IJEAR Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan.

- June 2012

ISSN : 2249-4944 (Print)

Nanotechnology: A Review
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Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India 2 Dept. of ECE, I.E.T. Bhaddal Technical Campus, Ropar, Punjab, India 3 College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China
Abstract Nanotechnology is an engineering of functional systems at the molecular level, covers a broad range of topics and is focused on controlling and exploiting the structure of matter on a large scale below 100 nanometers. Nanotechnology is the future of advanced development. It is everything today from clothes to foods there are every sector in its range we should promote it more for our future and for more developments in our current life. In this paper, we have discussed the concept of Nanotechnology along with its history and various applications. Keywords Nanotechnology, nanomaterial, Nanoparticles, Nano science, Nanometer, Top-Down Approaches, Bottom-Up Approaches, Nano scale, Nano sensors, Biosensors I. Introduction Nanotechnology is a theoretical and experimental field of applied science and technology. It is an engineering of functional systems at the molecular level, covers a broad range of topics and is focused on controlling and exploiting the structure of matter on a large scale below 100 nanometers.  The word ‘Nano’ derives from the Greek word ‘Nanos’, which means dwarf or extremely small. The prefix ‘Nano’ in word of      nanotechnology means a billionth (1 x 10-9) [1]. Nanotechnology is often referred to as general purpose technology because it has significant impact on almost all industries and all areas of society. Nano science and nanotechnology are recent revolutionary development in Science and Engineering that are evolving at a very fast pace [2]. It is driven by the desire to fabricate materials with novel and improved properties that is likely to impact virtually all are of the physical and chemical sciences, biological and health sciences. It offers better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer and smarter products for home, communications, medicine, transportation, agriculture, etc. II. History The first time the idea of nanotechnology was introduced was in 1959, when Richard Feynman, a physicist at Caltech, gave a talk called “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom [3]. He credited with the concept and early exploration of quantum computing and publicity envisioning nanotechnology, creation of devices at the molecular scale. In his work Richard Feyman described the idea of creating things out of tiny pieces instead of making things smaller as so far at that time [4]. Norio Taniguchi was the man who first used the term ’nanotechnology’ (Professor of Tokyo Science University) in 1974. He started his research on the mainly free abrasive mechanisms of high precision machining of hard and brittle materials. Kim Eric Dexler is known as the father of nanotechnology. He is the man behind to theorize nanotechnology in depth and popularized the subject. He is an American engineer best known for popularizing the potential of molecular nanotechnology, from the 1970s and 1980s. In 1979, Eric Drexler encountered Feynman’s talk on atomic manipulation and “Nano-factories.” The Caltech physicist’s ideas inspired Drexler to put these concepts into motion [3].  III. Nanoparticles Particles whose sizes range of 1-100 nm is called a nanoparticle, whether it is dispersed in gaseous, liquid or solid medium. These are number of atoms or molecules bonded together and intermediate in size between individual atoms and aggregates large enough to be called bulk material [5].

Gurjas Kaur, 2Tanvir Singh, 3Amit Kumar

Fig. 1: Nanoparticles Fig. 1, shows the picture of Nanoparticles. Nano science and nanotechnology are recent, revolutionary development in Science and Engineering that are evolving at a very fast pace. It is driven by the desire to fabricate materials with novel and improved properties that is likely to impact virtually all area of the physical and chemical sciences, biological sciences and health sciences.

Fig. 2: Comparison Quantum Dots The dimensionality of different systems is shown in fig. 2. As the nanoparticles are larger than individual atoms and molecules but are smaller than bulk solid, those obey neither absolute quantum chemistry nor the laws of classical physics and materials in the nanometer size regime show the behavior which is intermediate between that of a macroscopic solid and that of an atom or molecular system.
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International Journal of Education and Applied Research  

ISSN : 2249-4944 (Print)

IJEAR Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan. - June 2012

A. Properties of Nanoparticles 1. They can be built by assembling individual atoms or subdividing bulk materials [5]. 2. Physically, materials can be characterized by some critical length, a thermal diffusion length or a scattering length [5]. 3. Size of nanoparticles is less than wavelength of light [7]. 4. Critical characteristics are their very high surface-to-volume ratio [7]. 5. Vander wall forces or magnetic forces plays more important role than gravitational forces [7]. IV. Nanoparticle Synthesis Strategies A. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches The technologies for making nanoparticles are categorized into ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches. Top-down (extreme miniaturization) approach is that nanoparticles are produced by breaking larger materials into fine particles. The miniaturization of components for the construction of useful devices and machines has been and still is pursued by the top-down approach. It is becoming increasingly apparent, for example, that miniaturization in computer technology, which relies on silicon-based chips [6]. In this method the bulk is machined down to the nanometer length scale by lithographic or laser ablation-condensation techniques. From the view point of mass production of metal nanoparticles, the chemical methods are more effective than the physical ones. Fig. 3, shows the Schematic illustration of preparative methods of metal nanoparticles.

surfactants, or dendrimers). This type of synthesis is termed as the ‘bottom-up’ method. V. Applications Some of the applications are shown by fig. 4.

