of stiffener to plate
=
h
w
3
t
w
3
10
4
for flat bars (slabs)

h
w
3
t
w
3
+ h
w
2
b
f
t
f

_
,
10
4
for flanged profiles
I sectorial moment of inertia, in cm , of profile about connection of stiffener to plate
=
h t
36
for flat bars (slabs)
=
t b h
12
for "Tee" profiles

b h
12 b h
t b 2b h 4h 3t b h for angles and bulb profiles
w
6
w
3
w
3
f f
3
w
2
f
3
w
2
f w
f f
2
f w w
2
w f w

+ ( )
+ +
( )
+
[ ]

10
10
10
6
6
2
6
v
I
t
St Venant' s moment of inertia, in cm
4
, of profile (without plate flange)
=
h
w
t
w
3
3
10
4
for flat bars (slabs)

1
3
h
w
t
w
3
+ b
f
t
f
3
1 0.63
t
f
b
f

_
,

1
]
1
10
4
for flanged profiles
S11-9
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.3 2003
= span of profile, in m,
s = spacing of profiles, in m,
k
p
= 1 - p not to be taken less than zero
t
p
= plate thickness, in mm, considering standard deductions as specified in S 11.5.2.1.1.

a
= calculated compressive stress. For longitudinals, see S 11.5.4.1,

Ep
= elastic buckling stress of supporting plate as calculated in S 11.5.2.1,
For flanged profiles, k
p
need not be taken less than 0.1.
3. Web and flange buckling
For web plate of longitudinals the ideal elastic buckling stress is given by:
For flanges on angles and T-sections of longitudinals, buckling is taken care of by the following
requirement:
b
f
= flange width, in mm, for angles, half the flange width for T-sections.
t
f
= as built flange thickness.
S 11.5.3 Critical buckling stresses
S 11.5.3.1 Compression
The critical buckling stress in compression
c
is determined as follows:
S11
S11
cont'd

E
3.8E
t
w
h
w

_
,

2
(N/mm
2
)
b
f
t
f
15

p


a

Ep
v
C spring stiffeness exerted by suporting plate p
=
k
p
Et
p
3
3s 1+
1.33k
p
h
w
t
p
3
1000st
w
3

_
,

10
3
S11-10
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.3 2003
S11

F
= yield stress of material, in N/mm
2

F
may be taken as 235 N/mm
2
for mild steel,

E
= ideal elastic buckling stress calculated according to S 11.5.2.
S 11.5.3.2 Shear
The critical buckling stress in shear
c
is determined as follows:

F
= as given in S 11.5.3.1,

E
= ideal elastic buckling stress in shear calculated according to S11.5.2.1.2.
S 11.5.4 Working stress
S 11.5.4.1 Longitudinal compressive stresses
The compressive stresses are given in the following formula:
M
s
= still water bending moment (kN.m), as given in S 11.2.1,
M
w
= wave bending moment (kN.m) as given in S 11.2.2.1,
I
n
= moment of inertia, in cm4, of the hull girder,
y = vertical distance, in m, from neutral axis to considered point.
k = as specified in S 11.3.1.1 (i).
M
s
and M
w
are to be taken as sagging or hogging bending moments, respectively, for members above or
below the neutral axis.
Where the ship is always in hogging condition in still water, the sagging bending moment (M
s
+ M
w
) is
to be specially considered.
S11
contd

C

E
when
E


F
2


F
1

F
4
E

_
,

when
E
>

F
2

C

E
when
E


F
2

F
1-

F
4
E

_
,

when
E
>

F
2

F


F
3

a

M
s
+ M
w
I
n
y 10
5
N/mm
2
minimum
30
k
v
S11-11
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.3 2003
S 11.5.4.2 Shear stresses
1. Ships without effective longitudinal bulkheads
For side shell
F
s
, F
w
, t, s, I as specified in S 11.4.2
2. Ships with two effective longitudinal bulkheads
For side shell
For longitudinal bulkheads
F
s
, F
w
, F
sh
, F
b
, t, S, I as specified in S 11.4.3.
S 11.5.5 Scantling criteria
S 11.5.5.1 Buckling Stress
The design buckling stress
c
of plate panels and longitudinals
(as calculated in S 11.5.3.1) is not to be less than:
where
for plating and for web plating of stiffeners (local buckling)
for stiffeners
The critical buckling stress
c
of plate panels (as calculated in S 11.5.3.2) is not to be less than:
S11
S11
cont'd