Fig. 4: Applications of Nano Technology A. Nanotechnology in Paints and Coatings Paints & coating industry is growing day by day around the globe. Paints or coating not only serves the purpose of beautification but also a means to protect valuable metals and buildings from corrosion. Nanotechnology in paint and coatings promises to fulfill all desire properties [7]. New paint technology fights bacterial and fungal growth with Nano scale silver. Silver Nanoparticles in wall paint prevent the formation of mould inside buildings and the growth of algae on outside walls. Silver interferes with various stages of cell metabolism; it can destroy a wide range of germs and make it difficult for microbes to develop resistance [8]. Nanoparticles are so small that they can ‘organize themselves’ closely enough and bond together to form a ‘molecularly’ sealed surface. The appearance and usefulness of nanoparticles brings many advantages like better surface appearance, good chemical resistance, easy to clean, anti-fogging, anti-fouling, anti-reflective, anti-fingerprints, scratch resistance, UV resistance, hydrophobic & oil repellent in nature, fire resistant, high performance coating, self-cleaning etc. B. Nanotechnology in Textiles and Clothing The wave of nanotechnology has shown a huge potential in the textile and clothing industry which is normally very traditional. Nanotechnology also has real commercial potential for the textile industry. The first work on nanotechnology in textiles was undertaken by Nano-Tex, a subsidiary of the US-based Burlington Industries. After sometime more textile companies began to invest in the development of nanotechnologies. Coating is a common technique used to apply Nano-particles onto textiles.  Nanoparticles have a large surface area-to-volume ratio and high surface energy due to which nanotechnology can provide high durability for fabrics [10] The future success of nanotechnology in textile applications lies in areas where new functionalities are combined into durable, multifunctional textile systems without compromising the inherent favorable textile properties, including process ability, flexibility, wash ability and softness. The use of nanotechnology allows textiles to become multifunctional and produce fabrics with special functions, including antibacterial, UV-protection, easy clean, water & stain repellent and anti-odor. 
International Journal of Education and Applied Research  

Fig. 3: Schematic Illustration of Preparative Methods of Metal Nanoparticles While bottom-up (building blocks) approach is that nanoparticles are built up from atoms or molecules. An alternative strategy to exploit science and technology at the nanometer scale is done by the bottom-up approach, which starts from Nano- or sub Nanoscale objects to build up nanostructures [6]. In the synthesis of metal colloids, controlling the size of shape is done by adjusting the ratio of the concentration of the chemicals making the nanoparticle to that of the selected capping material (e.g., polymers, micelles,
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IJEAR Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan. - June 2012

ISSN : 2249-4944 (Print)

C. Nanotechnology in Cosmetics The applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterial’s can be found in many cosmetic products including moisturizers, hair care products, make up & sunscreen. A cosmetic covers different products applied to skin or hair.  Almost all the major cosmetic manufactures use nonmaterial in their products. In cosmetics there are currently two main uses for nanotechnology. The first of these is the use of nanoparticles as UV filters. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the main compounds used in these applications. The second use in nanotechnology is for delivery. Liposomes and noisome, they both are used in the cosmetic industry as delivery vehicles. Nano crystals, Nano emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles are being investigated for cosmetic applications [11]. Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers have also been considered for use. L’Oreal has a patent for a formulation containing hyperbranched polymers or dendrimers which form a thin film when deposited on a substrate. This formulation could be used for a wide variety of cosmetics. Nanotechnology has been used to study the mechanical characteristics of hair, which helps cosmetic companies to understand the difference between the hair types to create products to suit individual hair. D. Nanotechnology in Food Science Complex set of engineering and scientific challenges in the food and bioprocessing industry for manufacturing high quality and safe food through efficient and sustainable means can be solved through nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be used in agriculture and food production in the form of Nano sensors for monitoring crop growth and pest control by early identification of plant diseases. [12] These Nano sensors can help enhance production and improve food safety. Bacteria identification and food quality monitoring using biosensors; intelligent, active and smart food packaging systems; Nano capsulation of bioactive food compounds are few examples. Companies are developing nanomaterial’s that will make a difference not only in the taste of food, but also in food safety, and the health benefits that food delivers [9]. A Nano composite coating process could improve food packaging by placing anti-microbial agents directly on the surface of the coated film. They can also improve the mechanical and heat-resistance properties and lower the oxygen transmission rate.  E. Nanotechnology in Catalysis Catalysis is the essential application of metal nanoparticles. As catalysts, nanomaterials show a great potential because of the large surface area of the particles. Many chemists suggest that metal colloids are very efficient catalysts because of a great ratio of atoms remaining at the surface, and so available to chemical transformation of substrates. There are different types of nanomaterial’s which are used as a catalysts e.g. metals or metal oxide & sulfides or silicates. The activity of catalyst can also be described by the turn over number (TON) and the catalytic efficiency by the turn over frequency (TOF). The TON is the number of reactant molecules that 1 g of catalyst can convert into products [13]. There are two types of catalyst: heterogeneous catalysis & homogeneous catalysis. Heterogeneous catalysts act in a different phase than the reactants whereas homogeneous catalysts function acts in the same phase as the reactants. VI. Future Nanotechnology is slowly creeping into popular culture. There is a possibility that the future of nanotechnology is very bright. The technology could end world hunger [14]. Fig. 5, shows the

growth curve of Nano Technology.