a

0.5 | F
s
+ F
w
|
t

S
I
10
2
N/mm
2

a

| (F
s
+ F
w
) + F
bl
|
t

S
I
10
2
N/mm
2

c

a
1
1.1

c

a

a

| 0.5
( )
F
s
+ F
w
( )
+ F
sh
|
t

S
I
10
2
N/mm
2
vv
S11-12
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.3 2003
S11
S11
(1989)
(Rev. 1
1993)
(Rev.2
Nov.2001)
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.2 2001
v
v
Longitudinal strength standard
S11.1 Application
This requirement applies only to steel ships of length 90 m and greater in unrestricted service. For ships
having one or more of the following characteristics, special additional considerations will be given by
each Classification Society.
(i) Proportion L/B 5, B/D 2,5
(ii) Length L 500 m
(iii) Block coefficient Cb < 0,6
(iv) Large deck opening
(v) Ships with large flare
(vi) Carriage of heated cargoes
(vii) Unusual type or design
S11.2 Loads
S11.2.1 Still water bending moment and shear force
S11.2.1.1 General
Still water bending moments, Ms (kN-m), and still water shear forces, Fs (kN), are to be calculated at
each section along the ship length for design load conditions and ballast conditions as specified in
S11.2.1.2.
For these calculations, downward loads are assumed to be taken as positive values, and are to be
integrated in the forward direction from the aft end of L. The sign conventions of Ms and Fs are as shown
in Fig. 1.
Aft Fore
(+) Fs:
(+) Ms:
Fig. 1 Sign Conventions of MS and Fs
S11-1
S11.2.1.2 Load Conditions
In general, the following load conditions, based on amount of bunker, fresh water and stores at departure
and arrival, are to be considered for the Ms and Fs calculations.
General cargo ships, container ships, roll-on/roll-off and refrigerated cargo carriers, bulk carriers, ore
carriers:
Homogeneous loading conditions at maximum draught
Ballast conditions
Special loading conditions e.g., container or light load conditions at less than the maximum
draught, heavy cargo, empty holds or non-homogeneous cargo conditions, deck cargo conditions,
etc., where applicable.
Oil tankers:
Homogeneous loading conditions (excluding dry and clean ballast tanks) and ballast or part
loaded conditions
Any specified non-uniform distribution of loading
Mid-voyage conditions relating to tank cleaning or other operations where these differ
significantly from the ballast conditions.
Chemical tankers:
Conditions as specified for oil tankers
Conditions for high density or segregated cargo.
Liquefied gas carriers:
Homogeneous loading conditions for all approved cargoes
Ballast conditions
Cargo conditions where one or more tanks are empty or partially filled or where more than one
type of cargo having significantly different densities are carried.
Combination Carriers:
Conditions as specified for oil tankers and cargo ships.
Ballast conditions involving partially filled peak and other ballast tanks are not permitted to be used as
design conditions where alternative filling levels would result in design stress limits being exceeded. The
partial filling of such tanks is, however, permitted in service to satisfy operational requirements
providing design stress limits are satisfied for all conditions intermediate between empty and full.
S11.2.2 Wave loads
S11.2.2.1 Wave bending moment
The wave bending moments, Mw, at each section along the ship length are given by the following
formulae:
Mw (+) = + 190 M C L
2
B Cb x 10
-3
(kN - m) ... For positive moment
Mw (+) = - 110 M C L
2
B (Cb + 0,7) x 10
-3
(kN - m) ... For negative moment
where, M = Distribution factor given in Fig. 2
C = 10,75 for 90 L 300
or 10,75 for 300 < L < 350
or 10,75 for 350 L 500
L = Length of the ships in metres, defined by S2
B = Greatest moulded breadth in metres
Cb = Block coefficient, defined by S2, but not to be taken less than 0,6
S11
S11
contd
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.2 2001
[ ]
1.5
300 - L
100
[ ]
1.5
L - 350
150
v
S11-2
S11
S11 2.2.2 Wave shear force
The wave shear forces, Fw, at each section along the length of the ship are given by the following
formulae:
Fw (+) = + 30 F1 C L B (Cb + 0,7) x 10
-2
(kN) ... For positive shear force
Fw () = 30 F2 C L B (Cb + 0,7) x 10
-2
(kN) ... For negative shear force
Where, F1, F2 = Distribution factors given in Figs. 3 and 4
C, L, B, Cb = As specified in S11.2.2.1
S11
contd
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.2 2001
0
1,0
0,0 0,4 0,65 1,0
M
Aft
end of L
Forward
end of L
Distance from the aft end of L in terms of L
Fig. 2 Distribution factor M
0
1,0
0,0 0,4 0,85 1,0
F1
Aft
end of L
Forward
end of L
Distance from the aft end of L in terms of L
Fig. 3 Distribution factor F1
0,6 0,7 0,3 0,2
0,7
0,92 x 190 Cb
110 (Cb + 0,7)
v
S11-3
S11
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.2 2001
S11.3 Bending strength
S11.3.1 Bending strength amidships
S11 3.1.1 Section modulus
(i) Hull section modulus, Z, calculated in accordance with S5, is not to be less than the values given
by the following formula in way of 0,4 L midships for the still water bending moments Ms given
in S11.2.1.1 and the wave bending moments Mw given in S11.2.2.1, respectively:
where, = 175 /k (N/mm
2
)
k = 1,0 for ordinary hull structural steel
k < 1,0 for higher tensile steel according to S4.
(ii) In any case, the longitudinal strength of the ship is to be in compliance with S7.
S11 3.1.2 Moment of inertia
Moment of inertia of hull section at the midship point is not to be less than
I
min
= 3CL
3
B (Cb + 0,7) (cm
4
)
Where C, L, B, Cb = As specified in S11.2.2.1.
S11.3.2 Bending strength outside amidships.
The required bending strength outside 0,4 L amidships is to be determined at the discretion of each
Classification Society.
S11.4 Shearing strength
S11.4.1 General
The thickness requirements given in S11.4.2 or S11.4.3 apply unless smaller values are proved
satisfactory by a method of direct stress calculation approved by each Classification Society, where the
S11
contd
0
0,92
0,0 0,4 0,85 1,0
F2
Aft
end of L
Forward
end of L
Distance from the aft end of L in terms of L
Fig. 4 Distribution factor F2
0,6 0,7 0,3 0,2
0,7
190 Cb
110 (Cb + 0,7)
v
v
v
Ms Mw
cm
+
x 10
3

( )
3
S11-4
S11
calculated shear stress is not to exceed 110/k (N/mm
2
).
S11.4.2 Shearing strength for ships without effective longitudinal bulkheads
(i) The thickness of side shell is not to be less than the values given by the following formula for the
still water shear forces Fs given in S11.2.1.1 and the wave shear forces Fw given in S11.2.2.2,
respectively:
t = x 10
2
(mm)
where, I = Moment of inertia in cm
4
about the horizontal neutral axis at the section under consideration
S = First moment in cm
3
, about the neutral axis, of the area of the effective longitudinal
members between the vertical level at which the shear stress is being determined and the
vertical extremity of effective longitudinal members, taken at the section under
consideration
= 110/k (N/mm
2
)
k = As specified in S11.3.1.1 (i)
(ii) The value of Fs may be corrected for the direct transmission of forces to the transverse bulkheads
at the discretion of each Classification Society.
S11.4.3 Shearing strength for ships with two effective longitudinal bulkheads
The thickness of side shell and longitudinal bulkheads are not to be less than the values given by the
following formulae:
For side shell:
t = x 10
2
(mm)
For longitudinal bulkheads:
t = x 10
2
(mm)
where, = ratio of shear force shared by the longitudinal bulkhead to the total shear force, and given by
each Classification Society.
Fsh, Fbl = shear force acting upon the side shell plating and longitudinal bulkhead plating,
respectively, due to local loads, and given by each Classification Society, subject to the sign
convention specified in S11.2.1.1
S, I, = As specified in S11.4.2 (i)
S11
contd
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.2 2001
0,5 Fs + Fw