Fig. 5: Growth of Nano Technology A. Some Risks 1. There are effects of the various nanoparticles on the human body, and negative consequences on the human health. 2. Nanoparticles are firmly embedded in the matrix which can release and are harmful. 3. Concentrations of nanoparticles at the workplace and in the environment are dangerous. 4. Its waste very dangerous can causes the diseases like cancer etc. VII. Conclusion Nanotechnology has potential applications in many sectors including paints and coatings, textiles and clothing, cosmetics, food science, catalysis, etc. In addition, nanotechnology presents new opportunities to improve how we measure, monitor, manage. Nanotechnology has emerged as a growing and rapidly changing field. New generations of nanomaterial will evolve, and with them new and possibly unforeseen issues. Nanotechnology is the future of advanced development. It is everything today from clothes to foods there are every sector in its range we should promote it more for our future and for more developments in our current life. References [1] Nanotechnology (2005),"Enabling technologies for Australian innovative industries", [Online] Available: http:// www.innovation.gov.au/Science/PMSEIC/Documents/ Nanotechnology.pdf [2] Jeremy J. Ramsden (2005),“What is Nanotechnology”, Collegium Basilea", [Online] Available: http://pages.unibas. ch/colbas/ntp/N03RA05.pdf [3] Connexions,"The Early History of Nanotechnology", [Online] Available: http://cnx.org/content/m14504/latest/ [4] Sarkis Cattien,“Sprachenpreis Nanotechnology”, [Online] Available: http://projekt.beuth-hochschule.de/ fileadmin/projekt/sprachen/sprachenpreis/erfolgreiche_ beitraege_2007/3._Preis_07_-_Nanotechnology_-_Sarkis_ Cattien.pdf [5] Charles P. Poole Jr., Frank J. Owens,“Introduction to Nanotechnology”, May 2003, Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated. [6] Vincenzo Balzani,“Nanoscience and nanotechnology: The bottom-up construction of molecular devices and machines”, 2008, IUPAC [Online] Available: http://pac.iupac.org/ publications/pac/pdf/2008/pdf/8008x1631.pdf
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International Journal of Education and Applied Research  

ISSN : 2249-4944 (Print)

IJEAR Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan. - June 2012

[7] A S Khanna,"Nanotechnology in High Performance Paint Coatings", Vol. 21, No. 2, 2008: 25-32, [Online] Available: http://ajes.in/PDFs/08-2/2.%20Nanotechnology-A%20 boon.pdf [8] [Online] Available: http://www.nanovations.com.au/ Press%20Release/Paint%20technology%20from%20 Nanovations.pdf [9] Understanding Nano, Nanotechnology Applications, [Online] Available: http://www.understandingnano.com/nanotechapplications.html [10] New paint technology fights bacteria and fungal growth with Nano scale silver, [Online] Available: http://freewebs.com/ jayaram-co/doc/Selected_Appz_of_Nanotechnology_in_ Textiles.pdf [11] Nanotechnology in Cosmetics (2009), [Online] Available: http://www.observatorynano.eu/project/filesystem/files/ Cosmetics%20report-April%2009.pdf [12] Nano Bio-Raise, Nanotechnology and Food, [Online] Available: http://files.nanobio-raise.org/Downloads/ Nanotechnology-and-Food-fullweb.pdf [13] Bharat Bhushan,"Handbook of Nanotechnology", 2nd Edition, Springer. [14] Future Timeline, Nanotechnology, [Online] Available: http:// www.futuretimeline.net/subject/nanotechnology.htm [15] "Applied Nanotechnology in the Coatings Industry", Lecture at the Nano forum Workshop “Nano & the Environment, 30 March 2006 in Brussels, [Online] Available: http:// www.nanoforum.org/dateien/temp/Dietmar%20Eichstaedt. pdf?25062012114551 Gurjas Kaur is pursuing Bachelor’s degree in Nanotechnology from Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India. Her research field is Nanotechnology.

Amit Kumar received his bachelor’s degree in Mathematics from the Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, India, in 2002 and Masters’ degree in Computer Application from Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India, in 2006. He completed his M.Phil. in Computer Science from Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar, Tamilnadu, India, in 2010. He is currently pursuing his Ph.D. in Computer Science. He is working as a Lecturer in the Department of Computer Science, College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China. He has many publications in National/ International Conference proceedings and International Journals. He is a reviewer for many international Journals. His current interest includes Techno-Economic Analysis of Broadband Wireless Networks viz. WiMAX-m, HSPA+ and LTE-Advanced. His future focus is to explore the Green Wireless Technologies and their Sustainable development.

Tanvir Singh is pursuing his bachelor’s degree in Electronics and Communication from I.E.T., Bhaddal, Ropar (Punjab Technical University), Punjab, INDIA. He is working as a budding researcher in field of research on topics Green Computing and Sustainability with a dream to create a Technical Advanced and eco- friendly world. He has published many papers in International Journals and conference proceedings.

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