(0.5 - ) (Fs + Fw ) + Fsh

(Fs + Fw ) + Fbl

S
I
S
I
S
I
v
S11-5
S 11.5 Buckling strength
S 11.5.1 Application
These requirements apply to plate panels and longitudinals subject to hull girder bending and shear
stresses.
S 11.5.2 Elastic buckling stresses
S 11.5.2.1 Elastic buckling of plates
1. Compression
The ideal elastic buckling stress is given by:
For plating with longitudinal stiffeners (parallel to compressive stress):
For plating with transverse stiffeners (perpendicular to compressive stress):
where
E = modulus of elasticity of material
= 2.06 x 10
5
N/mm
2
for steel
t
b
= net thickness, in mm, of plating, considering standard deductions equal to the values given in
the table here after:
S11
S11
cont'd
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.2 2001

0.9m E
t
b
1000s

_
,

2
(N/mm
2
)
m =
8.4
+1.1
for 0 1 ( )
m = c 1+
s
l

_
,

1
]
1
2
2.1
+1.1
for 0 1 ( )
v
S11-6
S11
S11
cont'd
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.2 2001
Structure Standard deduction Limit values min-max
(mm) (mm)
- Compartments carrying dry bulk 0.05 t 0.5 - 1
cargoes
- One side exposure to ballast and/or
liquid cargo
Vertical surfaces and surfaces sloped
at an angle greater than 25
o
to the
horizontal line
- One side exposure to ballast and/or
liquid cargo
Horizontal surfaces and surfaces
sloped at an angle less than 25
o
to the horizontal line
- Two side exposure to ballast and/or
liquid cargo 0.10 t 2 - 3
Vertical surfaces and surfaces sloped at
an angle greater than 25
o
to the
horizontal line
- Two side exposure to ballast and/or
liquid cargo
Horizontal surfaces and surfaces sloped 0.15 t 2 - 4
at an angle less than 25
o
to the horizontal
line
v
S11-7
s = shorter side of plate panel, in m,
= longer side of plate panel, in m,
c = 1.3 when plating stiffened by floors or deep girders,
= 1.21 when stiffeners are angles or T-sections,
= 1.10 when stiffeners are bulb flats,
= 1.05 when stiffeners are flat bars,
= ratio between smallest and largest compressive a stress when linear variation across panel.
2. Shear
The ideal elastic buckling stress is given by:
E, t
b
, s and are given in 1.
S 11.5.2.2 Elastic buckling of longitudinals
1. Column buckling without rotation of the cross section
For the column buckling mode (perpendicular to plane of plating) the ideal elastic buckling stress is
given by:
I
a
= moment of inertia, in cm
4
, of longitudinal, including plate flange and calculated with thickness
as specified in S 11.5.2.1.1,
A = cross-sectional area, in cm
2
, of longitudinal, including plate flange and calculated with
thickness as specified in S 11.5.2.1.1,
= span, in m, of longitudinal,
A plate flange equal to the frame spacing may be included.
2. Torsional buckling mode
The ideal elastic buckling stress for the torsional mode is given by:
S11
S11
cont'd
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.2 2001

E
0.9k
t
E
t
b
1000s

_
,

2
(N/mm
2
)
K
t
5.34 + 4
s
l

_
,

E
= 0.001E
I
a
Al
2
(N/mm
2
)
K =
Cl
4

4
EI
w
10
6

E


2
EL
w
10
4
I
p
l
2
m
2
+
K
m
2

_
,

+ 0.385E
I
t
I
p
(N/mm
2
)
v
S11-8
m = number of half waves, given by the following table:
h
w
= web height, in mm,
t
w
= web thickness, in mm, considering standard deductions as specified in S 11.5.2.1.1,
b
f
= flange width, in mm,
t
f
= flange thickness, in mm, considering standard deductions as specified in S 11.5.2.1.1. For bulb
profiles the mean thickness of the bulb may be used.
S11
S11
cont'd
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.2 2001
0< K < 4 4 < K < 36 36 < K < 144 (m-1)
2
m
2
<K m
2
(m+1)
2
m 1 2 3 m
I
p
polar moment of inertia, in cm
4
, of profile about connection of stiffener to plate
=
h
w
3
t
w
3
10
4
for flat bars (slabs)

h
w
3
t
w
3
+ h
w
2
b
f
t
f

_
,
10
4
for flanged profiles
I
w
sectional moment of inertia, in cm
6
, of profile about connection of stiffener to plate
=
h
w
3
t
w
3
36
10
6
for flat bars (slabs)
=
t
f
b
f
3
h
w
2
12
10
6
for " Tee" profiles

b
f
3
h
w
2
12 b
f
+ h
w
( )
2
t
f
b
f
2
+ 2b
f
h
w
+ 4h
w
2
( )
+ 3t
w
b
f
h
w [ ]
10
6
for angles and bulb profiles
v
I
t
St Venant' s moment of inertia, in cm
4
, of profile (without plate flange)
=
h
w
t
w
3
3
10
4
for flat bars (slabs)

1
3
h
w
t
w
3
+ b
f
t
f
3
1 0.63
t
f
b
f

_
,

1
]
1
10
4
for flanged profiles
S11-9
= span of profile, in m,
s = spacing of profiles, in m,
k
p
= 1 - p not to be taken less than zero
t
p
= plate thickness, in mm, considering standard deductions as specified in S 11.5.2.1.1.

a
= calculated compressive stress. For longitudinals, see S 11.5.4.1,

Ep
= elastic buckling stress of supporting plate as calculated in S 11.5.2.1,
For flanged profiles, k
p
need not be taken less than 0.1.
3. Web and flange buckling
For web plate of longitudinals the ideal elastic buckling stress is given by:
For flanges on angles and T-sections of longitudinals, buckling is taken care of by the following
requirement:
b
f
= flange width, in mm, for angles, half the flange width for T-sections.
t
f
= as built flange thickness.
S 11.5.3 Critical buckling stresses
S 11.5.3.1 Compression
The critical buckling stress in compression
c
is determined as follows:
S11
S11
cont'd
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.2 2001

E
3.8E
t
w
h
w

_
,

2
(N/mm
2
)
b
f
t
f
15

p


a

Ep
v
v
C spring stiffeness exerted by suporting plate p
=
k
p
Et
p
3
3s 1+
1.33k
p
h
w
t
p
3
1000st
w
3

_
,

10
3
S11-10
S11

F
= yield stress of material, in N/mm
2

F
may be taken as 235 N/mm
2
for mild steel,

E
= ideal elastic buckling stress calculated according to S 11.5.2.
S 11.5.3.2 Shear
The critical buckling stress in shear
c
is determined as follows:

F
= as given in S 11.5.3.1,

E
= ideal elastic buckling stress in shear calculated according to S11.5.2.1.2.
S 11.5.4 Working stress
S 11.5.4.1 Longitudinal compressive stresses
The compressive stresses are given in the following formula:
M
s
= still water bending moment (kN.m), as given in S 11.2.1,
M
w
= wave bending moment (kN.m) as given in S 11.2.2.1,
I
n
= moment of inertia, in cm4, of the hull girder,
y = vertical distance, in m, from neutral axis to considered point.
k = as specified in S 11.3.1.1 (i).
M
s
and M
w
are to be taken as sagging or hogging bending moments, respectively, for members above or
below the neutral axis.
Where the ship is always in hogging condition in still water, the sagging bending moment (M
s
+ M
w
) is
to be specially considered.
S11
contd
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.2 2001

C

E
when
E


F
2


F
1

F
4
E

_
,

when
E
>

F
2

C

E
when
E


F
2

F
1-

F
4
E

_
,

when
E
>

F
2

F


F
3

a

M
s
+ M
w
I
n
y 10
5
N/mm
2
minimum
30
k
v
S11-11
S 11.5.4.2 Shear stresses
1. Ships without effective longitudinal bulkheads
For side shell
F
s
, F
w
, t, s, I as specified in S 11.4.2
2. Ships with two effective longitudinal bulkheads
For side shell
For longitudinal bulkheads
F
s
, F
w
, F
sh
, F
b
, t, S, I as specified in S 11.4.3.
S 11.5.5 Scantling criteria
S 11.5.5.1 Buckling Stress
The design buckling stress
c
of plate panels and longitudinals
(as calculated in S 11.5.3.1) is not to be less than:
where
for plating and for web plating of stiffeners (local buckling)
for stiffeners
The critical buckling stress
c
of plate panels (as calculated in S 11.5.3.2) is not to be less than:
S11
S11
cont'd
IACS Req. 1989,/Rev.2 2001

a

0.5 | F
s
+ F
w
|
t

S
I
10
2
N/mm
2

a

| (F
s
+ F
w
) + F
bl
|
t

S
I
10
2
N/mm
2

c

a
1
1.1

c

a

a

| 0.5
( )
F
s
+ F
w
( )
+ F
sh
|
t

S
I
10
2
N/mm
2
vv
S11-12